Методические указания по дисциплине «иностранный язык»




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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«Омский государственный технический университет»


LET`S SPEAK ENGLISH


Методические указания по дисциплине «иностранный язык»


для студентов дневной и очно-заочной формы обучения по

направлению 521600 « экономика» бакалавриат


Омск - 2005

Составитель Э.Г. Беззатеева


Методические указания предназначены для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов экономического факультета, изучающих английский язык. Данные указания являются частью УМК, разрабатываемого на кафедре иностранных языков ОмГТУ для студентов-экономистов.


UNIT 1


ABOUT MYSELF


Лексический материал


1. Выучите следующие слова

to consist of – состоять из

to work as (an economist) – работать ( экономистом)

to be fond of – любить, увлекаться

to serve in the army – служить в армии

to have much work to do – иметь много работы

to retire on pension – выйти на пенсию

to keep house – вести дом. хозяйство

to take after smb. – быть похожим на кого-либо

то be married – быть женатым (замужем)

то be single – быть не женатым (не замужем)

a relative – родственник

experienced – опытный

elder, the eldest – старший, самый старший

younger, the youngest – младший, самый младший

at the age of – в возрасте

a first year student – первокурсник

rather – довольно

to enter – поступить (в учебное заведение)

try – стараться, пытаться

plant – завод

turner – токарь


2. Подберите эквиваленты к русским фразам и словам


1. выйти на пенсию;

2. быть похожим на кого-либо;

3. быть первокурсником;

4. токарь;

5. инженер;

6. поступить на вечернее отделение;

7. родственники;

8. увлекаться чем – либо;

9. иметь много работы;

10. быть экономистом.

3. Составьте предложения и запишите их


1. To be, I, a, student, first, year.

2. My, large, to be, family.

3. An, my, father, to be, engineer.

4. My, teacher, mother, to be.

5. My, retired, grandmother, year, last

6. Sister, at, my, study, school.

7. Brother, my, works, turner, as.

8. To have, relatives, we, many.


Текст


1. Прочтите и переведите текст

ABOUT MYSELF


My name is Ivan. I am a first year student of Omsk Technical University. I study at the economic department. My family is rather large. My hometown is Omsk, and my father is an engineer at one of the city's plants. My father is not yet fifty. My mother is a teacher at one of the secondary schools of the city. She teaches Russian and Russian literature and is very fond op her work with the children.

My brother is three years older than I. He has served two years in the Army, and now he works at a plant as a turner. Next year Pavel is going to enter the evening department of the Technical University.

My sister Olga studies at school, she is in the 10th Form. After finishing school she is going to enter the Pedagogical University. Olga is fond of music and plays the piano.

We have a grandmother. She keeps house and has much work to do during the day.

We all try to help her. We have many relatives. They live in Omsk and other dries. They often come to see us at our place, or we go to see them.


Материал для обсуждения


1. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы


1. How large is your family?

2. How many persons does your family consist of?

3. What are you?

4. Have you any brothers or sisters?

5. What are your parents? .

6. What are your brothers (sisters)?

7. Have you any grandparents?

8. Who keeps house in your family?

9. What is your hobby?

10. How do you prefer to spend your free time?

11. Have you many relatives?

12. Do you often go to see them?


2. Напишите рассказ о своем друге.


3. Спросите своего соседа по парте о его / ее


family, hobbies, friends, favorite books, films, food etc.


4. Подготовьте устное монологическое высказывание « О себе».


UNIT 2


OUR UNIVERSITY


Лексический материал


1. Выучите следующие слова


technical university – технический университет

department – факультет

mechanical–engineering d. – механико–технологический факультет

machine–building d. – машиностроительный факультет

poligraphical d. – полиграфический факультет

automation d. – факультет автоматизации

electrical–engineering d. – электротехнический факультет

radio–engineering d. – радиотехнический факультет

faculty of refrigeration machines – факультет холодильных машин

faculty of automation installation – факультет автоматических установок

faculty of flight vehicles – факультет летательных аппаратов

faculty of humanitary education – факультет гуманитарного образования

faculty of economics and management – факультет экономики и управления

lecture hall – лекционный зал

drawing hall – чертежный зал

reading hall – читальный зал

workshop – мастерская

equip – oбоpyдовать

equipment – оборудование

apparatus – аппарат

research – исследование

carry out experiment – проводить опыты

scientific society – научное общество

higher mathematics – высшая математика

strength of materials – сопромат

mechanics – механика

machine elements – детали машин

drawing – черчение

descriptive geometry – начертательная геометрия

mark – оценка

satisfactory – удовлетворительно

to take an examination – сдавать экзамен

to take a-test – сдавать зачет

to pass an ехamination – сдать экзамен

to fail in an examination – не сдать экзамен

to enter the university – поступить в университет

graduate from the university – окончить университет

to be in the first year – быть на 1 курсе

to be first year student – быть первокурсником

attend – посещать

to have classes – иметь занятия

to work hard – упорно работать

to take part in – принимать участия

to get scholarship – получать стипендию

to train specialists – готовить специалистов

to deliver lecture оn – читать лекцию по...

to give classes – проводить занятия

to give labs – проводить лабораторные опыты

term – семестр


2. Give English equivalents to the Russian words and phrases


1. готовить специалистов;

2. быть основанным;

3. факультет;

4. оканчивать ВУЗ;

5. многочисленный;

6. исследовательский;

7. периодическая печать;

8. преподавательский состав;

9. читать лекции;

10. посещать лекции;

11. сдавать экзамен;

12. сдать экзамен;

13. не сдать экзамен;

14. студенческое научное общество.

Текст


1. Read and translate the text


OUR UNIVERSITY


Omsk State Technical University is one of the biggest High Educational institutions in Omsk. It trains specialists for various branches of industry. It was founded in 1942. There was only one faculty at the University at the time. It was the mechanical – engineering faculty. The first 25 engineers graduated from this faculty in 1947. Our University trains radio, electrical, polygraphical and mechanical engineers. Its numerous laboratories for both teaching and research purposes are equipped with modern apparatus, tools and instrument to provide a high level of training.

There is large library and a reading hall in the University where the students can get any necessary textbook on special subjects. In the reading hall one can get periodical for reading.

Reading and drawing – halls arc also places where students prepare their home tasks. The University teaching stuff is large. There are more than seven hundred teachers, masters of science and professors who deliver lectures on different subjects and give classes to the students. The students attend lectures and classes according to the time - table. Besides, they have practice in the workshops and the laboratories. The students study the following subjects: history, higher mathematics, physics, chemistry, mechanics, descriptive geometry, machine elements, drawing, foreign language and many others. Twice a year students take examinations. Those who work hard at subjects during the term do not fail the exams and pass them well, getting good and excellent marks.

There is a student's scientific society at the University. Both first year students and those who are at the fourth or fifth courses may join it and do research there.

Many students take an active part in the social work. They attend conferences, discuss books, plays and films, organize evening parties and amateur concert, and go in for sports.


2. Make up sentences


1. It, 1942, in, to be, found.

2. University, to train, our, specialists, different

3. There, to be, library, a, University, in, the.

4. The, stuff, University, teaching, large, to be.

5. The, subjects, students, study, different.

6. Students, the, society, there, to be, a, scientific.

7. Many, social, students, to take part, an, part, active, in, work, University, at.

Материал для обсуждения


1. Answer the following questions


1. When was the Technical University founded?

2. Which faculty was the first one?

3. What kind of specialists does our University train?

4. How many departments are there at our University?

5. What subjects do students study at the University?

6. Who delivers lectures on mathematics?

7. When do you usually take your exams?

8. How do students spend their free time after classes?

9. Do you take part in the social life of your University?


2. Compose a plan of the text and retell this text.


3. Work in pair. Ask your partner about his / her University.


4. Speak about your University.


UNIT 3


MODERN CITIES


Лексический материал


1. Read and learn the following words and expressions


1. Vocabulary list.

bank – берег, anniversary – годовщина, merchant – купец, inhabitant – житель, unpaved – немощёный, crooked – кривой, pass through – проходить, exile – ссылка, welfare - материальный, spirit – дух, fate – судьба, eminent – замечательный, strive – стремиться, revalue – переоценивать, energies – усилия.

2. Vocabulary list.

Siberian – сибирский, oil refinery – нефтепереработка, tire-making plant – шинный завод, synthetic rubber plant – завод СК, smoke-black plant – сажевый завод, Trans-Siberian Railway - Транссибирская ж/д, Drama Theatre = Драматический театр, Musical Theatre _ Музыкальный театр, Puppet Theatre - Кукольный театр, Concert Hall – Концертный зал, Sports and Concert Palace - СКК, Omsk Folk Choir - Омский русский народный хор, Omsk Symphony Orchestra – Омский симфонический оркестр, Memorial Square - мемориал, Eternal Flame – Вечный огонь.

2. Look through the text quickly and find the Russian equivalents the Russian words and word combinations


Старинный русский город, маленький купеческий городок, место ссылки, город студентов, материальная и духовная культура, омские жители, молитвенный дом, храм, собор.


Текст А


1. Read the text attentively and translate this text


OMSK


Omsk is one of the oldest Russian towns. Omsk is situated on the banks of the Irtish and Om rivers. The Siberian City of Omsk celebrated its 287th anniversary in 2003.

A former small merchant town has turned for the years of Soviet power into a large industrial, scientific and cultural center of West Siberia. The city today numbers about 1200000 inhabitants.

At the beginning of the 18 century a group of Russian soldiers and Cossacks under the guidance of an officer Buhgolts founded a fortress on the left bank of the Om river. The fortress was later renamed a town of Omsk. So Omsk was founded in 1716. At the end of 19th century the Great Trans-Siberian Railway passed through Omsk. Before the revolution Omsk was just like any other Siberian town – wooden houses, unpaved, dirty, crooked streets, no parks and gardens. Omsk was a place of exile. Decemberists and revolutionaries were exiled by the tzarist government to Omsk. A great Russian writer Dostoevsky spent 4 years in the Omsk fortress.

The city of labour produces goods in sum of more than 6 billion roubles a year. Some items are being supplied to more than 60 countries all over the world. The pride of our city is the first Oil Refinery, a giant of Siberian petrochemistry, which was put into operation in 1965. Besides the chemical enterprises of our city include Synthetic Rubber plant, the Type – making plant, the Smoke – Black plant and others. Engineering, instrument making, light and building industries are developed in Omsk.

Omsk is with good reason considered a city of students, of the youth. Every the fourth of the city’s residents is studying. There are all kinds of educational institutions in Omsk. We have 14 Universities, many technical schools, libraries. The A.S.Pushkin library is the biggest of them.

The city’s history of welfare standards and culture has a particular effect on its characteristics and spirit. The lives and fates of such eminent people of the country as F.Dostoevsky and M.Vrubel, V.Kuibyshev and D.Karbyshev, P.Dravert and V.Shebalin, L.Martinov, S.Zaligin and other prominent figures in science and art are closely connected with Omsk.

There are a lot of varieties for leisure – theatres, museums, concert halls, exhibitions, gymnasiums, sports grounds, Palaces of Culture, discotheques and swimming pools – for townsfolk. For the believers there are cathedrals, prayers houses of various in the city. The best known theatres in Omsk are the Drama theatre, the Musical theatre, the Children’s theatre and the Puppet theatre. A fine Concert Hall, an Organ Hall, a Circus, the Sports and Concert Palace are at our disposal. The Omsk Folk Choir and the Omsk Symphony Orchestra are famous in the world. The Fine Arts Museum and other museums possess wide collections of exhibits and paintings. They are worth visiting. There is the Memorial Square with the Eternal Flame in the center of the city, a lot of monuments, fine green parks and gardens with many beautiful flowers and different kinds of entertainments.

But at the same time Omsk is the city with its own unsolved problems. We live in the period of great changes. We strive to revalue many respects and start life afresh. Our energies are directed to creating required productive, living and spiritual conditions for the Omsk residents.


Материал для обсуждения


1. Answer the following questions


1. What is Omsk?

2. How old is Omsk?

3. What is the population of Omsk?

4. How was it founded?

5. What are the main branches of industry in Omsk?

6. Why do we consider Omsk a sity of students?

7. What theatres do you know in Omsk?


2. Make up sentences


1. The city, to number, 1200000, inhabitant, today.

2. So, 1716, in, Omsk, to found.

3. Oil Refinery, Siberian, petrochemistry, to be, a giant, of.

4. They, to be, visiting, worth.

5. To live, we, in, of, the period, changes, great.

6. Library, Pushkin, to be, big, the, of, them.

7. What places of interest are there in Omsk?

8. What problems are the inhabitants of Omsk to solve?


3. Make up a plant of the text.


4. Give a short story about Omsk.

5. Speak about the history of Omsk using the following words and word combinations


To be situated, merchant town, to turn for, center, a group, soldiers and Cossacks, guidance, Buchgolts, to found, fortress, to be renamed, to be Sounded, Great Trans-Siberian Railway, to pass through, to be like, wooden, unpaved, dusty, crooked, exile, Dostoevsky.


  1. Divide into small groups and discuss the interesting places to see in Omsk.


Текст В


  1. Read and translate the text


MOSCOW, THE CAPITAL OF RUSSIA


1. In the early 19th century the prominent Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin said: "If you want to know Russia go to Moscow". By the end of the 20th century we have every reason to repeat these words.

It is the city where every stone breathes history. Moscow was founded in 1147 by the Prince of Suzdal, Jury Dolgoruky. Although there were settlements on the site of modern city long before 1147, this was the year when Moscow was first mentioned in the written records. Moscow has the priority right to be the capital of the Russian State. Its wise founder built it in the middle of a densely populated country. It is protected: by rivers and a fortress. In the opinion of many scientists the city will never lose its significance and the leading role in the development of the country.

Moscow, like ancient Rome, stands on seven hills. The principle is the Borovrtsky, the hill on which the Kremlin stands.

2. Moscow's early architecture was simple but expressive. The larger part of the city was occupied by private houses made of wood. But such city's structures as fortress walls, bridges, churches and cathedrals were made of brick and white stone decorated with ceramic. Eventually these buildings crested Moscow's architectural image of a city of white stone.

Large-scale stone construction was performed during the reign of Catherine the Great. Several first-class foreign architects were invited to build a number of architectural monuments in Western style. Some of them have survived to our days and are carefully preserved by the city authorities.

3. In 1812 during Napoleon's invasion a terrible fire raged in the city for several days. It was calculated that more than 7,000 buildings were destroyed and the city's central area was completely gone. This disaster, however, prompted a real housing boom. Standard projects had to be used to facilitate rapid restoration of the city and preserve the city's architectural uniformity. This task was successfully earned out. As a result a great number of stone houses with much better facilities appeared in the city. They were completely different from those of the previous years.

As the time passed, the city's boundaries expanded considerably. New dwelling districts and industrial enterprises were built on the outskirts of the city.

4. A major feature of Moscow's present development is the establishment of the industries requiring highly-skilled labour, and the branches producing high-quality apparatus, as well as the development of new technologies and know-how.

Alongside industrial development much attention is paid by the city administration to the construction of cultural, educational institutions and sports facilities.

5. In recent years the population of Moscow reached 10 million and it is still growing. This resulted in large-scale migration of people. Muscovites move from one district to another, when they get new flats and for other reasons. All that calls for anther development and improvement of 'the city's transport services. Transport is a serious problem for all large cities of the world. The capitals of major states are often unable to solve it. Moscow also has a transport problem. The most convenient means of transport in Moscow is, of course, the Metro. Besides it there are buses, trolley-buses and trams. The total length of their routes is constantly increasing. But nevertheless there is permanent need for new and more comfortable means of transport.

6. Roads constitute another aspect of the transport problem. Having reconstructed many of the existing streets and roads the city authorities started to build new roads which are to link several city districts between the Moscow Circular Highway and the Sadovodye Ring Road.

So instead of the traditional monocentric system the city gets polycentric planning according to which Moscow complex zones are united by a system of general city centre.

7. The territory within Sadovoye Ring Road will retain its significance as a historical, cultural, educational and administrative public centre, the seat of the Government and the Parliament. All the valuable architectural monuments as well as parks and old streets with their unique buildings will remain untouched.

Moscow today is an enormous city whose infrastructure is traditional for every megapolis with first-rate hotels, restaurants, theatres, exhibition halls, shops and gigantic transport arteries. But in spirit Moscow remains its old self, open, hospitable and festive, and, consequently, has the rights as ever, to be called the heart of Russia.


Материал для обсуждения


1. Find in the text a passage describing Moscow's present development and translate it into Russian.


2. Read aloud the passage you've translated. (The approximate time of reading is 45 seconds.)

3. Find some key words to speak about Moscow nowadays.


4. Read the summary of the text "Moscow, the capital of Russia" in Russian and find out if the summary corresponds to the contents of the text If not, make the necessary changes.


МОСКВА


В соответствии с письменными источниками Москва была основана в 1147 году князем Юрием Долгоруким и вскоре стала столицей России. Крепости, мосты, церкви и соборы были первыми памятниками русской архитектуры, на которую оказала влияние западная архитектура в период правления Екатерины Великой.

Масштабное строительство развернулось после пожара Москвы вы в эпоху нашествия Наполеона.

В настоящее время развитие промышленности и рост населения определяют дальнейшее развитие города.

Несмотря на развитие полицентричной системы города, исторический центр сохраняет свое значение как политический и культурный центр.


Текст C


1. Read and translate the text


NEW YORK


New York is a city where all the languages of the world are spoken and where people live on the ground, travel under the ground and work in the sky.

New York makes a great impression on all visitors because of its many high buildings, its theatres, museums and hotels, its beautiful bridges, and its expensive shops with their fabulous (баснословный) prices.

The first permanent white settlers (поселенцы) came to New York from Holland in 1626. These Dutch settlers bought all of Manhattan Island (остров) from the Indians for the equivalent of twenty-five dollars, while today some of this land costs a million dollars an acre. This island is the heart of the city.

It is on Manhattan Island that most of the skyscrapers are located. This island is connected by six long bridges, as well as by tunnels and ferries (паром), with the other four districts that constitute New York City.

New York is the largest city in the United States. Today there are more people living in the New York City than in Australia, Peru or Sweden.

For transportation New York depends (зависеть) mainly on buses, the subway, taxis and ferries. The buses are slow because of the crowded streets, whereas the subway train can go as fast as railroad trains, sometimes stopping only at the most important stations. We may go all day by the subway for the same fare, if we only change trains but do not go out of the stations.

New York moves vertically as well as horizontally, taking its people by elevator to their offices on the fortieth, sixtieth, and eightieth floor.

New York is the richest and the poorest, the most modem and the most old-fashioned (старомодный) of cities. It is the home of expensive hotels and cheap boarding houses, the home of symphonies and popular jazz, of cathedrals (собор) and night clubs; the home of the famous Metropolitan Opera and the Metropolitan Museum of Art; the home of most of the largest publishing houses (издательство) of the United States and the biggest newspapers. On the Fifth Avenue there are many expensive stores of international fame, but around the comer one may find little shops where imitation diamonds and cheap souvenirs are sold.


Материал для обсуждения


1. Complete the sentences below choosing the variant corresponding to the contents of the text


1. The first permanent white settlers of New York were:

  1. from France;

  2. from England;

  3. from Holland.

2. The Manhattan Island is:

  1. in the centre of New York;

  2. in the suburbs (пригород) of New York;

  3. very far from New York.

3. The Island is connected with other parts of New York:

  1. by one long bridge;

  2. by six long bridges;

  3. by six short bridges.

4. The largest city in the USA is:

  1. Washington;

  2. Chicago;

  3. New York.

5. The subway trains move:

  1. as fast as railroad trains;

  2. slower than railroad trains;

  3. faster than railroad trains.




  1. Retell the text in 7-10 sentences.


2. Divide into groups of two and make a conversation about New -York.

Текст D


  1. Read the text to find answers to the given questions


LONDON


1. What are the main parts of London?

Thousands of visitors come to Great Britain every year. Some come on business, others simply as tourists, but none misses the opportunity to see the capital of Great Britain.

London is grand and attractive, ft is certainly very old and full of historic associations, and ft has strong links with the past. Its old customs and traditions have survived and even the types of people. They are a strange mixture of past and present, of old-fashioned and very modern.

London consists of many parts and they are all very different from each other. There is the West End and the East End, Westminster and the City. The City is not only the centre of business, it is the birthplace of London.

2. What did the Romans do for the development of London?

In 43 A.D. the Romans conquered Britain and for 400 years it remained a Roman province. The Romans built long straight roads along which the Roman soldiers marched. Many of them met at the point where London bridge now stands. The Romans made London, which they called Londinum, a large and rich city with good streets, beautiful palaces, shops and villas. Trade was growing. A lot of goods-skins, copper and iron ore, silver and gold were sent to Ron». And many strong blue-eyed boys were sent to Rome, too, to be sold as slaves.

In the fifth century the Romans left Britain, but other invaders came to the British shores. They almost ruined the city and it remained in mist poor state for almost 400 years.

Only in the 9th century the Saxon kings began to rebuild the city. They started the building of Westminster Abbey.

3. How did the Normans influence Britain's civilization?

In 1066 came William the Duke of Normandy or William the Conqueror who settled in London which became the capital of Norman Britain.

For 500 years the Normans were masters of Britain. They brought with them Latin and French civilization, the laws and the organization of the land Many Latin and French words penetrated into the Old English (Germanic) language. They did their best to make the city beautiful. The Westminster Abbey was finished and William was the first king to be crowned there. Since then, all English kings have been crowned in the Abbey. At that time the Tower of London was built on the Thames and it stands there still unchanged Commerce and trade grew very quickly, but the population grew even faster. London became a busy, rich and crowded city the old city looked very picturesque with its tall houses of wood and plaster and its narrow streets.

4. What were the consequences (последствия) of two great tragedies that London suffered?

But then London suffered two awful tragedies, at first - the Great Plague and then the Great Fire. In a few months nearly 100,000 people, that: is 1/5 of the population died because of the Plague. Sorrow and sadness sat upon every Londoner. And only winter and its cold saved the city and the people.

The Great Fire happened through carelessness of a young baker who left a small bundle of wood near a very hot oven. In a few hours all the houses made of wood were burning like paper. This fire destroyed 3000 houses and at least 97 churches.

Fortunately the wind soon stopped and then heavy rain fell. Thus London was saved.

5. What is the City notable for?

Bit by bit London was being reconstructed until it has become the city, which is now one of the most beautiful and attractive places of the world.

The oldest part of it is the City which is the business and financial, centre of London. During the day it is full of people, but at the end of the day, businessmen, clerks and secretaries go home and it becomes silent and almost empty.

Besides the City there are many other attractions such as Trafalgar Square with the Nelson column in the centre, the Houses of Parliament with the famous Big Ben, a lot of beautiful parks and gardens among which is Hyde Park well known all over the world. There is a lot more to tell about London. But if you have a chance better visit it and see everything yourself.


Материал для обсуждения


  1. Look at the map of London and describe one of its parts.




  1. Work in pairs. Imagine you are a tourist of London and ask a native Londoner about one of the sights.




  1. Make an oral report about one of the modern cities of the world.


UNIT 4


EDUCATION IN RUSSIA AND GREAT BRITAIN


Лексический материал


1. Выучите следующие слова


compulsory – обязательный

to complete – заканчивать

grade – степень

to leave – уходить, оставлять

gymnasium – гимназия

college – колледж

citizen – гражданин

right – право

to guarantee – гарантировать

to incorporate – соединять

kindergarten – детский сад

crèche – детские ясли

certain – определенный

lycее – лицей

tuition – обучение

free of charge – бесплатный

free paying – платный

choice – выбор

to enter – поступать

vocation – профессиональный

receive – получать

certificate – удостоверение, свидетельство

syllabus – программа, (обучения)

entry – поступление (в уч. заведение)

infant – детский

primary school – начальная школа

junior – младший

gain – зарабатывать, добывать; добиваться

determine – определять

selective – отборочный

opportunity – возможность

compulsory – обязательный

nursery – ясли

comprehensive – всесторонний

majority – большинство

term – семестр

support – поддерживать

to provide – обеспечивать


2. Give English equivalents to the Russian words and phrases


a) 1. обязательный 11. школьное образование

2. ходить в школу 12. детские ясли

3. продолжать учиться 13. лицей

4. профессиональная школа 14. бесплатный

5. заканчивать школу 15. платный

6. специализированный 16. сдавать экзамены

7. политехнический 17. вступительные экзамены

8. высшее учебное заведение 18. обучать

9. гимназии и колледжи 19. детский сад

10. право на образование 20. свидетельство о среднем

образовании


b) 1. система образования 9. среднее образование

2. определять 10. выпускник школы

3. поддерживать 11.поступление в университет

4. основные черты 12. академический год

5. деление 13. отличаться

6. обеспечивать 14. выпускник университета

7. стадии образования 15. исследование

8. зависеть


Текст


1. Прочтите и переведите текст


EDUCATION IN RUSSIA AND GREAT BRITAIN


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