Machine tools and devices for special technologies




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НазваниеMachine tools and devices for special technologies
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Slovak University of Technology

Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava


Machine tools and devices for special technologies


Velíšek Karol, Košťál Peter, Pecháček František


TRNAVA 2007





Preamble

Textbook Machine tools and devices for unconventional technologies is for students of Faculty of Material Science and Technologies, of University of Technology in Bratislava place in Trnava, especially for students of the first class of graduate study for study branch Technological Devices and systems. Subject Machine tools and devices for unconventional technologies involves six main areas – machining by energy power, chemical and electrochemical machining, ultrasonic machining, electro - erosion machining, magneto – abrasive machining and rapid prototyping.

Textbook is for designers of unconventional technology operation stations, for technologist of machine production and for students. It presents information about construction, structure and about using particular kinds of machine and devices for unconventional technologies in machine production setting.

By prescribed textbook extend was not possible to for more detail treat to large area of machines and devices aimed to unconventional technologies realisation. The next information is possible to take from sources cited in the literature list.

Chapters 1., 5. a 11. treated Velíšek, K.

Chapters 2., 3., 4., 6., 7. a 12. treated Košťál, P.

Chapters 8., 9. a 10. treated Pecháček, F.

Translating:

Chapters 1 to 5 Erika Hrušková

Chapters 6 to 12 Peter Košťál

Authors with this textbook thank to all colleagues and to book reviewers for their suggestions and propositions that were helped to textbook creating and to text writing to this textbook.


Trnava, December 2004

Authors

Introduction


By using of special and hard machining materials to the production is mechanical machining using decreasing gradually for account of unconventional technologies of machining that are stated on another principles of material removing (ultrasonic machining, chemical, electrical and electrochemical machining, machining by energy power etc.)

Today’s engineer, technologist and constructor, it means production engineer must know not only cutting and non cutting technologies but special methods machining that are used increasingly in production mainly in hard machining materials and in machining of difficult shape surfaces.

Unconventional machining technologies for material cutting mainly not used mechanical work in contrast to standard machining technologies. Special machining technologies are based on using of some physical – chemical and physical cutting material whereby there is not influence to material by mechanical force and without chips.

In physical kinds of machining is material cutting by indirect influence of electrical power which energy is changed to thermal energy. It is machined directly by electrical power influence in electro physical kind machine (by influence electric arc or electric discharge).

In energic power processes energy needed to cutting or material treatment is supplied directly to atoms and to workpiece molecules like beam energy oriented in flux of extreme soft energic minims like electron, photons, protons, ion and etc.

For particular special kinds of machining application was created competent machines and devices. These machines and devices are described in particular chapters of this textbook and are divided according to special machining technology references.

1Water beam processing


High energy water beam is ecologic, without impact, effective, fast, potent and standard working tool to application into building industry, in production industry of automobile, of crafts, in building reconstruction, betony construction liquidation, in medicine, in public health, in food processing, chemical industry, in rubber industry and etc. Application sorts and using branch is no limited and depend on requirements of technical praxis where is effectively used and applied.

Major advantage of this technology is cold cut, it means that no thermal influence to machined material. Application and using cutting technology by high energy water beam in technical praxis are very different. By now concrete modifications and kinds of water beams creates the large application base. In respect of large application spectrum in cutting and cleaning materials by water beam exists so a lot of factors that influence on safety at work with devices generated water beam and in device processing.

The first systems utilize water beam were expensive and exacting for maintenance. As alternative to tools and mechanical cutting tool were more expensive and processing was problematic. Usually there were soft and facile materials (rubber, plastic material for production of several caulking and etc.).

In the first half of the 80th years was started to develop the abrasive machining by water beam. To standard water beam is add the small amount of abrasive powder. By particular abrasives like a garnet then water beam technology can be used to cutting of hard machining materials like a titan, glass, and ceramics.

The first abrasive systems were expensive and exacting for operating staff and maintenance. They were used only for special purposes, like the titan panels of military planes wings or special shapes of glass and ceramics
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