Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения литературы для студентов строительных специальностей (Английский язык)




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НазваниеМетодические указания по развитию навыков чтения литературы для студентов строительных специальностей (Английский язык)
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Министерство образования и науки Украины

Приазовский государственный технический университет


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

по развитию навыков чтения литературы

для студентов строительных специальностей

(Английский язык)


Мариуполь 2003


Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения литературы для студентов строительных специальностей (Английский язык) / Сост. Л.М. Ангарова, Е.Ю. Мухина, М.П. Мулкиджанова; ПГТУ.- Мариуполь, 2003.- 54с.


Цель настоящих методических указаний развивать умение и навыки различных видов чтения, научить свободно читать текст по специальности.

Методические указания состоят из 5 разделов, включающих следующие темы:

  • архитектура и планировка города;

  • здание и его части;

  • современные строительные материалы и машины;

  • порт;

  • городской транспорт и дороги.

Предназначаются для студентов всех курсов строительных специальностей.


Составители: Л.М. Ангарова, ст. преп.

Е.Ю. Мухина, преп.

М.П. Мулкиджанова, преп.


Ответственный за выпуск: Л.Н. Лазаренко, доцент


SECTION I

THE COMMUNITY AND ARCHITECTURE

1A

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские слова:

principle, material, social, economic, form, element, aes­thetic, system, theory, historical, factor, cultural, paradox, philosopher, historian, effect, illustrate, style, automatically, process, plan, harmonious, phases.


2. Прочтите текст. Определите, в каких абзацах раскры­вается смысл его заголовка.


T e x t. Forms and Functions of Architecture

(1) Architecture is the art and the science of building. Without consideration of structural principles, materials, and social and economic requirements a building cannot take form, but unless aesthetic quality also is inherent in its form the building cannot be considered as a work of architecture.

(2) From the very beginnings of architecture many skills, systems, and theories have been evolved for the construction of the buildings that have housed nations and generations of men in all their essential activities, and writing on architec­ture is almost as old as writing itself. Books on the theory of architecture, on the art of building, and on the aesthetic appear­ance of buildings exist in fair number. The oldest book we have that sets forth the principles upon which buildings should be designed and aims to guide the architect is the work of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, written in the first century В. С.

(3) The historical background of twentieth-century ar­chitecture finds little place in this article, but that does not imply a denial of the value of our cultural heritage. Such a re­cognition of continuity does not imply repetition or imitation. Architecture is an art, its contemporary expression must be creative and consequently new. The heritage of the past can­not be ignored, but it must be expressed in contemporary ter­minology. The paradox of the coexistence of change and surviv­al is evident in all phases of the human story. The philosoph­ers, and historians have taken great pains to explain it. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.

(4) Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius listed three basic factors in architecture—conveni­ence, strength and beauty. These three factors are always present and are always interrelated in the best structures. It is impossible for the true architect to think of one of them without almost automatically considering the other two as well. Thus architectural design entails not only the study of solutions for convenience, for structure, and for appearance as three separate processes but also a consideration of the con­stant interaction of these factors. The architect, then, does not first plan a building from the point of view of convenience, then design around his plan a strong construction to shelter it, and finally adjust and decorate the whole to make it pretty. Any design that evolves from such a procedure will produce only a confused, incoherent, and unsatisfactory building. Of any truly great building we can say that every element in it has a triple implication.

(5) This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art; for it takes a spe­cial type of imagination as well as long years of training and experience to produce a designer capable of making the requi­site in the light of these three factors—use, construction, and aesthetic effect—simultaneously. The designer must have a sufficient knowledge of engineering and of building materi­als to enable him to create economically a strong as well as practical structure and, in addition, must possess the creative imagination which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction into one harmonious whole. The architect's feeling of satisfaction in achieving such an integration is one of his greatest rewards.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

3. Подберите соответствующий перевод из правого столбца к данным английским словам:

structural (1) nation (2) activities (2) ignore (3)
basic (4)
procedure (4)
confused (4)
special (5)
practical (5)



1. конфуз
2. практический
3. нация
4. конструктивный
5. активность
6. игнорировать
7. деятельность
8. базовый
9. основной

10. беспорядочный

11. последовательность, метод

12. целесообразный

13. особый



4. К каждой данной паре дайте русское слово с тем же корнем, что и английское, помогающее понять его смысл.

Образец: to express — выражать (экспрессия)

1. imitation — подражание (. . .)

2. separate — отдельный (. . ,)

3. constant — постоянный (. . .)

4. to decorate — оформлять (...)

5. nature — характер (. . .)

6. training — подготовка (. . .)

7. reason — причина (. . .)

8. to integrate — объединять в единое целое (. . .)

9. repetition — повторение (. . .)

10. function — назначение (. . .)

11. the requisite — все необходимое (. . .)

12. to evolve—развивать (. . .)

13. essential — основной (. . .)

14. to guide — дать руководство (. . .)

5. Укажите, какое из данных утверждений выражает главную тему текста.

1. The historical background of twentieth-century archi­tecture finds little place in this article. 2. Books on the theory of architecture exist in fair number. 3. Three basic factors in architecture—convenience, strength and beauty-are always present and interrelated in the best structures. 4. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.


6. В соответствии с содержанием текста дополните предложения одним из данных вариантов (а, Ь, с, d).

1. From the very beginnings of architecture many systems and theories have been evolved for the construction of the buildings ...

a) ...that set forth the principles upon which buildings should be designed, b) ...that do not imply a denial of the value of our cultural heritage, c) ...that have housed nations and generations of men in all their essential activities, d) ...that every element in it has a triple implication.

2. The designer must have a sufficient knowledge of engi­neering and of building materials...

a) ...to produce a designer capable always of making the requisite in the light of these three factors, b) ...to enable him to create economically a strong as well as practical struc­ture, c) ...to think of one of them without almost automatical­ly considering the other two as well, d) ...to make it pretty.

3. ...but it must be expressed in contemporary terminol­ogy.

a) This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illus­trated ... b) Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman archi­tect Vitruvius listed three basic factors in architecture... c) This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art... d) The heritage of the past cannot be ignored...

4. ...and philosophers and historians have taken great pains to explain it.

a) The paradox of the coexistence of change and survival is evident in all phases of the human story... b) Thus archi­tectural design entails the study of solutions for convenience, for structure, and for appearance... c) Writing on architecture is almost as old as writing itself... d) The historical background of twentieth-century architecture finds little place in this article...


7. а) Укажите, какие из данных слов имеют отрицатель­ные префиксы tin-, in-, im-; переведите их.

impossible, imply, incoherent, imagination, integration, unsatisfactory, imitation, unless, inherent.

б) Укажите, какие из данных слов являются существи­тельными и какие прилагательными:

principal, cultural, denial, material, structural, essential, social, practical, historical, architectural, survival, economi­cal, principle.

в) Образуйте от следующих глаголов существительные, используя соответственно суффиксы: -tion, -ion.

to repeat, to construct, to consider, to express, to create, to imagine, to integrate, to illustrate, to interact, to interre­late, to produce, to imitate, to decorate, to add, to recognize, to imply, to satisfy.


8. Переведите письменно со словарем текст за 20 минут.

The architect uses drawings to achieve his objective, but in the strict meaning of the term a work of architecture exists only when it stands complete, a concrete object for all to see or to use. Drawings, no matter how magnificent the design they show, are never in themselves works of ar­chitecture. The dangers of "paper architecture" are very great. It is necessary to point out that many elements which look well on a drawing may be either completely ineffective or definitely harmful in the actual building. Paper architec­ture is the result of thinking of drawings and the effects they make as an end rather than a means. In fact, drawings can represent buildings only symbolically. A valid criticism against much eclectic architecture is that it is essentially paper architecture, because eclectic buildings are full of decorative elements which look well on the drawing—perhaps even seem necessary on the drawing—yet in the actual build­ings they are completely meaningless.


1B

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Подберите к данным английским словам русские слова с тем же корнем; используйте их, чтобы понять текст при чтении его.

effect, element, physical, materials, escalator, hall, cor­ridor, interior, activity, alphabet, musician, practically, aesthetically, real, detail, isolated, factor, emotional, prob­lem, fantasy, sculpture, poems, music, clinics, political, economic.

2. Вспомните значения следующих английских слов и под­берите соответствующий перевод из правого столбца.

to design 1. понимать

coexistence 2. создавать

to shelter 3. искусство

value 4. выражение

true 5. истинный

separate 6. укрывать

to integrate 7. сооружение

to create 8. проектировать

beauty 9. сосуществование

essential 10. ценность

consideration 11. так же, как, а также

appearance 12. раздельный

to realize 13. прочность

expression 14. внешний вид

convenience 15. рассмотрение, учет

to construct 16. строить

as well as 17. единое (целое)

art 18 красота

structure 19. существенный, важный

strength 20. удобство

the whole 21. объединять в единое целое

activities 22. деятельность


T e x t. Forms and Functions of Architecture

(Continued)

(1) The value of true architecture lies in the direct effect of the structure itself and of the actual elements of which it is constructed. Outside we observe the physical structure;

we see variations of plane, of color, and of light and shade. Each one of these variations is due to the effects of light on the building materials employed. There are doors to allow ingress and egress; windows to admit light and air; walls for shelter or support, or both; roofs to keep out the rain, snow, cold, and sometimes sun.

(2) We enter the building, and the same complexity of elements meets our attention. Partitions separate space from space; there may be stairs, escalators, or elevators to allow progress from level to level and halls or corridors to permit easy circulation from part to part; finally there may be all sorts of interior spaces for definite human activities—rooms both public and private—to take care of the varying func­tions of human living.

(3) Such elements—walls and openings, supports, floors and ceilings, enclosed areas or rooms—are the letters of the architect's alphabet, it is with these that he must project an integration of the whole in order to create a work of archi­tecture. A knowledge of this alphabet is as essential to him as a knowledge of words to the writer or of notes to the mu­sician. No building can exist without some of them, and upon their correct arrangement and design the success of the building, both practically and aesthetically, will almost entirely be founded.

(4) Yet a separate consideration of individual elements is in a very real sense artificial. The architect must always study each detail from the viewpoints of both use and ap­pearance as well as from that of construction, and he must continuously see it not as an isolated detail but as an indi­vidual note in a great composition.

(5) The sequence of the three basic aims—"convenience, strength and beauty"—has its own significance. First any building exists for some particular purpose, it is built be­cause of some definite human need, either practical or emo­tional, or both. The use problem—"convenience"—is there­fore primary.

(6) Next, the construction of any object or shelter for human use must be a true construction; that is, it must stand up solidly for the duration for which it is designed. Any true architectural design is no mere fantasy, no unreal dream, but contemplates an actual building, and for a building to exist there must be adequate structure. Hence "strength" becomes the second necessity, as important as the first yet in a way subsidiary to it.

(7) Finally, mankind has always realized that buildings to be complete must have not only "convenience" and "strength" but also "beauty". There are some who claim that architecture is not a fine art at all and that its single purpose should be the satisfying of physical necessities. For such people, the world of fine arts is something entirely set apart from ordinary living, it is a matter of pictures or sculpture, of poems or music, seen and appreciated as things in themselves.

(8) The architect has the task of being an artist as well as an inventive engineer. The expression of the purpose of buildings would seem to call for additional thought on this point. The emotions evoked by theaters, churches, clinics, and dwellings will always differ from one another, whatever the economic or political framework of the civilization that produces them.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

3. Сверяясь с текстом, укажите то из приведенных сло­варных значений, в котором данное слово употреблено.

1. variation (1) — изменение, вариация, разновидность

2. progress (2) — развитие, движение вперед, про­гресс, достижение

3. circulation (2) — круговое движение, циркуляция, обращение, распространение

4. public (2) — общественный, публичный, государст­венный, общедоступный, народный

5. function (2) — назначение, действие, функция, дея­тельность

6. individual (4) — личный, характерный, отдельный, индивидуальный

7. composition (4) — произведение, структура, ком­позиция, построение, состав (хим.)

8. object (6) — предмет, объект, вещь, цель

9. adequate (6) — соответствующий, точный, адекват­ный, отвечающий требованиям

10. to realize (7) — представлять себе, понимать, реа­лизовать, осуществлять, получать прибыль

11. ordinary (7) — обычный, обыкновенный, ординар­ный, заурядный.

4. Укажите, какие абзацы текста 1В можно сгруппиро­вать по следующим темам. Расположите данные пред­ложения в последовательности, соответствующей содержанию текста.

1. Such elements are the letters of the architect's alphabet.2. For a building to exist there must be adequate structure.3. The expression of the purpose of buildings calls for addi­tional thought. 4. The value of true architecture lies in the direct effect of the structure. 5. First any building exists for some particular purpose.


5. В соответствии с содержанием текста дополните предложения одним из данных вариантов (a, b, c d).

1. There are doors…

a) … to admit light and air. b)…to allow ingress and egress. c) …to keep out the rain, snow, cold, and sometimes sun. d)…to take care of the varying functions of human living.

2. Finally there may be all sorts of interior space

a)… for shelter or support. b)…to call for additional thought on this problem. c)…to create a work of architecture. d)…for definite human activities­ – rooms both public and private.

3. …of which it is constructed.

a) Hence “strength” becomes the second necessity. b) The architect must always study each detail from the viewpoints of both use and appearance… c) The value of true architecture lies in the direct effect of the structure itself and of elements… d) It is a matter of pictures or sculpture, of poems or music…

4. …that is, it must stand up solidly for the duration for which it is designed.

a) The construction of any object or shelter for human use must be a true construction… b) Any building exists for some particular purpose… c) It is built because of some definite human need, either practical or emotional, or both… d) Building to be complete, must have not only “convenience” and “strength” but also “beauty”…

5. …whatever the economic or political framework of the civilization that produces them.

a) There are some who claim that architecture is not a fine art at all… b) Partitions separate space from space… c) Each one of these variations is due to the effects of light on the building materials employed… d) The emotions evoked by theaters, churches, clinics and dwellings will always differ from one another…


2A

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. а) Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские слова:

modern, fact, organism, symptom, analyze, stereotype, dictate, functions, contrast, horizontal, activities, vertical, topography, formulate, risk, focus, despotic, typical, parade, soldiers, automatically, standard, result, ignore.

б) Посмотрите, в каких случаях при переводе лучше использовать русский синоним (Например: focusфокус или центр).

2. Укажите, какие из данных слов являются прилагатель­ными и какие существительными.

matter, later, soldier, power, longer, quarter, planner, older, builder.

3. Прочтите текст. Укажите, какие четыре вопроса рассматриваются в нем. Определите часть речи выде­ленных слов.

T e x t. Historic City Forms

(1) Any community consists of examples of architecture— good, bad and indifferent—but in another sense the commu­nity itself is architecture. The planning of communities is the noblest form of architectural planning, and in giving form to towns or regions the planner is making what is per­haps his most valuable and significant contribution to human living.

(2) A true community is a living organism; it grows and changes, and its change is a symptom of its life. Setting too hard-and-fast a limitation on change by creating too rigid a pattern is harmful rather than helpful, and many a city lives a difficult existence because its life and its activities no longer fit the form its early planners imposed.

(3) In Europe and in the original settlements of North and South America the modern city grew up around an older core, and down to our own days these cores have continued to have a powerful influence on new plans even in the laying out of entirely new quarters. Certain urban lay-outs which have been repeated automatically are still looked upon as standard forms; actually, however, they represented orig­inally a direct adaptation to social, economic, and political conditions that no longer control. One of the reasons for analyzing both the city's medieval and its Baroque (or so-called Renaissance) heritage is to free the mind from these obsolete stereotypes.

(4) The medieval town was a combination of camp, mar­ket, and sanctuary. The necessity for protection colored all its institutions, dictated the use of a defensive site on hill­side or waterside and led to the erection of walls separating the town from the country and allowing access only through guarded gates. The social functions of the medieval town were concentrated in a square. Medieval builders, in their handling of space and their bold contrasting of horizontal and vertical, still have something to teach the twentieth-century architect who knows no way of achieving height except by erecting skyscrapers.

(5) The Baroque city was formulated in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and was actually built in the seven­teenth and eighteenth centuries. In the Baroque plan the old medieval market square is transformed into the traffic circle which the pedestrian crosses at a great risk. The focus of this plan is no longer the church but the palace, the seat of a one-sided, despotic power. In contrast with the medie­val town, the Baroque city demands flat sites, straight continuous streets, and uniform building and roof lines. It was built for armies and wheeled vehicles. The typical Baroque form might be called the parade city: not only its soldiers but also its citizens and its buildings are on parade. Whatever is visible must submit to this geometry; the city is organized for show.

(b) The Baroque plan, unlike the medieval, left a deep imprint on later generations; it became standard throughout Western civilization. That imprint showed itself in a prefer­ence for straight streets over curved ones, no matter what the expense or the inconvenience that resulted from ignoring the topography.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

4. Подберите соответствующий перевод к данным англий­ским словам.


contribution (1)
limitation (2)
original (3)
adaptation (3)
to control (3)
combination (4)
protection (4)
to concentrate (4)
to transform (5)
visible (5)

1. превращать, преобразовы-
вать
2. лимитирование
3. видимый, в поле зрения
4. контрибуция
5. управлять
6. приспособление (к уcло-
виям)
7. оригинальный
8. вклад

9. ограничение

10. визуальный

11. сосредоточивать

12. адаптация

13. протекция

14 трансформировать

15. сочетание

16. концентрировать

17. защита

18. комбинация

19. контролировать

20. первоначальный


5. Укажите, к каким абзацам текста могут служить заголовками данные предложения. Расположите их со­гласно последовательности изложения.

1. City designed for protection and sanctuary.

2. A true community is a living organism.

3. To analyze historic city forms is to free the mind from these obsolete

stereotypes.

4. City designed for expression and extension of power in every form.

5. Planning of communities is the noblest form of archi­tectural planning.

6. City's change is a symptom of its life.

7. Uncritical imitation of Baroque principles.


6. В соответствии с содержанием текста дополните пред­ложения одним из данных вариантов (а, b, с).

1. ...is rather harmful than helpful.

a) The planning of communities... b) Creating too rigid a pattern... c) Analyzing both the city's medieval and its Baroque forms...

2. ...led to the erection of walls separating the town from the country.

a) Giving form to towns and regions... b) Setting too hard-and-fast a limitation... c) The necessity for protection...

3. ...because its life and its activities no longer fit the forms its early planners imposed.

a) The modern city grew up around an older core... b) Cer­tain urban lay-outs are still looked upon as standard forms . c) Many a city lives a difficult life...


7. Заполните пропуск требуемой формой глагола страдательного или действительного залога.

1. Someone must ... (plan, be planned) where streets are to ... (run, be run), parks are to ... (lay out, be laid out), and industrial facilities are to ...(furnish, be furnished). 2. The medieval city ...(designed, was designed) for pedes­trians. 3. Down to our own day these cores ...(have con­tinued, have been continued) to have a powerful influence on new plans. 4. The social functions of the medieval town ...(concentrated, were concentrated) in a square. 5. Certain urban lay-outs which... (have repeated, have been repeated) automatically ...(still look upon, are still looked upon) as standard forms. 6. Where the topography ...(supplies, is supplied) differences of level, the architecture enhances the vertical dimension. 7. The necessity for protection ...(dic­tated, was dictated) the use of a defensive site on hillside.

8. The Baroque city ...(formulated, was formulated) in the fifteenth century and ...(built, was built) in the seventeenth.

9. The city ...(organizes, is organized) for show. 10. Where verticality is absent, the architecture ...(makes up, is made up) for it. 11. The typical Baroque form might ...(call, be called) the parade city. 12. The old medieval market square ...(transforms, is transformed) into a traffic circle. 13. The Baroque plan ...(left, was left) a deep imprint on later generations.


8. По формальным признакам найдите группы подлежа­щего и сказуемого и определите границы главного и придаточных предложений. Предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. The planner is making what is perhaps his most valu­able contribution to human living. 2. Whatever is visible must submit to this geometry. 3. Many a city lives a diffi­cult existence because its life and its activities no longer fit the forms its early planners imposed.


9. Прочтите текст про себя за 1 минуту. Определите, какие недостатки современного городского планирова­ния упоминаются в нем.

Nowhere, perhaps, are the limitations of an uncritical imitation of Baroque principles so contradictory as in the revival and expansion of the L'Enfant plan for Washington. During the second half of the nineteenth century a Ba­roque revival took place in planning.

One of the great limitations of the late Baroque tradition, as carried into the modern city by planners in New York, is that its social objectives, are as narrow as its functional requirements; hence its triumphs have been limited to park ways, drives, parks, and public buildings, since it has no adequate formula for dealing with the city as a whole.

The present-day municipal engineers and city planning authorities deal only with the two-dimensional plan But planning is not separable from building. Planning, to be effective, means responsible collective oversight of the whole process, to the end of creating a harmonious social and aes­thetic whole. Lacking such collective purposes, modern cities, from Boston to Bombay, from Buenos Aires " to Birming­ham, are—what they so unfortunately are.


2B

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ


1. Какие русские слова имеют тот же корень, что и сле­дующие английские слова. result, social, typical, million, financial, industrial, political, center, modern, urban, landscape, sanitary, function, collective, principle, factor, mass, cables, invisible, process, asphalt, transportation, separate, trolley, element, occupy, industrialism, mechanical.

2. Вспомните значения следующих английских слов, зна­комых по предыдущим текстам.

transformation, create, technical, means, quarters, down to, changes, space, erection, conveniences, originate, effec­tively, scale, whole, appear, design, improvement, commu­nity, invisible, concrete, separate, wheeled vehicles, under­ground, suburbs, existence, serve, dominate, order, water supply, sewer pipes.


3. Прочтите текст. Определите, города каких эпох и времен упоминаются в нем.

T e x t. The Industrial Transformation of the City

(1) As a result of new economic and social forces, the nineteenth century witnessed a multiplication of cities, a transformation of their physical utilities, and an unparal­leled increase in their size—in population, in area, and often in density. The typical city of the Middle Ages, outside Italy, held less than fifteen thousand people—and often less than five thousand —though Marco Polo* had brought back from China accounts of cities with a million inhabit­ants. Аs a result of the expansion of financial, industrial, and political power from the year of 1500 onwards, the newer centers often had more than a hundred thousand people. In the nineteenth century, cities of a hundred thousand became common and those of a million, like London, Paris, and Berlin, became possible. Indeed the forces that created giant cities were in operation before the technical means to make them habitable were available: London had a mil­lion inhabitants at a time (in 1800) when in many quarters the water supply was turned on only twice a week.

(2) One of the most important changes was the relative increase in the space devoted to industry. Modern industry came into city, so to say, by the back door: its spread was marked by the building over of open spaces; by the intro­duction of smoke, filth, and rubbish; by the erection of great mills or factories scattered over the urban landscape. These were soon surrounded by rows of close-built workers' houses, often lacking light, water, and sanitary conveniences, to say nothing of paved streets. Even where the factory was the originating cause of the city, the form of the town was not effectively altered.

(3) The new form that would utilize the changes of scale and function and create a collective whole did not appear; in general, the new industrial cities lacked any coherent principle of design. Nevertheless the nineteenth century introduced certain improvements which have become per­manent factors in modern community building. Urban util­ities, such as iron piping and sewer pipes, were invented and produced on a mass scale. In time these new utilities created a complicated invisible underworld of pipes, mains, cables, and wires. With the introduction of the rubbertired motor car an expensive type of asphalt or concrete paving was introduced; but hardly anywhere the function of the street as a thoroughfare for wheeled vehicles has been se­parated from its other function as a public way dedicated to underground utilities; hence breakages and new instal­lations continue to result in a costly tearing up of the road.

(4) One final change must be noted—the effect of new means of transportation. Four of these came into existence in the nineteenth century: the surface railroad, the elevated rail­road, the trolley car, and the motorcar. All four hastened the expansion of the city and made it easier to effect a tem­porary escape from it. The industrial transformation of the city was accompanied by a movement that served as a coun­terpoise: the retreat to the suburb.

Although the industrial element of the city was occupying more space and in the form of gas tanks, factory chimneys, and power stations was dominating the skyline with increas­ing emphasis, no satisfactory architectural solution for the grouping of these new units was offered. This has been equal­ly true, almost down to the middle of the twentieth century. History shows that industrialism when left to itself did not produce even mechanical order.

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