Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов I курса всех специальностей дневной формы обучения Пермь 2001




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Who can be elected


  1. a Senator?

  2. a representative?

  3. the President?

  1. at least 35 years old, be a natural citizen of the USA, must have lived in the US for at least 14 years, and be a civilian;

  2. at least 30 years old, a citizen of the USA for 9 years, and live in the state she or he will represent;

  3. at least 25 years old, a citizen of the USA for 7 years, and live in the state.



GREAT BRITAIN



Learn the following words:

  1. the total area – общая площадь

  2. total population

  3. to include - включать

  4. to be divided - делиться

  5. an insular climate – островной климат

  6. humid - влажный

  7. to consist (of) – состоять из

  8. a county – графство (админ. единица в Англии), округ (в США)

  9. to occupy - занимать

  10. to amount to – доходить, составлять, равняться

  11. a parliamentary monarchy

  12. the head of state – глава государства

  13. to act on the advice of – действовать по совету

  14. legislation - законодательство

  15. to decide – решать, принимать решение

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  1. judicature – суд, отправление правосудия, судоустройство

  2. to elect - избирать

  3. a general election

  4. a nation-wide representative body – общенациональный представительный орган

  5. to appoint - назначать

  6. to compose – составлять; состоять из

  7. highly-developed


Разделите слова и выражения по темам:

  1. географическое положение

  2. климат

  3. административное деление

  4. политическое устройство

  5. экономика

to be situated, total area, the head of state, total population, to be divided, king, highly-developed, parliament, island, to compose, leading party, capital, to include, to appoint, machine-building, to be washed, to elect, mild, government, to be separated, a county, ship-building, parliamentary monarchy, peninsula, river, insular, to occupy, humid, to consist, to amount, the queen, metallurgy, absolute, to act on the advice of, written constitution, legislation, electronics, a nation-wide representative body, a general election, moderating influence of the sea, official language.


Read the text and answer the following questions:

  1. What are the main parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

  2. How many islands is the UK situated on? What are the largest?

  3. When was the British constitution adopted?

  4. Who is the head of the state in Great Britain?

  5. Who is appointed the head of the government?


GREAT BRITAIN


Great Britain (official name — the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) is situated on two large islands, the larger of which is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. In addition to these two islands Great Britain includes over five hundred small islands. The total area of Great Britain is 240,000 sq. kms, its population is 56,000,000 people.

In the north-west and west the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, in the east — by the North Sea. The island of Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel. Northern Ireland, which is a part of Great Britain and which is situated on the island of Ireland, is separated from Great Britain by the North Channel.

The island of Great Britain is divided into two parts: mountainous (in the north and west of the island) and lowland (in the south and east). There are no very long rivers in Great Britain. The most important rivers are the Thames (the deepest) and

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the Severn (the longest). The rivers seldom freeze in winter. Due to moderating influence of the sea Great Britain has an insular climate, rather humid and mild, without striking discrepancy between seasons.

Great Britain consists of four main parts: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Administratively Great Britain is divided into 55 counties. The biggest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.

England is the largest part of Great Britain (it occupies over 50% of the territory and its population amounts to 83 % of the total population of Great Britain). Wales is a peninsula in the south-west of the island of Great Britain. It occupies about 9 % of its territory with the population of 4.8 % of the total population. The Welsh speak their own language. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain with the territory of 32% of the total territory and with the population of 9 % of the total population of Great Britain. Northern Ireland occupies the north-east part of the island of Ireland. Its territory amounts to 5.2 % of the total territory of Great Britain. The main cities of Nothern Ireland are Belfast and Londonderry.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the Queen (or the King). However, the power of the Queen in Great Britain is not absolute. She acts only on the advice of the ministers and Parliament. There is no written constitution in Great Britain. The main principles of British legislation are expressed in other documents, like "Magna Charta"*, "Habeas Corpus Act"**, "Bill of Rights", the Parlimentary Act which decided the position of the House of Lords, the Judicature Act, etc. The British leg­islation does not provide written guarantees of individual political rights.

Parliament in Great Britain exists since 1265 and is the eldest Parliament in the world. It consists of two Houses — the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords consists of 1000 peers who are not elected by the people. The House of Commons is a nation-wide representative body which is elected by the people at a general election not less frequently than once in 5 years. After the general election the Queen appoints the head of the government — the Prime Minister. As a rule the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the election. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to compose the government.

There are two main political parties in Great Britain: the Conservative party and the Labour party. The Conservative party came into being in the 19th century as a result of the evolution of the Tory party. The Labour party was founded in 1900. Since 1906 it has borne the name of the Labour Party. For the first time the Labour Party won the election in 1945.

Great Britain is a highly-developed industrial country. The main fields of British industry are machine-building, ship-building, metallurgy, electronics, etc.


* “Magna Charta”[`mægn`k:t] – Великая хартия вольностей (1215)

** “Habeas Corpus Act” – анг. закон 1679г. о неприкосновенности личности


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What was for you new in this text?

Explain why





  1. the climate of Great Britain differs from that of the Continent.

  2. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is often called Great Britain or England.

  3. the English people like to say that the Queen (or a King) reigns, but does not rule (царствует, но не правит).

  4. the Conservative party is often called the Tory.


Сформулируйте данные высказывания в виде вопросов.

Закончите предложения по политической системе Великобритании:

  1. UK is …

  2. Officially the head of the state …

  3. The power of the Queen in GB …

  4. There is no …

  5. Parliament in GB …

  6. The House of Lords …

  7. The House of Commons …

  8. The Prime Minister …

  9. There are …



CANADA



Canada consists of almost all of the North American continent north of the US except Alaska. Its total land area of more than 9 mln sq. km makes it the second largest country in the world.

Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area covering half the country. Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 month, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes.

The total population according to the census 1981 was about 24 mln people with the average population density of 2.8 per sq. km.

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all gov­ernmental institutions.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories. The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

The civil law follows English common law everywhere except in Quebec, where it follows the Napoleonic Code.

Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and different other elements, forestry products, and ranks first in the world in export of minerals. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major


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importance to the economy as a whole and still is basic in many areas. Canada is among the world's leading wheat producers and is second in the export of wheat.

Basically, Canada has a free-enterprise economy. A recurrent problem for Canada has been the dominant position of US corporations and investors.

AUSTRALIA



Australia is lying south-east of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is the world's smallest continent which is almost completely surrounded by ocean expanses. Its total area is 7,682,300 sq.km.

The continent of Australia is divided into four general topographic regions: a low, sandy eastern coastal plain, the eastern highlands, the central plain, and the western plateau. Although Australia has a wide diversity of climatic conditions, the climate of Australia is generaly warm and dry, with no extreme cold and little frost. It changes from comfortably mild in the south to hot in the central inferior and

north.

The total population in 1986 was about 16 min people with the average population density of about 2 persons per sq.km. Most Australians are of British or Irish ancestry. More than 99% of the population speaks English.

The capital of Australia is Canberra. Australia has a federal parlia­mentary government. The Australian federation was formed on January 1, 1901, from six former British colonies, which thereupon became states. The Australian constitution combines the traditions of British parliamentary monarchy with important elements of the US federal system. Powers of the federal government are enumerated and limited. The government consists of the British sovereign and the Australian Parliament.

Australia is the world's largest wool producer and one of the world's largest wheat exporters. The main sources of foreign earnings are wool, food and minerals which also provide raw materials for home processing industry.

NEW ZEALAND



New Zealand is situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean on two large islands: the North Island and the South Island. Its total area ia 268,112 sq.km.

Less than 1/4 of the territory of the country lies below the 200 m contour line. The South Island is significantly more mountainous than the North Island. New Zealand has a temperate, moist ocean climate without marked seasonal variations in temperature or rainfall.

The total population in 1986 was about 3.3 mln people with the average population density of about 12 persons per sq.km. About 85 % of the population is classified as Europeans. Most of them are of British descend. English is the universal language.

The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. Like the United Kingdom New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the British Queen (or the King) whose representative, the governor-general, is appointed for a


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five-year term. The government of New Zealand is democratic and modeled on that of the United Kingdom.

The economy of New Zealand has traditionally been based on pastoral farming. The last decades have seen a large expansion in the light industries. New Zealand draws many thousands of tourists to its shores because of the beauty, diversity, and compactness of its natural attractions.
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