Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов I курса всех специальностей дневной формы обучения Пермь 2001




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НазваниеУчебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов I курса всех специальностей дневной формы обучения Пермь 2001
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Egypt [`iʤipt] – Egyptian [i`ʤip∫n]


India [`indj] - Indian

China [`t∫ain]– Chinese [`t∫ai`ni:z]

Greece [gri:s]– Greek


Athens [`æθinz] – Athenian [’θi:njn]

Sparta – Spartan [`spα:t()n]

Great Britain – British


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c) Find in the text passages describing the organization of education in ancient Egypt, India and China and compare them with the Russian translation below. Try to find five or more mistakes in the translation.


Только сыновья из знатных семей посещали первую египетскую школу, где их учили чтению, физической культуре и хорошим манерам. В древней Индии только каста жрецов определяла что будут изучать четыре касты или группы, на которые были разделены люди.

Только касте жрецов разрешалось изучать священные книги. В Китае начиная с 19 века обучение было организовано социальными классами и заключалось в заучивании наизусть религиозных текстов.


d) Find the passage describing the difference in education between Sparta and Athens and translate it orally into Russian.


e) Answer the questions:


  1. Where did first schools start?

  2. What made schools necessary?

  3. Did writing make it possible to store up knowledge?

  4. Who attended the first Egyptian schools?

  5. What were the pupils taught there?

  6. What did education in China consist of until the 19th century?


f) Find in the text and put down key words to speak about education in Roman Empire and Great Britain.


g) Express your opinion to the next theses:


Since the first schools started

  1. education has been becoming more difficult.

  2. education has been becoming more liberal.



EDUCATION IN RUSSIA



1. Ancient Rus was one of the early feudal states and held a leading place in the world history.

The Slavonic written language came to Rus from Bulgaria in the 9th century. Towards the end of this century the replacement of religious books in Greek for those in the Slavonic language began.

Between the 10th and 13th centuries Russians developed a high civilization, which formed the foundation of the Russian culture in the following centuries. During this period numerous cultural treasures were accumulated. The written works of the time show that the level of knowledge on most natural phenomena was as high as that of Ancient Greece.

Monasteries were cultural and educational centres. They had large libraries and well-equipped book-making shops, in which not only church manuscripts were

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copied and translated but original books were written. Today we can confidently say that Ancient Rus was a state of high culture and knowledge.

2. In pre-revolutionary Russia there was a network of primary schools for common people. Nevertheless illiteracy among common people was very high. Well-off people taught their children in grammar schools, commercial schools or secondary schools teaching no classics.

There were also schools for nobles only. Entrance to those schools was limited. For example, at lycee where A.S. Pushkin studied the number of pupils ranged from thirty to one hundred. Only boys at the age of 10 or 12 from noble families of high rank were admitted and studied there for six years. They were taught many different subjects. The most important were Russian literature, history, geography, mathematics, physics, logic, law, rhetoric and such foreign languages as French, English, German and Latin. Great attention was paid to different arts and physical training: riding, swimming, fencing and dancing. The aim of this school was to bring up intelligent people in the broad sense of the word. Those who graduated from such educational institutions usually entered the service of their country to realize their abilities and knowledge to the benefit of their state.

3. The history of higher education in Russia goes back to 1755 when the first University was founded in Moscow on the initiative of M.V. Lomonosov and in accordance with his plan. Later, universities were opened in many other big cities of the country.

4. After the revolution in 1917, education was guaranteed to the Soviet citizens by the Constitution and was free of charge, including higher education. Teaching at schools was carried out almost in all national languages. The system of education was the same throughout the country.

School attendance was compulsory for those between 7 and 15. Those who completed their secondary education and passed entrance examinations to higher education establishments received monthly grants if they did not fail in the examinations that they took at the end of each term. Higher school education lasted five years.

5. In 1991 the former fifteen republics of the Soviet Union became independent states. The Russian Federation, the biggest and the most powerful of them began to develop as a democratic state. From the very start democratic reforms began to take place in many fields of life. Changes in political, economic and social conditions required changes in the system of education. Its aim is to prepare the growing generation for independent life and work in new conditions.

New curriculums were introduced in schools such as "The World Around Us" for younger students and "Fundamentals of Information Science and Computer Engineering", "Ethics and Psychology of Family Life" for senior students. Along with state schools where education is free of charge there appeared many private schools, colleges, lycees, gymnasiums and different courses where students can study sciences and humanities including foreign languages.

6. At some schools the leavers are sent abroad to continue their education at Sorbonne in Paris, at the Universities of Great Britain, Germany, USA and other countries.

After graduating from those Universities they return to their country to work in different fields of national economy.

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A former student of a Russian school said on his return home:

"I was surprised how much there is in common between Russian and Western young people - their love for entertainments and the same kind of music and their wish to know everything new. I hope there will be time when young people from abroad will also come to our country to study.

Such exchanges of students will undoubtedly result in better understanding among people which in its turn will bring greater stability to the whole world."


Words and Expressions


treasure – сокровище

illiteracy – неграмотность

well-off – богатый, обеспеченный

grammar school – гимназия

secondary school teaching no classics – реальное училище

nobles – дворянство, знать, аристократия

lycee = lyceum – лицей

to admit – допускать, принимать

fencing - фехтование

to the benefit – на благо

compulsory - обязательный

grant - стипендия

to fail in – провалиться (на экзамене)

curriculum [k`rikjulm] – учебный план, курс обучения

sciences and humanities – естественные и гуманитарные дисциплины


  1. Write down the transcription of the words given below and remember them:

accumulate civilization treasure

phenomenon – phenomena manuscript initiative

logic feudal private

religious psychology gymnasium

original throughout undoubtedly

intelligent


  1. Read the translation of the first two paragraphs given below. Compare it with the original and say if everything is right.


Древняя Русь была одним из ранних феодальных государств и занимала одно из ведущих мест в мировой истории. Старославянский язык письменности был заимствован из Болгарии в IX веке. К концу этого века началась замена церковных книг на древнегреческом языке книгами на старославянском.

Между Х и ХШ столетиями русские создали высокую культуру, послужившую основой развития в последующих столетиях. В течение этого периода шло накопление культурных сокровищ, Письменные памятники этого периода показывают, что уровень понимания многих естественных

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явлений был так же высок, как и в древней Греции.


  1. Find in the text and put down 10-12 words or word combinations which can be used to speak about the history of higher education in Russia.




  1. Answer the questions:




  1. Do you agree that Ancient Rus held a leading place in the world history?

  2. Do you agree that the pre-revolutionary Russia was a state of high culture?

  3. Do you believe that the changes in the system of education were necessary?

  4. If it were possible to choose, where would you like to study – in the Soviet Union or nowadays?


HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.


Every citizen of our country has the right to education.

Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. After finishing 9 forms of a secondary school young people can continue their education in the 10th and the 11th form. They can also go to a vocational or technical school, where they study academic subjects and receive a profession.

After finishing a secondary, vocational, technical school young people can start working or go on in higher education. They can enter an institute or a university. There are the following types of higher schools in Russia: universities, institutes, various higher military schools and academies. They train specialists in different fields. There are three departments at the universities and institutes of Russia: day-time, evening and extramural departments. The complete course of studies at an institute or a university usually takes 5 years.

Part-time students have an opportunity to study without leaving their jobs. All applicants must take competitive exams if they want to enter a higher educational establishment. Higher education institutions offer a programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one finishes a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidate’s degree or a doctoral degree.

The system of higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedoms to faculties and students. All institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state, the students have got scholarships. Now universities have fee-paing departments or courses where the cost of study is high and the students have to pay for their education.

Training specialists at our Institutes combines theoretical studies with practical work and industrial training. Students have lectures and practical lessons. They attend lectures on different subjects and they take notes. During practical lessons they study the material of the lectures.

The academic year is divided into two terms from September to January and from February to July. Students take examinations at the end of a term or a study year. To pass examinations successfully students are to work hard during the

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academic year. They must not miss lectures and they must study regularly. Sometimes students take examinations and credit tests in advance. At the end of each term the student submits a course paper, and at the end of course of studies he presents a graduation project or passes final state examinations.

Our country needs more and more specialists with higher education every year.

Exercises





  1. Remember words and expressions:

the right to education право на образование

compulsory обязательный

inclusive [in’klu:siv] включительно

to finish a secondary school заканчивать среднюю школу

a vocational school училище

a technical school техникум

a day-time department дневное отделение

evening or part-time,

extramural or correspondence вечернее или заочное

an applicant [‘æplikənt] абитуриент

an undergraduate = a student

[ʌndə’grædjuit]

a term семестр

an academic year (a study year) учебный год

a graduate course аспирантура

a theses [Ɵi:sis] диссертация

a candidate [‘kændidit] degree степень кандидата наук

a doctoral degree степень доктора наук

an objective [ɔb’ʤektiv] цель

to decentralize уничтожить централизацию

to be funded by the state финансироваться государством

to get a scholarship [‘skɔləʃip] получать стипендию

to take notes вести конспект

credit tests зачеты

in advance [əd’va:ns] заранее

a course [kɔ:s] paper курсовая работа

a graduation project дипломный проект

to submit [səb’mit] (to present [pri’zent]) представлять


  1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations:


продолжать образование в вузе, общеобразовательные предметы, одновре-менно работая, поступать в университет, находиться в переходном периоде, высшие военные училища, иметь возможность, сдавать конкурсные экза-

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мены, создать новый финансовый механизм, платные курсы, производст-венная практика, посещать лекции, обучение специалистов, учебный год делится на два семестра, успешно сдать экзамены, учиться регулярно и усердно работать, сдавать зачеты заранее, сдавать выпусные государствен-ные экзамены.



  1. Fill in gaps by words or word-combinations in brackets.




  1. My friend is a second-year student. Last year he … successfully and … the University. He studies … . He is a … student.

  2. Mike studies at the day-time department. During the academic year he works hard and … lectures reqularly. Sometimes he takes exams and credit tests …. Mike gets ….

  3. Did you write … and receive a candidates degree?

  4. In Russia the academic year … into two terms. At the end of each term the student … a course paper.

  5. How many … are there at the universities in Russia? … at a university usually takes 5 years.

(a thesis, the complete course of studies, is divided, took competitive exams, departments, a scholarship, entered, part-time, attends, submits, without leaving his job, in advance)


  1. Replace underlined words by antonyms and translate sentences into Russian.




  1. My friend’s brother is a full-time student.

  2. Higher education is our country is free of charge.

  3. An applicant failed at the entry exams.

  4. John passed final state exams successfully.

  5. The students often missed lectures and studied inconstantly.




  1. Answer the questions. Follow the model:


Model: Do you study literature at the University?

No, I don’t. I study mathematics.


  1. Are you a second-year student?

  2. Do you study at an extra-mural department?

  3. Is higher education in Russia compulsory?

  4. Does your friend get a scholarship?

  5. Will you present a thesis after graduating from the University?

  6. Do you always take exams and credit tests in advance?




  1. Ask the questions to the anderlined words:




  1. There are three departments at the Universities of Russia.

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  1. Part-time students have an apportunity to study without leaving their jobs.

  2. The complete course of studies at a University usually takes 5 years.

  3. All institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state.

  4. They regullarly attend his lectures.




  1. Answer the questions:




  1. Do you think it’s necessary to get a higher education? Why?

  2. Is your future profession prestigious?

Why do you think so? Give your reasons.

  1. What country would you like to get a higher education in? Why?




  1. Imagine that you are a Prime Minister of Russia. What will you do for Higher Education in the country?




  1. Retell the text.


MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY


Moscow State University is the oldest, autonomous, self-governing and state-supported institution of higher learning, founded in 1755 by the scientist Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. Located in Moscow, the university is composed of faculties of biology, chemistry, computational mathematics and cybernetics, eco­nomics, foreign languages, fundamental medicine, geography, geology, history, journalism, law, mechanics and mathematics, physics, psychology, sociology, and soil sciences, as well as an institute of Asian and African Studies. Several museums, colleges, and a number of institutes are affiliated with Moscow University, and a preparatory faculty teaches Russian language and other subjects to foreign students.

Except for the science faculties and some of the arts faculties — which are situated in south-western Moscow — the remainder of the faculties are located in the older university buildings in the centre of the city. A diploma in a given field of study is awarded after five or five and a half years of study. The highest degree, the Doctor of Sciences, may be attained upon completion of a thesis based on independent research.

The University produced a great number of brilliant scholars such as Zhukovsky, Stoletov, Sechenov. Timiryasev, Pavlov and Vernadsky. Classics of Russian literature: Lermontov, Griboyedov, Turgenev and Chekhov also studied at the University. The list of such great names is endless.

Today every fifth 'Russian academician is its graduate.


OUR UNIVERSITY.


Our country has a large net of higher educational establishments. Higher education in Russia is provided by academies, universities, polytechnical and specialized institutes where future specialists for an enormous number of fields, both in sciences and humanities are trained.

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In our region there are more than 10 higher educational establishments. The Branch of the Perm Polytechnical University in our town is of particular concern.

In 1958 the first institution of higher education-an educational-consulting point was opened in Berezniki where only 3 teachers began to work with 150 extra-mural students. It was the only opportunity to help young people in getting of a higher education in their native town.

In 1963 the educational-consulting centre was reorganized into the general-technical faculty and then it was transfered into the Branch of the Perm Polytechnical Institute. So, all inhabitants of Berezniki had got a real possibility to have a higher educational institution in their native town. The faculty had got its own building where the first research laboratories were equipped. Now the students may carry out researches there and make experiments.

In 1981 the first chairs were organized at the faculty. Now our University has four chairs: the chair of technology and mechanical production, the chair of technology of chemical processes, the chair of general-scientific disciplines and the chair of economics. Our University trains students of different specialities.

The lectures and practical courses are delivered by highly-qualified teachers. Tuition rests on a broad scientific basis, lectures on theory being combined with practical classes. The early years are devoted to general subjects. In the first and second years there’s a common curriculum for all related faculties and specialities. Specialization usually begins in the third or fourth year.

There are two departments: day-time and evening department at our University. Part-time students have a possibility to combine their work and study at the same time. The complete course of studies lasts 5 years at the day department and 6 years at the part-time department. Our University has not extra-mural department.

Our University has a good library with a reading-hall in it. You can get books in many fields of science and engineering there.

Exercises





  1. Pay special attention to the pronunciation of the following words:


polytechnical [,pɔli’teknikəl] – политехнический

technology [tek’nɔləʤi] – технология

mechanical [mi’kænikəl]

Branch [bra:nʧ] – филиал

specialist [‘speʃəlist] – специалист; speciality [,speʃi’æliti] – специаль-ность; specialization [,speʃəlai’zeiʃən] – специализация; specialized [‘speʃəlaizd] – специализированный

enormous [i’nɔ:məs] – огромный

faculty [‘fækəlti] – факультет

research [ri’sə:ʧ] – исследование


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laboratory [lə’borətəri] – лаборатория

to equip [i’kwip] – оборудовать

process [‘prəuses]

science [‘saiəns], scientific [,saiən’tifik]

chair [ʧɛə] – кафедра

discipline [‘disiplin]

curriculum [kə’rikjuləm] – учебная программа

qualified [‘kwɔlifaid] – квалифицированный

tuition [tju(:)’iʃən] – обучение


b) Find the equivalents to the English expressions in the right-hand column.


  1. a net of higher educational establishments

  2. to provide by

  3. to train

  4. an enormous number of fields

  5. an educational - consulting point (centre)

  6. extra-mural students

  7. the only opportunity

  8. a real possibility

  9. to carry out (make) researches (experiments)

  10. to deliver lectures

  11. to rest on

  12. different specialities

  13. to devote to

  14. a common curriculum

  15. the complete course of studies

  16. the Branch of the University

a) реальная возможность

b) разные специальности

c) образовательно-консультационный центр

d) читать лекции

e) полный курс обучения

f) посвящать

g) опираться на

h) обеспечивать

i) сеть высших учебных заведений

j) огромное число областей

k) общая учебная программа

l) филиал университета

m) студенты - заочники

n) обучать

  1. возможность

  2. проводить исследования (ставить эксперименты)




  1. Find in the text sentences with Passive Voice.




  1. Make up general and tail questions to the sentences:




  1. Our country has a large net of higher educational establishments.

  2. Our University has not extra-mural department.

  3. The Branch of the Perm Polytechnical University in our town is of particular concern.

  4. In our region there are more than 10 higher educational establishments.

  5. The lectures and practical courses are delivered by highly qualified teachers.

  6. Specialization usually begins in the third or fourth year.

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  1. You can get books in many fields of science and engineering there.




  1. Retell the text using the plan:




  1. A large net of higher educational establishments in Russia.

  2. In our region there are … .

  3. In 1958 … was opened in Berezniki.

  4. 1963 (the general – technical faculty, the Branch of the PPI).

  5. The first chairs of the Branch (1981).

  6. Tuition rests on … .

  7. The departments of our University.

  8. The complete course of studies lasts … .


f) A delegation of students and teachers from Cambridge are on a visit at your institute. You are asked to tell the guests about it. Present information on:


  1. the name of your institute,

  2. its location;

  3. the departments at your institute (day-time, evening or correspondence);

  4. how long the complete course lasts;

  5. the number of students at the institute;

  6. the subjects you study (humanities, technical subjects, sciences);

  7. the equipment the institute is provided with;

  8. the examinations you take and the grants you receive;

  9. the students' hostels;

  10. what you like and what you don't like about your institute.




  1. Your friend who is 20 years old works as a car mechanic. He wants to continue his education in order to become an engineer. He doesn't know which department to choose, day-time or evening. Help him to solve his problem. Give your reasons.




  1. Your friend has already made up a list of pros and cons. Look through it and think of some more.




Day-time institute

Evening institute

For

For

  1. The course is a year shorter.

  2. You have more time for self-study and entertainment.

  3. You study more subjects and become a better specialist in your field.

  1. Your practical experience makes it easier for you to study special subjects.

  2. You have prospects of promotion.

  3. You no longer depend financially on your parents.


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  1. Discuss the problem in groups of 3-5 students in order to make a decision.




  1. Fill in the chart and give your reasons.







Group 1

Group 2

Group3

Day-time institute










Evening institute












MY STUDY AT THE UNIVERSITY




Exercises





  1. Read, translate and learn the expressions:


to take an exam in

to pass entrance exams

admission (enrolments /in’rəulmənts/, exception)

to enter the University

to graduate from the University

full-time student

part-time student (sandwich course student)

to attend lectures (to miss lectures)

to take up (study) a subject

to be good at smth

to be strong (weak) in a subject

lecture (seminar) on

class in

to work regularly

to work by fits and starts

to make progress

to be at the top of the group (to fall behind the group)

to catch up with the group

to fail in a subject

to fail at an exam

to take notes at a lecture

to get good (bad) marks

to read up for an exam

timetable (to consult the time table)

curriculum

to improve knowlegde

the monitor of the group

to study at … (the Branch of the Technical University, the day-time department, part-time, evening, correspondence – extra-mural department)

credit tests (credits)

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speciality (profession: economist, mechanical engineer, computing engineer, chemical engineer)

specialization

to speak English fluently

crib /krib/


  1. Find the English equivalents to the following Russian words and word-combinations:


Студент дневного отделения; студент, сочетающий учебу и работу; поступить в университет; работать регулярно; иметь способности к; быть сильным (слабым) по предмету; сдавать экзамен; сдать вступительные экзамены; заканчивать университет; лекция по; посещать лекции; готовиться к экзамену; расписание; конспектировать лекцию; семинар по; начать изучать предмет; работать урывками; пропускать лекции; староста группы; зачис-ление; зачеты; учиться на дневном (вечернем) отделении; специализация; специальность; улучшать знания; учебная программа; быть лучшим студен-том; делать успехи; провалиться по предмету (на экзаменах); получать хорошие отметки; догнать группу; шпаргалка.


  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs wherever necessary.


1. The students … our group are very good … English. They work hard … their pronunciation and grammar. 2. When Kate fell …the group … the History … the English language everybody was ready to help her … this subject. It took her a week to catch … … the group. Now she is very strong … this subject. 3. Peter makes many mistakes … his speech. That’s because he works … fits and starts. 4. Yesterday we had a lecture … history, a seminar … philosophy and a class … English. 5. … the end … the first term we shall have three exams. 6. It’s high time to start reading … … your exams. 7. Don’t miss classes, otherwise you may fail … English. 8. What subject are you week (strong) …?


  1. Complete the following sentences:


1. She has been ill for a week and now …. 2. My friend has made a good progress in English because …. 3. If you work by fits and starts …. 4. You will fall behind the group if …. 5. I’m going to the library, I must prepare …. 6. She is very good at …. 7. If you don’t know the pronunciation of a word …. 8. Will you help Ann …? 9. He is very weak in …. 10. Our course of studies runs… .


  1. Translate into English:


1. В этом году моя сестра поступила в ПГУ на экономический факультет. Её будущая профессия – экономист. Она учится на дневном отделении. Курс обучения на этом факультете длится 5 лет. 2. Катя самая лучшая студентка в группе. Она регулярно посещает занятия и очень много работает. Ей нравится

22


изучать иностранный язык. 3. Какие новые предметы мы будем изучать на третьем курсе? – Я ещё не знаю, надо посмотреть расписание. 4. Звонок уже был? Что у нас сейчас? – Лекция по философии. Но я не помню номера аудитории. Давай посмотрим расписание. 5. Зимой мы сдали четыре экзамена. Меня очень беспокоит (to worry) экзамен по высшей математике. Я не очень сильна в этом предмете. 6. Он был болен и отстал от группы. Давайте поможем ему с английсикм. 7. Завтра мы сдаем последний экзамен. Я думаю, никто не провалится, хотя предмет очень трудный.


  1. Ask questions so that the sentences below could be answers.


1. She is very good at English Grammar. 2. Our course runs for five years. 3. He fell behind the group because of his illness. 4. The brightest student in out group is Mary. 5. My favourite subject is English. 6. She coudn’t stay after classes because she was very busy. 7. You can get this book at the library. 8. She has made good progress in English because she works hard. 9. Ann failed in History. 10. We shall have a seminar on Culture.


  1. Ask you fellow students:


… what new subjects she (he) has this year

… how many classes (pairs) she (he) has every day

… if she (he) attends lectures (practical lessons) regualarly

… what subjects she (he) is especially good at

… if she (he) fell behind the group when she (he) was ill

… if it took her (him) much time to catch up with the group

… what her (his) favourite subject is

… if she (he) has already begun to read up for the exams

… if she (he) always comes in time for classes

… what subjects she (he) had in the first year


  1. Answer the questions:




  1. You are a student, aren’t you?

  2. What faculty do you study at?

  3. What foreign languages do you study? Are you good at them?

  4. What year student are you?

  5. How many lectures do you have weekly? Do you attend them regularly?

  6. What is your favourite subject?

  7. How many exams will you have in summer? In what subjects?

  8. Have you ever failed at an exam? In what subject did you fail?

  9. Do you use cribs at exams?

  10. Do you work regularly or by fits and starts?



23


  1. Ask in English.




  1. Как ты добираешься до университета и сколько времени тебе на это требуется (it takes me …)?

  2. Где находится расписание?

  3. Каковы твои любимые предметы?

  4. Сколько раз в неделю ты посещаешь лекции и практические занятия (once a week, twice a week)?

  5. Ты всегда вовремя начинаешь подготовку к экзаменам (in time)?

  6. Умеешь ли ты бегло говорить по-английски и хочешь ли ты улучшить свои знания по предмету?

  7. Ты надеешься стать хорошим специалистом?

  8. Как ты думаешь, когда ты закончишь университет?




  1. Work in pairs.




A: Do you get to the Institute by bus?

- Ты добираешься в институт авто-

бусом?

В: No, I don’t. I go to the Institute on

foot. It takes me only seven minutes.

- Нет, я хожу пешком. Это занимает

всего 7 минут.

A: I seldom go by bus too. Let’s go on

foot!

- Я тоже редко езжу в автобусе.

Давай пройдемся пешком.

B: O.K. Come on!

- Хорошо. Идем!




  1. Do you agree with this and why?


The more we study, the more we know;

The more we know, the more we forget;

The more we forget, the less we know;

The less we know, the less we forget;

The less we forget, the more we know;

So, why study?


  1. Make up a story about your study at the University, using vocabulary and exercises given above.




  1. Use the situations in free conversation:


1. You are leaving school but you haven’t yet made up your mind what you want to be. Your sister’s friend is in the polytechnical college. Ask her about student’s life and her future job.

2. You are a freshman. Say a few words about your first impressions (your timetable, lectures, everyday programme, etc.).

You are a freshman and your friend is a fourth year student. She has come back from her practice. Ask her how she liked it.

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