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Camp David strategy of the United States on the ground of the Middle East conflict
Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan
(The faculty of History, 2nd year student of master degree)
Academic leader: M.B.Fataliyev, PhD, professor of BSU
World War II that gave the new direction to mutual cooperation and international security among states, and which formed one of the most essential pages of the world history simultaneously shaped good conditions to determine major powerful states on the map of the new world. So, after this war the main leaders of the Anti Hitler coalition that established against Axis block – the USA and the USSR began to conduct the policy, which was directed to preserve previous dominating positions and to strengthen these positions by obtaining new areas of influence.
This tendency in the foreign policy of the United States and the USSR not only rotated the allies of the war into serious rivals, but also stimulated of the beginning of the phase that based on the ideological war, and which came into the history under the name of “Cold war”.
For the United States it was always important to gain the regions that were geo strategic and essential areas of the world, in order to become the main power of the mankind, possess the opportunity of influence to the world politics, and dictate the policy, which replied to its interests as well. The one of such important regions was the Middle East, situated in the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa, and which played the role of transition for the USA.
The Middle East, which area is crossed by the shortest seaway from Western Europe to the Indian Ocean trough Suez Canal and enriched by oil resources, first of all attracted the USA because of its geo strategic advantages and privileges. And namely this cause made the United States do its best to influence to the Middle East and be interested in all issues, related to this region as well. In order to realize its aims, the USA had to establish the “column” in the region and this “column” was the state of Israel.
So, the US administration, which recognized Jews state on the same day of its establishment, on May 15, 1948 [1, p.361], utilized the Arab-Israeli conflict on its behalf, and aided to new created state in military, economic and political spheres. This strategy was reflected in 70s policy of the USA – in isolation of Geneva Conference, held for regulation of the Middle East conflict after Yom Kippur War (1973), and signing of separate agreements between Israel and Arab states, as well as confirmed the basis of the US-Israel political relations at the second half of 70s
The ground of the US policy in the Middle East at the second half of 70s of XX century was its Camp-David strategy. So, the election of Jimmy Carter as the president of the USA in 1976 ballots, his constructive activity about this region made an impression that, contrary to previous republican administration, Carter administration would base on mutual understanding with USSR. The declaration, composed by Soviet foreign minister A.A. Gromyko, J. Carter and secretary of state S. Bens during the meetings, held in Washington and New York in September, 1977, and which stressed the vitality of restarting of Geneva Conference in December of the current year could prove this idea. But new administration that pursued Ford’s obstructionist policy about the Middle East conflict didn’t want to restore the conference in reality, and did its best to solve the conflict on the basis of separate agreements. This goal of the United States was mentioned in the “official document” signed in October, 1977 with Israeli government. The one of the major principles of the document were consisted of signing of separate treaties between Israel-Jordan, Israel-Egypt, Israel-Syria in order to regulate the conflict. And these, of course, would make a chance to America to dictate its interests in the Middle East easily.
Not only the United States’ and Israel’s, but also Egypt’s being the target of criticism by international world about Geneva Conference and separate agreements were not casual. So that, as the official of the USA on Middle East problems, H. Kissinger mentioned, the president of Egypt at that time began the discussions with Israel about the separate agreement, appealed to the US government to mediate in signing Egypt-Israeli treaty as well. And these steps caused to the competent and acute disagreements of other states.
The United States that brought the one of the major states, related to the Middle East – Egypt to its side, began to the tactic of separate regulation which, first of all implied the signing of treaty with Egypt as initial stage, and then with Jordan and Syria as well, since November, 1977. By choosing this policy Carter administration returned to the Middle East policy of Republican government, which based on “relatively regulation”. Main difference was in that, previous administration demanded “to give back the invaded regions step-by-step diplomacy”, but Carter administration did its best “to drive out the participants of the conflict from the system of general regulation”. So, on August 8, 1978 the US president made speech with initiative to hold meeting of Egypt and Israeli presidents in the official residence at Camp David [5, p.216].
Consequently, the historical discussions began on September 5, 1978. The basis of the process, continued till September 17 without participation of Syria, Jordan, PLO and the USSR were consisted of the signing of the document, related to Gaza strip and West Bank of the river of Jordan, and the escape of Egypt from the isolation in the Middle East region. [2, p.196-197]. During the negotiations there were signed two documents – “Framework for the conclusion of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel” and “Framework for peace of the Middle East”. Differing from the second document, the first one, which reflected the main principles of peace treaty, would be signed on March 26, 1979, had pro Israel position and strengthened the US-Israel dictate in the region as well. This document defended and accepted the resolutions of UN Security Council 242 and 338 in words, but not in reality. There was no mention of withdrawing of Israeli troops from the conquered West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights, as well as about an independent state or the PLO, but implied the establishment of a transition regime in Gaza and West bank under the subordination of Israel for five years, after which the final status of the area would be negotiated. [4, p.852-853].
At the result of the meeting, held at Camp David, on March, 1979 there were signed the treaties between Egypt-Israel, USA-Egypt, and USA-Israel-Egypt in Washington, in which was agreed step-by-step departure of Israeli troops from Sinai peninsula and determined accurate frontiers between Israel and Egypt. Simultaneously, the agreement gave Israel a right of utilizing of Suez Canal. [3, p. 408].
In conclusion, it’s important to mention that, the US administration, which achieved essential success in Camp David strategy by making sign this peace treaty, ensured the security of states in the region, strengthened its positions about the Middle East conflict, as well as provided the durability of the US-Israel political relations.
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