09EA01 / 09EE01 applied mathematics for systems engineering




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VERIFICATION TECHNIQUES : Techniques based on simulation – Analytical and Formal approaches – Function verification – Timing verification – Formal verification – Basic of equivalence checking and model checking. (8)


VERIFICATION TOOLS : Linting Tools – Simulators – Waveform viewers – Code Coverage – Functional Coverage – Metrics.

(8)


VERITIFCATION PLAN : Levels of verification – Verification Strategies – Test cases – Test benches. (8)


STIMULUS AND RESPONSE : Reference signals – Simple stimulus – Simple output – Complex Stimulus and response – Transaction Level Interface. (8)


ARCHITECTING TEST BENCHES : Test Hardness – VHDL Test Hardness – Design Configuration – Self Checking Test benches – Directed stimulus – Random stimulus – VHDL configuration management. (8)


Total 42


REFERENCES:

  1. Janick Bergeron, “Writing Test Benches: Functional Verification of HDL Models” Springer 2nd Edition, 2003.

  2. Andreas Meyer, “Principles of Functional Verification” Newnes, 2003.

  3. Samir Palnitkar, “Design Verification with e”, Prentice Hall, 2003.

  4. Thomas Kropf “Introduction to Formal Hardware Verification”, Springer Verlag, 1999.

  5. M Kerrel Iran and Robert P Kustbern, “Verification of Digital and Hybrid Systems”, spinger-verlag, 2000.



09EA15/09EE12 SYSTEM ON CHIP

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INTRODUCTION: System trade offs and evolution of ASIC Technology – System on chip concepts and methodology – SoC design issues – SoC challenges and components. (5)


DESIGN METHODOLOGIC FOR LOGIC CORES : SoC Design Flow – On-chip buses – Design process for hard cores – Soft and firm cores – Designing with hard cores, soft cores – Core and SoC design examples. (9)


DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR MEMORY AND ANALOG CORES : Embedded memories – Simulation modes – Specification of analog circuits – A to D converter – D to A converter – Phase-located loops – High speed I/O (9)


DESIGN VALIDATION : Core level validation – Test benches- SoC design validation – Cosimulation – Hardware/software coverification. (9)


SOC TESTING : SoC Test issues – Testing of digital logic cores – Cores with boundary scan – Test methodology for design resuse – Testing of microprocessor cores – Built in self test method – Testing of embedded memories. (10)


Total 42


REFERENCES:

  1. Rochit Rajsunah, “System-on-a-chip: Design and Test”, Artech House, London, 2000

  2. Prakash Raslinkar, Peter Paterson & Leena Singh, “System-on-a-chip verification: Methodology and Technques”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

  3. Lavng-Testing Wang, Charles E Strout and NurATouba “ System on Chip Test Architectures: Nanometer Design for Testability”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007.





09EA16 ANALOG VLSI DESIGN

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DEVICE MODELLING:  Introduction to Analog Design. MOS device model: dc, small signal and high frequency model, Diode model: dc, small signal and high frequency model. BJT: dc, small signal and high frequency model. Measurement of model parameters.                                                  (8)


ANALOG CIRCUIT BUILDING BLOCKS:  Switches, Active Resistors, Current Sources and Sinks, Current Mirrors – Simple.  Wilson, Cascode, Folded – Cascode. Voltage and Current. References – Bandgap voltage references, Comparators, Multipliers. (9)


SINGLE STAGE AMPLIFIERS : MOS and BJT inverting amplifier, Improving the performance of inverting amplifer. Single stage BJT and MOS amplifiers. (8)


MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS : CMOS and BJT differential amplifiers, Darlington Amplifiers, Cascode Amplifiers Characteristics of Operational amplifiers - Types : Two stage BJT and CMOS - Cascode - Folded Cascode - Transconductance.             (8)


DATA CONVERTERS: Data Converter fundamentals, DAC Architectures: Current Switched, Resistive, charge redistribution, Hybrid, Segmented D/A Converters. ADC architectures: Flash, Pipeline, Integrating, Successive Approximation and folding A/D Converters. Over sampling Converters (9)

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

            Total    42

REFERENCES:

1. David A. Johns, Ken Martin, “Analog Integrated Circuit Design”, John  Wiley & Sons, 2002.

2.     Jacob Baker, Harry W.Li and David E Boyce, “CMOS Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation”, 2nd Edition,

John  Wiley & Sons, 2008.

3.     Phillip E. Allen and Douglas R. Holdberg, “CMOS Analog Circuit Design,” Second Edition, Oxford University Press 2003.

4. Behzad Razavi, “Design of CMOS Integrated Circuits”, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi 2003.

5.     Gray, Hurst, Lewis and Meyer, “Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits,”, John Wiley & Sons, 4th Edition 2001.

6. Rudy Van de Plassche, “Integrated Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters,” Kluwer Publishers, 1999.


09EA17 REAL-TIME SYSTEMS

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INTRODUCTION: Typical Real-time Applications – Hard Versus Soft Real-time Systems - A Reference Model for Real-time Systems. (4)


REAL-TIME SCHEDULING: Various Approaches – Clock Driven Scheduling – Pros and Cons of Clock Driven Scheduling – Priority driven scheduling of Periodic Tasks – Fixed Priority and Dynamic Priority Algorithms – Scheduling Aperiodic and Sporadic Jobs in Priority Driven  Systems. (9)


RESOURCES AND RESOURCE ACCESS CONTROL: Effects of Resource Contention and Resource Access Control - Non-preemptive Critical Sections – Controlling Access to Multiple-unit Resources - Controlling Concurrent Access to Data Objects.

(4)


MULTIPROCESSOR SCHEDULING AND SYNCHRONIZATION: Model of Multiprocessor and Distributed Systems – Multiprocessor Priority-ceiling Protocol – Predictability and Validation of Dynamic Multiprocessor Systems. (6)


REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS: Desk Top OS versus RTOS – Need for BSP in Embedded Systems – Race Conditions – Priority Inversion – ISRs and Scheduling – Inter-task Communication – Timers. (7)


REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION: Model of Real-time communication – Priority Based Service Disciplines for Switched Networks – Weighted Round-Robin Service Discipline – Media Access Protocols for Broadcast Networks – Internet and Resource Reservation Protocols – Real-time Protocols (RTPs). (5)


REAL-TIME UML: Model Based Development – Object Orientation with UML – UML Diagrams and Notations – Requirements Analysis of Real-time Systems – Use Cases – Filling out Details of Use Cases – Identifying Use Cases – Class Diagram – Elevator Class Diagram Example – Defining Case Relationships – Association – Aggregation and Composition. (4)


Case Studies on RTOS: MicroC/OS, LynxOS, and Embedded Linux (3)


Total 42

REFERENCES:

1. Jane W. S. Liu, “Real-time Systems”, Pearson Education Asia, 2003

2. Sriram V. Iyer and Pankaj Gupta, “Embedded Real-time Systems Programming”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2004

3. B.P. Douglass, “Real-time UML: Developing Efficient Objects for Embedded Systems”, Pearson Education Asia,

2nd   Edition, 2000

4. David E. Simon, “An Embedded Software Primer”, Pearson Education Asia, 2001

5. Krishna and Kang Shin, “Real-Time Systems”, McGraw Hill, 2000




09EA18 OPERATING SYSTEMS

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INTRODUCTION : Objectives and Functions – Evolution and Types of Operating Systems – Structure of Operating System – Components of Computers. (2)


PROCESSES AND THREADS: Process Creation - Process states – Process Description – Process Control Block -  process scheduling: Types of Scheduling – Scheduling Criteria – Scheduling Algorithms -Relationship between process and threads – Thread State – Thread synchronization – Types of  Threads.      (6)


PROCESS SYNCHRONIZATION: Concurrent Process – Principles of Concurrency – Mutual Exclusion – Software support – Hardware Support – Operating System support  -Deadlock - Deadlock Prevention, Avoidance and Detection and recovery.                                                                                    (7)


MEMORY MANAGEMENT:  Fixed partitioning - Dynamic partitioning – Buddy Systems – Simple paging – Multilevel paging – Inverted paging – Simple Segmentation – segmentation and paging.                                                   (6)


VIRTUAL MEMORY MANAGEMENT: Need for Virtual Memory management – Demand Paging - Page Fault Routine – Demand Segmentation – Combined demand segmentation and paging – Page Replacement policies.                                                                                                               (6)


FILE MANAGEMENT: Files – File management Systems – File System Architecture – Functions of File Management –Directory Structure – Secondary Storage Management – File Allocation Methods.       (6)

I/O MANAGEMENT AND DISK SCHEDULING: Organization of I/O function –Logical Structure of I/O functions – I/O Buffering – Disk I/O – Disk Scheduling algorithms – Disk Cache.                                                                                                               (5)


CASE STUDIES: XP, Linux, VISTA, and Influential OS.  (4)

                                                          

     Total    42


REFERENCES:

  1. Silberschatz. A, Galvin. P and Gagne.G, “Operating System Concepts”, John Wiley and Sons, Singapore, 7th Edition, 2004.

  2. William Stallings, “Operating Systems”, Prentice-Hall, 5th Edition, 2007.

  3. D. M. Dhamdhere, “Operating Systems- A Concept Based Approach”, Tata McGraw Hill,2nd Edition 2006.

  4. David A Solomon and Mark E Russinovich, “ Inside Microsoft Windows 2000 ”, WP Publishers and Distributors,2004.

  5. Uresh Vahalia, “Unix Internals”,The New Frontiers , Pearson Education, 2004.

  6. Dietal H.M., “An Introduction to OS” , Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd / Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 12th Indian Reprint 2004.

  7. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, ”Modern OS”, Pearson Education Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, 3rd Edition , 2007.



09EA19 ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS

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EVALUATION OF 16/32 BIT PROCESSORS : 8086 processor Architecture – Programming model – Memory organization – Interrupt structure – Instruction set. (8)


80X86 PROCESSOR FAMILY : 80286 processor – Functional block diagram – Memory organization – Modes of operation – Real and Protected modes – Address translation techniques – Virtual memory. (8)


80386 PROCESSOR : Basic programming model – Memory organization – Data types – Instruction set - Addressing mode – Address translation – Interrupts – Assembly language programming - 80486 Processor : Architecture and Programming model.

(9)


PENTIUM PROCESSOR : Introduction to Pentium processor architecture – Special Pentium Resister – Pentium Memory Management – Introduction to Pentium pro processor – Pentium Pro Special Features. (9)


INTRODUCTION TO RISC ARCHITECTURES : RISC Versus CISC – RISC Case studies : MIPS R4000 – SPARC – Intel i860 - IBM RS/6000. (8)


Total 42


REFERENCES :

  1. Barry B Brey, “The Intel Microprocessor 8086/8088, 80186/80188, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium and Pentium Pro-Processor, Architecture Programming and Interfacing”, Prentice Hall of India, 6th Edition, 2002.

  2. Intel, “Microprocessors, Vol-I & Vol-II”, Intel Corporation, USA, 1992.

  3. Daniel Tabak, “Advanced Microprocessors”, McGraw Hill Inc., 2nd Edition, 1995.

  4. Mohammed Rafiquzzmnan, “Microprocessors and Microcomputer Based System Design”, Universal Book Stall, New Delhi, 1990.

  5. William Stallings, “Computer Organisation & Architecture: Designing for Performance”, Prentice – Hall of India, 2008.

  6. Kai Hwang, “Advanced Computer Architecture: Parallelism, Scalability and Programmability”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006.



09EA20 ELECTRONIC PRODUCT DESIGN

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INTRODUCTION: The basic product development process-product planning-design and engineering-procurement-manufacturing -functionality-performance-user interface-form factor- battery life- cost- time to market (TTM)- reliability-marketing and distribution-service and support. (6)


SYSTEM DESIGN: Top down design-product concept-innovation-creativity- validation -communication-product requirements-system architecture development-trade-off analysis-cost modelling-circuit design-physical and mechanical design-Tolerance and reliability. (6)

ELECTRONIC PACKAGING: IC packaging: Leaded package, TABITCP package-COB, flip-chip, BGA, CSP-Discrete components-Board to board connectors-substrates-Escape routing-PCA/module design metrics-Electronic packaging metrics-I/O hardware : buttons, switches, dials and touch screens, speakers , microphones, antennas, and external connectors. (8)


MECHANICAL DESIGN : Housings-EMI shielding-Thermal management: High level thermal analysis, thermal issues in notebook computers-mechanical integration-DFMA analysis. (5)

QUALITY IN THE DESIGN PROCESS : Quality control -quality assurance-quality functional deployment-assignment matrices-checklist-quality in the design process-concurrent design-risk analysis-quality in production. (5)


PORTABLE ELECTRONICS : Digital and analog processing: microprocessor, logic devices, microcontrollers, DSP, analog devices, sensors, wireless communication, system memory and mass storage-Displays: Display technologies-LCD-micro display-pen input-power sources- Battery technologies: Ni-Cd, alkaline,Ni-MH,lithium ion, lithium polymer, photovoltaic cells, fuel cells-product implementation-high level power analysis-Case study: Cellular phones-portable PCs-Personal digital assistants-digital imaging products. (12)


Total 42


REFERENCES:

  1. Tony Ward and James Angus, ”Electronic product design”, Chapman and Hall publications,1996.

  2. Bert Haskell, “ Portable Electronics product design and development: For cellular phones, PDAs, Digital cameras, personal electronics and more”, McGraw-HILL, 2004.





09EA21  DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

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DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS: Elements of digital image processing system-Image sensing and acquisition- Image sampling and quantization – Basic relationship between Pixels.         (4)


IMAGE TRANSFORMS: Need for image transforms- Discrete Wavelet transform- Harr & Daubechies Wavelets- Sub band coding of images using Harr & Daubechies Wavelets.                              (4)

 

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT: Spatial domain methods- Frequency domain methods- Histogram modification techniques- Neighborhood averaging-median filtering- Low pass filtering- averaging of multiple images-images sharpening by differentiation- high pass filtering.   (8)

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