I want to especially thank the staff at the Office of the National Assembly including Mr Nguyen Chi Dzung, Dr Nguyen Si Dung, Mr Hoang Minh Hieu and Mr Phung Van Hung




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INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS



Socialist Republic of Vietnam to the United Nations Human Rights Committee under Article 40 of the ICCPR. Report CCPR/C/VNM/2001/2 14/5/2001.


Human Rights Committee, ‘The right to participate in public affairs, voting rights and the right to equal access to public service’ General Comment 25 dated 12/07/1996.


Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information 1 October 1995 UN Doc E/CN.4/1996/39.

VIETNAMESE LEGAL INSTRUMENTS



Constitutional of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992 Amendment.


Law on the Elections of Members to the National Assembly 15/4/1997.


Law on the Elections of the People’s Council 26/11/2003.


Law on Citizen’s Claims and Denunciations 2/12/1998.


Law on Promulgation of Legal Normative Documents 23/11/1996.


Law on Press 1999.


Decree 29/1998/ND-CP.


Decree 79/2003/ND-CP.



1 Interview with Nguyen Chi Dzung Editor in Chief Law and Legislative Forum, December 2003.

2 Zingerli C. (2004) ‘Politics in Mountain Communes: Exploring Vietnamese Grassroots Democracy’ in Rethinking Vietnam ed McCargo, D., Routledge Curzon: London, p.70. (forthcoming)

3 Interview with Officials from Ministry of Home Affairs.

4 Articles 6 & 7 of the 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

5 Article 76.

6 Article 78.

7 Article 83.

8 Article 91.

9 Nguyen Tien Phon (2001) Dan Chu va Tap Trung Dan Chu: Ly Luan va Thuc Tien, Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi, Hanoi, p.26.

10 Id p..21-24.

11 Id p.25.

12 Id p.26.

13 Article 9 of the Constitution of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

14 Hoang Van Nghia ‘Dan Chu va viec thuc hien quyen dan chu’ Tap Chi Nghien Cuu Lap Phap 2003(1), p.107.

15 Ibid.

16 Vo Tri & Vo Vi (2003) “Dan Chu va viec thuc hien quyen dan chu’ (In reply to article: Democracy and the work of implementing democratic right) Tap Chi Nghien Cuu Lap Phap, (Legislative Study Magazine) 2003(3), p.21.

17 Hoang Van Nghia, supra n 14.

18 Vo Tri & Vo Vi, supra n 16, p.23.

19 Diagram drawn from the report submitted by Socialist Republic of Vietnam to the United Nations Human Rights Committee under Article 40 of the ICCPR. Report CCPR/C/VNM/2001/2 14/5/2001, p.33.

20 Human Rights Committee, ‘The right to participate in public affairs, voting rights and the right to equal access to public service’ General Comment 25 12/07/1996.

21 Supra n 19.

22 Articles 1 & 2 Law on the Elections of Members to the National Assembly 15/4/1997.

23 Articles 1 & 2 Law on the Elections of the People’s Council 26/11/2003.

24 Id, Article 9.

25 Article 69 states: “The citizen shall enjoy freedom of opinion and speech; freedom of the press, the right to be informed, and the right to assemble, form associations and hold demonstrations in accordance with the provisions of the laws”.

26 Article 4 states: “Citizens shall have the right: 1. To have access via the press, to information on all aspects of domestic and world affairs; 2. To contact, and submit information to press offices and journalists; to send news, articles, photographs and other works to the press without being subject to censorship by any organisation or individual, and to take responsibility for the law for the contact of the information submitted; 3. To express opinion on domestic and world affairs; to present views on the formation and implementation of the Party directions and policies and of the law; 5. To air views, criticisms, proposals, complaints and charges in the press regarding the Party and State authorities and social organisations and the members of such organisations”.

27 Human Rights Committee, Supra n 20, para 7.

28 Promulgated on 12/12/1998.

29 Promulgated on 23/11/1996.

30 Article 3 in Law on the Elections of the People’s Council 26/11/2003.

31 Article 3(1) Law on the Elections of the People’s Council 26/11/2003.

32 Article 29 in Law on the Elections of the People’s Council 26/11/2003.

33 Human Rights Comittew, Supra n 20, at para 22.

34 1 October 1995 UN Doc E/CN.4/1996/39.

35 Preamble of the Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information.

36 Amnesty International ‘Socialist Republic of Viet Nam Freedom of expression under threat in cyberspace’ at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA410372003?open&of=ENG-VNM access website on the 18 February 2004.



37 Principle 1(d).

38 Principle 1.3

39 Principle 2.

40 Article 258 of Criminal Code 1999: “ The Crime of taking advantage of the democratic rights so as to encroach upon the interest of the State or lawful interest of the organisation and community. (1) Anyone who takes advantage of the freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of belief, religion, association, assembly and other democratic rights contrary to the interest of the State, the lawful interest of the organisation and the community will be punished by a warning, re-educated but not detained for three years or imprisoned for a period from six months to three years. (2) Serious offenders will be subjected to imprisonment from two years to seven years.” Nguyen Ngoc Diep (2000) “Tim Hieu Bo Luat Hinh Su va cac toi xam pham quyen tu do dan chu cua cong dan” (Understanding the penal laws in relation to the crime of violating the right of independence and democracy of the people) Nha Xuat Ban Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh (Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House). p.157.

41 Article 132 of the Criminal Code 1999. Source above at note 41 at p.64.

42 Article 91 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

43 Nicholson P. (2003) ‘Vietnamese Jurisprudence: Informing Court Reform?’ paper presented at Law and Governance: Socialist Transforming Vietnam Conference, the University of Melbourne, 12-13 June 2003, p. 17.

44 Nguyen Van Sau & Ho Van Thong (2003) ‘Thuc Hien quy che dan chu va xay dung chinh quyen cap xa o nuoc ta hien nay’ (Implementing grassroots democracy and building commune authority in Vietnam today) Nha Xuat Ban Chinh Tri Quoc Gia (National Political Science Publishing House), p.15.

45 Nicholson P, Supra n 43, p.42.

46 The 7th Congress of the Communist Party interestingly uses the term Socialist Rule of Law State: Truong Trong Nghia, ‘The rule of law in Vietnam: Theory and practice’ in The Rule of Law: Perspectives from the Pacific Rim Mansfield Dialogues in Asia.

47 Gillespie J. (2003) ‘Changing Concepts of Socialist Law in Vietnam’ paper presented at Law and Governance: Socialist Transforming Vietnam Conference, the University of Melbourne, 12-13 June 2003, p.19.

48 Truong Trong Nghia, Supra n 46, p.133.

49 Chan J (1998) ‘Asian values and human rights: An alternative view’ in Democracy in East Asia eds Diamond L. & Plattner M.F, The John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, p.28.

50 Pham Duy Nghia (2003) ‘Confucianism and the conception of the law in Vietnam’ paper presented at Law and Governance: Socialist Transforming Vietnam Conference, the University of Melbourne, 12-13 June 2003, p.3

51 Id, p.7.

52 Vu Khieu (2000) ‘Vietnam vis-à-vis Asian and European Values’ paper presented at Asian Values and Vietnam’s Development in Comparative Perspectives conference, National Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities. p.27

53Compton R.W. Jr, (2000) East Asian Democratisation: Impact of Globalisation, Culture and Economy, Praeger Publishers: Connecticut, p.3.

54 Bell D.A (1995) ‘Democracy in Confucian Societies: The challenge of justification’ in Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia eds Bell D.A., Jayasuriya K., & Jones D.M., St Martin’s Press: London, p.19.

55 Ibid.

56 Pham Duy Nghia, Supra n 50, p.10.

57 Pike D. (2000) ‘Informal Politics in Vietnam’ in Informal Politics in East Asia eds Dittmer L., Fukui H. & Lee P., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, p.275.

58 Id, p.284.

59 Ibid.

60 Luong Gia Ban (2003) Dan Chu va viec thuc hien quy che dan chu o co so, Nha Xuat Ban Chinh Tri Quoc Gia: Hanoi, p.12.

61 Laothamatas A. (1997) ‘Development and democratisation: A theoretical introduction with reference to the Southeast Asian and East Asian cases’ in Democratisation in Southeast and East Asia ed Laothamatas A., Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore, p.2.

62 Id, p.5

63 Id, p.19.

64 Interview with officials from the Ministry of Home Affairs, December 2003, and also comments in Ginsburg G. (1962) ‘Local Government and Administration in North Vietnam, 1945-1954’ China Quarterly 10(April-Jun) 1962, p.198.

65 Nguyen Van Sau & Ho Van Thong, Supra n 44, p.20.

66 Interview with Nguyen Chi Dzung.

67 Kerkvliet B.J (1995) ‘Village-State relations in Vietnam: The effect of everyday politics on decollectivisation’ Journal of Asian Studies 54(2) 1995, p.400.

68 Id, p.407.

69 Vasavakul T. (1998) ‘Vietnam’s one-party rule and socialist democracy?’ in Southeast Asian Affairs 1998, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore, p. 318.

70 Ibid.

71 Xuan Hai & Ha Nhan (1997) ‘Doi dieu rut rat u tinh hinh phuc tap o mot so dia phuong tinh Thai Binh’ Tap Chi Cong San (Communist Review) 20(10) 1997 No. 530, p.41.

72 Vasavakul T., Supra n 69.

73 Xuan Hai & Ha Nhan, Supra n 71, p.44.

74 Supra n 14 and n 54.

75 Interview with representative from the Asia Foundation.

76 Hoang Van Sau & Ho Van Thong, Supra n 44, p.18.

77 Do Muoi (1998) ‘Phat huy dan chu xa hoi chu nghia – mot giai phap co ban, cap thiet de xay dung nha nuoc trong sach, vung manh’ Tap Chi Cong San (Communist Review) 14(7) 1997 No. 524, p.4.

78 Interview with officials from the Ministry of Home Affairs.

79 Xuan Hai & Ha Nhan, Supra n 71, p.43.

80 Interview with Nguyen Chi Dzung.

81 Contrast Article 1 in Decree 79 and Article 1 in Decree 29 where Article 1 of Decree 79 adds the People’s Council and People’s Committee as responsible for implementing the full democratic guidelines.

82 For example, the need to inform the people about the results and methods used in government procurements and tenders for projects and investments: Article 5(14).

83 For example, if compared with Article 8(2) of Decree 29 and Article 9(2) of Decree 79, Article 9(2) reduced the quorum for a meeting of household to discuss and vote openly about work of the communes from two-thirds down to fifty per cent.

84 Article 1 Decree 79/2003/ND-CP.

85 Article 3 Decree 79/2003/ND-CP.

86 Article 4 Decree 79/2003/ND-CP. “Democracy must be within the framework of the Constitution and laws; rights must go hand in hand with obligations democracy must go hand in hand with order and discipline, any acts of abusing democracy to violate the Constitution and laws and infringe the people’s democratic freedoms shall be firmly dealt with.”

87 Interview with officials from Ministry of Home Affairs.

88 Confer Articles 6, 8, 11(1) and 14. Decree 79/2003/ND-CP

89 Marr D.G (2000) ‘Concepts of ‘Individual’ and ‘self’ in Twentieth-Century Vietnam’ in Modern Asian Studies 34(4) 2000, p.793.

90 Zingerli C., Supra n 2, at p.77.

91 15/5/1998.

92 Nguyen Van Sau & Ho Van Thong, Supra n 44, p.54.

93 Id, p.55.

94 Summary of Draft findings for paper titled ‘Strengthening grassroots democracy for hunger eradication and poverty reduction in rural Vietnam’ by National Centre for Social Sciences & Humanities and Oxfam Great Britain.

95 Bui Quang Dung (2002) ‘Thuc hien dan chu co so’ in Phat trine xa hoi o Viet Nam: Mot tong quan xa hoi hoc nam 2000 ed Trinh Duy Luan, Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi: Hanoi, p.289.

96 Hoang Ngoc Giao & Le Trong Vinh ‘Danh gia thuc trang sau nhung nam trine khai thuc hien quy che dan chu co so va Phuong huong trong thoi gian toi’ in Dan Chu: Boi canh hinh thanh va phat trine, noi dung, co che thuc hien dan chu o nuoc ta, Centre for Legal Research Services: Hanoi. p.13.

97 Malarney S.K (1997) ‘Culture, virtue, and political transformation in contemporary Northern Viet Nam’ Journal of Asian Studies 56(4) 1997, p.900.

98 Hoang Ngho Giao & Le Trong Vinh, Supra n 96, p.16.

99 Interview with representative from Asia Foundation.

100 Oxfam, Supra n 94, p.4.

101 Interview with Mr Nguyen Chi Dzung

102 Abuza Z (2001) Renovating Politics in Contemporary Vietnam, Lynne Reiner Publishers: Boulder, Colarado, p. 150.

103 Dalton R.J & N. T. Ong (2001) The Vietnamese public in transition. The World Values Survey: Vietnam 2001: Center for the Study of Democracy, University of Calirfornia Irvine. Access at website www.uci.edu/csd.

104 Ibid.

105 Abuza Z., Supra n 102, p.239.

106 Pike D., Supra n 57, p.283.

107 Ogden S. (2002) Inklings of Democracy in China, Harvard University Asia Center: Cambridge Massachusetts, p.183.

108 Kelliher D. (1997) ‘The Chinese debate over village self-government’ in The China Journal 37 Jan 1997, p. 64.

109 Fritzen S. (2002) ‘The ‘foundation of public administration’? Decentralisation and its discontent in transitional Vietnam’, paper presented to Asia Conference on Governance in Asia: Culture, Ethics, Institutional Reform and Policy Change at City University of Hong Kong, December 5-7 2002, p.13.

110 Id, p.18.

111 Beutz M. (2003) ‘Functional democracy: Responding to failures of accountability’ in Harvard International Law Review Vol 44 2003, p. 418.

112 Id, p.398-99.

113 Beutz M., Supra n 111, p.401.

114 Ibid.

115 Id, p.402.

116 Id, p.390.

117 Grugel J. (2003) ‘Democratisation studies: Citizenship, globalisation and governance’ in Democratisation Studies 2003, p. 241.



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