Chiiloquin ranger district




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Rock Creek Subwatershed - 11,210 acres


There is no flow information available on this subwatershed. Water rights are held privately for

livestock (0.19 af), and irrigation (3.62 cfs).


The WIN Inventory contains the following entries from the 1993 survey of Rock Creek. Streambank

erosion and headcutting (effects from roads and cattle) are the primary concerns.

1: x S

36 11 31

36 11 19

37 111/2 1

37 11 6

37 11 1/2 1

37 11 6

37 11 6

36 11 31

36 10 36

36 11 31

36 11 31

36 11 31

37 11 8

Subdiv. Date

NW 8/93

SE 8/93

NESE 8/93

E1/2 8/93

8/93

E 1/2 8/93

8/93

SE 8/93

NESE 8/93

W 8/93

NW 8/93

SW 8/93

NWSW 8/93

Comments

Channel is cutting down an average of 4'. Cattle.

Downcutting 2-3'. Livestock eroded streambanks.

Downcutting 2-3'. Road pirating flow.

Downcutting up to 5'. Old railroad grade present.

Downcuttting average of 2-3'.

Dams Meadow (private) downcutting.

Headcutting of channel.

Severe downcutting.

Five foot downcut streambanks.

Severe downcutting as much as 10', railroad grade.

Runoff has cut into wheel tracks up to one foot.

Runoff down road #226.

Downcut streambanks and cattle.

Rock Creek is a perennial system which enters the Sprague River at rivermile 58.5, and consists of 30

stream miles (1.7 miles/square mile). 62% of the area is in the Winema National Forest. 4% of the area

is classified as riparian. There are 41 road miles and 17.6 railroad miles (2.35 miles/square mile) in the

drainage. 3.4 road miles are coincident with railroad grades. 14% of the stream length falls within 210

feet of a road, and the mainstem is crossed at least eight times.


Trout Creek North Fork

Longitudinal Profile & Gradient

North Fork

Average valley slope is 9.5%.

5600

5400

4 5200

a)

L. 5000

- 4800

C

. 4600

> 4400

a)

Uj 4200

4000

3800

_ .. ...__ _ _ ------_..._, __ ._ -_-__ __ __.-


. - - - - - * * - - _ - - - .......................................... ............ . .


. .... .... ............ ....... .. ....

- - ~~--i--------i-- -<---------- --


- -a -S '' - -V/ -

.. .


tll~tlliltlatllllllillllllltl~llllll~lltlll.

*40


30 C

0.

20 a

u)

. . . . r~~~~~~~~~~-

f 10


0

0

3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 18000

Length in Feet

Trout Creek Middle Fork

Longitudinal Profile & Gradient

5400 ... 50

524600.- ... . .. .--. -,4


.20

D 5 0 00 -........... .............................. ......S

4800 ......... ............ ..... ....... ..s..30..

c 4600--- ................

0~~~~~~~~~~~~1

[ 4400 - ------------------------ ----------- i------ ----- ... 20

4000 ----------------- ............~; | i;l l I

3800 ° -- -*--4 ;Ff _ I

0 2000 4000 6000 8000

Length in Feet

Middle Fork

Reach 1: Average valley

slope is 1.4%.


Reach 2: Average valley

slope is 26%.


Many springs on Saddle

Mountain lay in the

headwaters of Trout Creek.


Rock Creek

Reach 1 (private property): Diverted Longitudinal Profile & Gradient

through ditches, average valley slope

is 1%. A stable channel condition

would be an E5 or 6 (RST) channel. 5400 50


Reach 2: Dams Canyon, average valley 5200 .. ... ..... ... 40

slope is 2.5%. The natural function is e 5000 . .

intact. ¢ 4800 3---------------- -- - . . . .


C 4600 .$ B~igj du7- - - -- - a-- - - - -- - - - -- --

Reach 3: Dams Meadow, average valley o

slope is 1.5%. This reach has extensive as 4400 ......\...... ........ 20 0

areas of downcutting and streambank D i.. .X

erosion. Hl - 1i

4000 ... ...


Reach 4: Headwaters of Rock Creek 3800 - l l',, as-r- l I l,, 0

average valley slope is 9% (varying from

1% to 20%). 0 20000 40000 60000

Length in Feet


280Z Subwatershed (orphan) - 2,009 acres


There is no flow information available on this subwatershed. The WIN Inventory does not include any

sites in this area. There are no water rights recorded with the OWRD.


This subwatershed is entirely within the Winema National Forest, and contains 2.6 stream miles (0.82

miles/square mile). 381 acres (19% of the area) are classified as riparian. 56% of the area has slopes

less than 10 per cent. The aspect is East. There are 7 road miles and 3.7 railroad miles (2.2

miles/square mile) within the drainage (2.4 miles are coincident). Roads are within 210 feet of channels

along 9% of the stream length.


Cliney Subwatershed - 1,635 acres


There is no flow or WIN information available on this subwatershed.


83% of the area lies within the Winema National Forest. There are 2.5 stream miles; stream density is

0.95 miles/square mile. 446 acres (27% of the area) are classified as riparian. 65% of the area has

slopes less than 10%. The majority of the area lies between 5000 and 6000 feet, and the aspect is East.

The subwatershed has 7.7 road miles and 1.9 railroad miles (3.0 miles/square mile), with 0.96 road miles

being coincident. 27% of the stream length is within 210 feet of a road, and the mainstem is crossed at

least three times.


Whiskey Creek Subwatershed - 27,864 acres


The Water Improvement Needs (WIN) Inventory does not include any sites in this area. Water rights

are recorded with OWRD for seven privately held permits, totaling 28.92 cfs for irrigation and

irrigation/stock uses.


Whiskey Creek

Longitudinal Profile & Gradient

5400

5200

4-J

° 5000

LL

c 4800

c 4600

iv 4400

ID 4200

4000

3800

.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

: . .. H3 ................ E.., ............

. . . ... . . . . I . . ... . .


..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . - .------. . . ------- --t


. ~~~~~~~~~~~' e Rae/

. .... ............. .... ... ... ... - -

.. .... ..... .............. IS..........

..., ..................

50


40

30 c

. . ,

20 o

10

0

Only the headxvaters lie in the \Vinenma

National Forest - 8% of the entire

watershed. There are 60 stream miles

(1.37 miles/square mile). 1 106 acres

(4% the area) are classified as riparian.

There are 138 road miles and 11

railroad miles (3.2 miles/square mile)

in the drainage. Of these, 4.7 miles are

coincident. 14% of the stream length

falls within 210 feet of a road, and the

mainstem is crossed at least seven

times.


The downstream portions of this

watershed are on non-forest land or on

the Fremont National Forest.

Hydrologists and Fisheries Biologists

on the Fremont N. F. were unable to

provide information on this watershed.

Whiskey Creek converges with the

Sprague River at rivermile 62.

0 20000 40000

Length in Feet

60000

Historic flow information is available on this subwatershed from OWRD. A Miscellaneous Flows

request resulted in 29 measured discharges dating back to 1915. Whiskey Creek was measured at

various locations near Beatty. Flows ranged from 1.17 cfs in September, 1981 to 19.2 cfs in May, 1925.

Due to the various locations and the limited number of flows measured (along with extensive diversion

of water in the area), analysis of trends is not possible with this data.


ODDZ Subwatershed - 21,292 acres


There is no flow information available on this subwatershed. The WIN Inventory does not include any

sites in this area There are several private water rights recorded with the OWRD for ground water and

surface water from the Sprague River.


This area is a compilation of three orphan subdivisions along the Sprague River containing 75 stream

miles (2.26 miles/square mile). Less than 1% lies within the Winema National Forest, and only 2 acres

are classified as riparian. 92% of the area has a slope of less than 10%. There are 71 road miles and 4

railroad miles (2.1 miles/square mile), with 1.2 miles being coincident with railroad grade. 10% of the

stream length falls within 210 feet of a road.


Appendix E. Notes from Leiberg

P 229

The X olcanic character of the ridges * hich intersect the Klamath drainage basin is this region has

already been-alluded to. Some of these ndges have been built up around volcanic vents, others are

irregular masses whose orgin perhaps is to be sought in earth fissures. The entire basin seems originaliv

to have been a plateau area. The lava outflows inclosed many flats, which in time became lakes. Most

of these lakes have been drained by their waters cutting channels through the lava dams. Others are in

various stages from marches to shallow lakes.


P 230

The plain or depression which stretches along the base of the Cascades in this region is comparatively

narrow, varying from 10 to 15 miles in width. It consists of two distinct terraces, a northern and a

southern, the former elevated about 400 feet above the latter. The terraces connect through the valleys

of Williamson and Sprague rivers with .the terrace or plain which borders the central areas of the

Sprague River.


The upper terrace is separated from the lower by a broad, thick lava flow, which stretches from

northwest to southeast, and possibly may have come from Mount Scott or adjacent craters. The lava

flow created a large lake, of which all that remains is Klamath Marsh, most of its area having been

drained by the Williamson River cutting a canyon through the lava flow at a point 8 miles east of Fort

Klamath. The upper terrace stretches northward to the Klamath-Deschutes divide. Eastward it extends

to the foot of the Yamsay Range, which it follows southward along the western base to the head of

Williamson River.

The pumice covering both on the upper and on the lower of these terraces was deposited when they

were deeply covered with water. The present smoothness of their surface, only roughened by ancient

beach lines along high levels and by the courses of modern streams, proves (sic) this. Some of the

pumice appears to have been thrown out as fine particles. Much of it came as large, coarse fragments or

bowiders (sic) a foot or more in diameter.

The Sycan terrace is situated east of the Yamsay Range and has an elevation of 5,000 feet. It likewise

was a lake in past geologic times. It was formed by a lava flow which came from a crater, now extinct.

Situated in the Fuego Range, Sycan River has cut through the obstruction, the lake has been drained,

and a swampy tract known as Sycan Marsh now remains.

P.231

The higher points in the region show marks of light glaciation, but the terraces and flats show no clear

evidences of the scoring or wearing effects of ice. Here, as in the Cascades, the smoothness of the

pumice deposits proves either that glaciation preceded their deposition or that the region has not at any

time been subject to the action of ice.

P.234

... With the exception of the tracts.... none of the areas at the immediate base of the Cascade can now be

considered as truly semiarid, But the region comprised within the limits of the Klamath Marsh terrace

shows decided tendencies in that direction. The leaning toward semiarid conditions is there shown by

deficient reforestation of burned tracts in the lodgepole pine stands, and the evident tendency of such

places to become covered with a growth of desert shrubs or grasses in place of the former forest.

P. 238

It w ill be noticed that the yellow pine easily ranks above all of the other species either singly or

combined. The reason for this lies chiefly in the smaller annual precipitation on the subhumid areas of



the westem slope The large proportion of lodgepole pine is chietl% due to forest fires At least 90 per

cent of the species oases its growth to this cause The remainder occurs as the first forest cosering on

areas graduallk being laid bare along margins of marshes and lakes bs the lo%%enng of their %%aters

P 246

Yellow Pine Type

east of the range it sometimes runs pure to the extent of 99 per cent. Generally it is more or less

mixed with varying percentages of white and red fir, incense cedar and sugar and lodgepole pine. When

the forest contains %ellow pine to the extent of 50 per cent, it is here considered as belonging to the

yellow-pine type. The largest admixture of other species in the examples quoted above consists of

lodrepole pine This growth here represents thin stands around marshy places or fringes along creeks

and seepy spots where the soil humidity is too high for a yellow-pine growth.


P 248

The aspect of the type is that of an open forest.with a minimum of undergrowth and seedling or sapling

growth. -The forest on the eastern side of the Cascades is more conspicuous in this respect than the

forest on the western, owing to less variety in the frutescent flora of the former and, in general, to a

smaller precipitation. But the open character of the yellow-pine type of forest anywhere in the region

examined is due to frequently repeated forest fires more than to any other cause.

P.249

The forest floor in the type is covered with a thin layer of humus, consisting entirely of decaying pine

needles, or it is entirely bare. The latter condition is very prevalent east of the Cascades, where large

areas are annually overrun by fire. But even on the western side the range, where the humus covering is

most conspicuous, it is never more than a fraction of an inch in thickness, just enough to supply the

requisite material for the spread of forest fires.

Freedom from fires insures a good and abundant reproduction the forest type, whether east or west of

the range. East of the Cascades, its area is steadily increasing at the expense of tracts covered by the

lodgepole pine. The process is slow, owing to fires. Were they kept down most of the lodgepole-pine

area on high ground would give way to pure or nearly pure growths of yellow pine.

Yellow-pine subtypes

The subtype referred to formed by pure or nearly pure growths of lodgepole pine. It might well be

named the lodgepole-pine subtype. It occurs under two aspects, First in the contorta form of the

species; secondly, in the murryana form. The aspect of the contorta form is that a dense masses of

small, scraggy, limby trees forming a thick fringe along edges of marshes, creeks, or springy localities,

or covering low, level areas, occurring in every case where the ratio of soil ( p.250) humidity is too

high to permit the growth of any other coniferous species indigenous to the region. The aspect of the

murrayana form in its ultimate development, is that of close or moderately open stands of tall, straight,

slender trees covering well-drained uplands. This form of the subtype is in every case a reforestation

after fires, in this region after stands of yellow pine. Between the two forms there are many gradations.

The characteristic feature of the subtype is its habit of forming pure growths. In this respect it stands

preeminent among the coniferous species which make up the sylva west of the.. The most conspicuous

examples occur in Ts. 30 and 31 S., Rs 7 and 8 E., where lodgepole-pine stands cover 40,000 acres out

of a total of 48,000 forested, with a growth that averages 99 per cent pure.

P.274

The age of the timber utilized in sawmill consumption varies from 100 to 350 years. Most of the yellow

pine falls below 175 years; the higher limit is reached chiefly in the sugar pine.

P 278

The largest bums directlN chargeable to the Indian occupancy are in Ts S0 and 3 IS . Rs 8 and 9 E In

addition to being the largest they are likewise the most ancient. The bums cover upward to 60.000

acres, all but 1,000 or 1.100 acres being in a solid block. This tract appears to have been systematically

burned bv the Indians during the past three centuries. Remains of three forests are distinctly traceable in

the charred fragments of timber which here and there little the ground. T%%o of these were composed of

lodgepole pine, The most ancient one appears to have consisted of vellow pine, which would be the

ultimate forest growth on this area following a long period of freedom from fire

P 288

A noticeable feature in connection with the after-effects of forest fires in the yellow-pine type of forest

is the suppression of undergrowth and of seedling trees. The yellow pine is by all odds the best fire-

resisting tree in the sylva of the North Pacific slope. Repeated conflagrations may run through stands of

the yellow-pine.type with-out serious damage to the older trees of this species, provided that litter and

humus be not to great. 'But the fires; even should they be of no great force or intensity, work irreparable

injury to the seedling trees. On the eastern side of the Cascades, especially. fires have run through the

yellow-pine timber many times. The absence or relative scarcity of young growth and underbrush is here

very noticeable and striking. Much of the region examined east of the Cascades is included within the

boundaries of the Klamath Indian Reservation, and the red man has therefore been under no particular

restraint in the matter of burning his timber. In late years it seems to have dawned on his intelligence

that good yellow pine may have some value after all, and in consequence fires are set much less

frequently than formerly, with the result that where the forest has enjoyed freedom from fire for a

number of years seedling and sapling trees of the yellow pine are springing up in the greatest

abundance.

P.290

Humus, as applied to a layer of decaying vegetable debris on the forest floor, is not, as a rule, of any

great depth in the forests of these regions. In stands of the yellow-pine type it is a mere thin sprinkling

of pine needles. ... To the light humus layer and the small quantity of litter, more than to any other

cause, is due the preservation of the forest from total destruct on those areas.... It is not due to lack of

fires that any timber remains. ..the yellow pine, both as an individual and as a species stands at the head

of the list.. A fire in stands of this species runs rapidly, bums low, and with not great intensity owing to

the extremely light humus cover. So long as the thick bark, which is a characteristic feature of the

species, remains intact, the tree is tolerably safe, but sooner or later, either through the effects of

repeated fires or through some accidental injury opening the bark and cursing an exudation of resin, fire

finds its way into the trunk and produces a fire sear or scar. Each subsequent fire enlarges the burned

spot until the tree finally succumbs....The custom of the Indians of peeling the yellow pine at certain

seasons of the year to obtain the cambium layer which they use for food, is in some localities a fruitful

contributory cause toward destruction of the yellow pine by fire. They do not carry the peeling process

far enough to girdle the tree, but they remove a large enough piece of bark to make a gaping would

which never heals over and which furnished an excellent entrance for fire. Throughout the forest on the

Klamath Reservation trees barked in this manner are very common. Along the eastern margin of

Klamath Marsh they are found by the thousands

(The report then describes surveyed areas by townships. Townships 29-9 and 10 - Mosquito area were

not surveyed. Due to the general similarity of the areas, excepts from surrounding townships thought to

be applicable to Mosquito are included here.)

P.321

30-9

This township is situated west of the Cascades and consists chiefly of tule and sedge-covered areas


beloneinri to Klamath Marsh The extreme eastern areas are formed bN a projecting spur of lawa and

bear the forest Soil is uniforml% a pumice deposit


All of the timber in the township is fire marked. Result of fires is the suppression of young growth, fire

scarring of the older. with twisting and bending of the smaller trunck. There is little brush growth

throughout. There is not humus. the foerst floor being bare, sharp, pumice sand.

Mill timber is easy of access, but poor in quality, and mostly of small dimensions.


P 322

30-10

This township is situated east of the Cascades. Its northern portion consists of grassy, non-forested

bottom lands bordenng the Williamson River, while the southern areas are formed of low lava hills, as a

rule, deeply covered by.a fine pumice deposit

The forest in the township is fire marked throughout. In late years there has been fewer fires than

formerly and the young growth, formerly mostly suppressed, is asserting itself everywhere. The young

growth-is yellow pine with a few scattered. individuals of white fir. The lodgepole pine is found along-

the swales of the Williamson River bottoms.

Mill timber is very good in quality, being largely composed of standards and veterans with fair, clear

trunks. It is easy of access from the Williamson River bottoms and forms, as a whole, a valuable stand

of timber.


Appendix F. Excerpts From Munger

The following excerpts are from -Western Yellow Pine in Oregon", Thornton T. Munger, USDA

Bulletin No. 418, Februarv 6. 1917


p 17

In most of the pure yellos%-pine forests of the State the trees are spaced rather sidel . the ground fairly

free from underbrush and debris And travel through them on foot or horseback is interrupted only b\

occasional patches of saplings and fallen trees. The forests are usually not solid and continuous for

great distances, except along the eastern base of the Cascades, but are broken by treeless "scab-rock

ridges", or natural meadows.

P.18

Yellow-pine grows commonly in many-aged stands, i.e., trees of all ages from seedlings to 500-year-old-

veterans. with every age gradation between, are found in intimate mixture. In some stands there is a

preponderance of very old trees, in fact. in many of the-virgin stands of central and eastern Oregon there

are more of the very old trees and less of the younger than the ideal forest should contain. Usually trio

or three or more trees of a certain age are found in a

p19

small group by themselves, the reason being that a group of many young trees usually starts in the gap

which a large one makes when it dies. In the virgin stands throughout the State there seems to be a very

large proportion of trees whose age is about 225 or 275 years, suggesting that after this age their

mortality is greater.

P20

In pure, fully stocked stands in the Blue Mountains region there are commonly from 20 to 30 yellow

pines per acre over 12 inches in diameter, of which but few are over 30 inches. Over large areas the

average number per acre is ordinarily less than 20.

P21.

Yellow-pine forests are so irregular in density that figures for the average stand per acre or per quarter

section are apt to be misleading.

P.23

Because of the wide range of conditions under which it grows the rate of growth of yellow pine is

exceedingly variable, perhaps rather more so than that of most species....

Broadly speaking, during its first 10 or 15 years yellow pine grows very slowly; then follows a period of

75 or 100 years in which both diameter and height growth are rapid, exceptionally thrifty trees making

an increase of one-half inch in diameter and 2 feet in height in one year. By its one hundred and fiftieth

year the height increment has fallen off very much, the trees has nearly reached its mature height, and

thereafter grows but a foot or two each decade. Diameter growth also decreases after the first century of

life, the rings become narrower and narrower with age, and on very old trees, or those that have been

suppressed, they are so fine as to be hardly distinguishable except with a magnifying glass. It is usual,

therefore, for the annual rings to be broad and well defined in young trees

p24

and at the center of old ones, but narrow in the exterior rims of old trees, sometimes 90 to an inch of

radius.

Yellow pine is a long-lived tree. The oldest encountered in the analysis of 4,997 stumps in eastern and

central Oregon was in its six hundred and eight-seventh year when cut for lumber.


P31.

In the yellow-pine forests of Oregon (except those on both slopes of the Cascades south of Crater Lake

and those on the Siskiyou Mountains in southern Oregon and on some of the pumice-stone land towards



the head of the Deschutes Ri',er) the trees are so open-grown and the \koods are so free of underbrush

that a good herbaceous '.egetation suitable for forage spnngs up each vear. The character of the

'.egetation depends upon the region. but it usualk consists in part of a '%anemr of grasses and in part of

..%eeds" (annual flov~ering plants).


Appendix G. 1920 Cruise Volume Distribution Mlaps


1920 - Less than 5MBF

J 920& CVzs * Volan 4 areas less then S MBFTAC


this is ceat cLuatd on a per a ecuon basis wihoLi rFedLacUon for

ron-for-ni lari. (ha m thod of CalculeUon should moom clo ely

corr-eat * wstih f6SR trew cover typo clan, ea due to road.

landingys etc. b6i-Owilladaintmate-oktnn ections

; 1 I with Jerg _ thwn avreo an"motAds of nonforet

k- { bai

5-IOM3F

.--9\ 1f.K __ a

this is cal C ta*d CC 012 OrpAn OCtp basis withOLd reduction for

nona-forest lab this mellsdofcakidationshosdd moar clasely

conlet e withi PR Ir-e cover type clans en dueto roads,

landngrs etc, btg wit rnaenUmatevoltzne In zectior.

with aeg ar than evrag * amro .s of non-fotrst

lend


S 1920- Cruise Volume. *raec-between 5 and 10 MBFJ c

i .


10- I NSBF

UIA is ca cLiatod on a p_ zctton bcrn xithout r dAt to

nonoestt Je~ this mod)f-d of calccation aJ=tdd mo.r &Co.jy

:coer ia- _tih F4R fre. cower typ oclassed du. go roads.

, jX-i' rene~~~~~~~~~~la62S t9c but *W UI&ttnr*! nt* Vof-n* i Scftio

wuh l^ or Own oenvog awnouns ofrjns-AbroAt

1   ...   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14

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