Chiiloquin ranger district

НазваниеChiiloquin ranger district
Размер2.84 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   14
What does the soil currently produce? How does this differ from the reference period?

Timber harvest and grazing have tended to reduce soil productivity as a result of soil compaction. Fire

exclusion has been purported to increase productivity, specifically tree diameter growth, due to

(assumed) increases in the L, F, and 0 horizons of the forest floor (and associated microbial nutrient

mineralization). However, there is also evidence displaying increases in soil productivity due to fire


The fire-soil productivity controversy cannot be resolved without further research. We do know that fire

exclusion leads to changes in stand replacement event frequency (See Chapter III, Stand Replacement

Frequency). Increased stand replacement frequency certainly offsets any soil productivity gains that

might have accrued through fire exclusion.

Current forest conditions influence soil productivity through gradual accumulation of ecosystem nutrients

in organic form. Most organic residues are deposited much faster than they decompose in the cold, dry

climate of the Klamath Basin. Some organic forms of nutrients take literally thousands of years to

decompose without fire. Under reference era fire regimes, organic residues were mineralized on a regular

basis by frequent, low intensity/severity wildfire. Most of the overstory remained alive and capable of

utilizing this natural flush of nutrients. Currently, the high intensity/severity wildfires mineralize nutrients

in much larger quantities and kill most of the overstory in the process. Much of the available nutrients are

then lost to the ecosystem from volatilization and leaching before revegetation can utilize them.

Management activities that compact the soil beyond threshold levels tend to cause reduced productivity.

Heavy equipment operations, as well as grazing, have been identified as causes of compaction which

result in reduced productivity. Examples of the expected reduction in growth on compacted soils in SOS

are not readily apparent. More research is needed in this area.

Except for the Badlands and Devils Garden, multiple harvest entries have occurred on nearly every acre

of SOS (see Appendix M, Summary of Harvest Related Activities from Available Information). Most of

the soils in SOS are easily compacted, and though compaction surveys have not been done, the belief is

that most of the soils in SOS are compacted to some degree. Studies in other areas with similar soils

have shown reduced soil productivity due to compaction. The extent of reduced productivity in SOS,

and how much of the compaction is actually detrimental, is unknown.

Soil productivity declines have a tendency to favor weedy species (many of them exotics) such as bull

thistle and cheatgrass. Without intervention, these species tend to sequester more and more ecosystem

resources at the expense of many of the other species. Soil compaction and lack of fire discriminates

against grasses and forbs, especially annuals. This results in less on-site competition for conifers, leading

to the assumption that increased conifer growth rates display increased soil productivity.

B. Can a change in productivity (fertility?) be attributed to management activities?

It is currently unknown whether present compaction in SOS soils is detrimental, or how long it persists.

Ripping and subsoiling are mitigation measures that have shown effectiveness in some locations.

However, one must recognize that avoiding or limiting the extent of compaction are the best alternatives

for conserving soil productivity.

SOS Watershed Assessment 39

C. Has localized soil loss, such as has occurred in the near bank area of some riparian areas,

resulted in a reduction in productivity?

Localized soil loss from stream banks causes a definite loss in productivity on those specific lands.

Assuming that four feet of bank width has been lost (a generous estimate) along every mile of existing

channel in SOS, the area lost to riparian vegetation would be approximately 160 acres out of a total

estimated riparian acreage of nearly 6,500. Along sections of channel that have down cut and

abandonded their flood plain, riparian vegetation width has been reduced 5-20 feet, and dry land species

have moved in to occupy the area. Soil loss in upland areas has not been quantified, and there have been

no local attempts to determine any effect this loss may have on the productivity of these lands.

SOS Watershed Assessment 40


7. How does the cost of maintaining high stocking levels in conifer stands differ from

the cost of maintaining historic stocking levels in those stands?

A. Is the conifer stocking level higher now than in the reference period? If so, to what extent is

stocking higher?

Stands are dynamic, and grow within a range of stocking levels. This question can only be answered with

a combination of historic and current references, data, and professional judgment as to the actual range of

stocking levels involved.

Reference fir type

These stands followed a stand replacement scenario, carrying relatively high stocking levels and volumes

(1920 cruise). These stands have always developed to a conifer dominated climax stand condition that

was limited by insects, disease, fire, or a combination of same. The overall conifer stocking is probably

not significantly higher now than it was in the past.

Fire suppression might reduce the amount of this type that is in a seral condition, however the 1920

cruise showed all of the type in a climax condition.

Reference Ponderosa pine type

This type includes much of the current mixed conifer type. Previously, approximately 90% of the

watershed was maintained in this type (excluding stand replacement fires and young plantations in


Current stocking ranges from 2-7 times higher than reference stands. The highest percent

increase is present only on the higher elevation/higher moisture regime sites. A 2-3 fold increase in

stocking is common for most stands which have had some recent partial cut activity, but not clearcut.

For approximately 5% of the acres, (stand replacement fire and up to 15 year old clearcuts), conifer

stocking is less than most of the reference period. The reference period showed evidence of 1-2% of the

acres in a stand replacement situation. Within ten years or less, the stocking on these acres will be

equivalent to or exceed the reference period. The size and structure of the stands is totally different, with

far more stems per acre than reference stands, and the saplings and poles are much smaller.

B. Has biodiversity been reduced as a result of higher conifer and brush stocking levels?

Biodiversity is the term used to describe the variety of all living organisms on the earth. It encompasses

at least three levels of biological organization: Genetic (individual), species, and ecosystem. Species

diversity is assessed by distribution and abundance across the landscape.

The most common factor within the analysis area is continual disturbance through human activities such

as timber harvesting, grazing, non-native plant introduction (musk thistle, noxious weed; cheatgrass,

exotic plant), road construction, mineral extraction (rock and cinder pits), and fire suppression activities.

Various plant communities are at stages where major fire events are imminent. Mid-sized fires have

occurred recently (1980 Cherry Peak fire, 2000 acres; 1987 Cowboy Fire, 4000 acres). Following these

fires, salvage logging, reforestation, road construction, and other associated activities have taken place.

This has changed the structure and composition of plant communities, and consequently the distribution

of animal species using these areas.

SOS Watershed Assessment 41

Conifer and brush stocking levels have increased over time with fire suppression. This increased

stocking, along with less open-grown old growth across the landscape and a general lowering of water

tables in the analysis area, has affected timing and quantity of water flows. This has decreased the

wetland shrub component, in turn decreasing the diversity of native plants that grow in such areas,

altering their usability by wildlife.

Plant communities prior to 1900 were composed of more fire climax species. Plants that were capable of

resprouting, regenerating, and/or fire resistant tended to dominate the landscape. Ross's sedge, mountain

brome, red fescue, Balsamroot, waterleaf, needlegrass, birchleaf and true mahogany, ponderosa pine,

ceanothus, manzanita, aspen, cottonwood, alder, and willow were present at different water zones,

elevations, aspects, and slopes. These plant species are present today, but except for ponderosa pine, are

at reduced densities, primarily due to fire suppression.

Fire suppression and management activities, along with lowered. water tables, have resulted in the

establishment of more white fir, bitterbrush, curlleaf mountain mahogany, big sagebrush, low sagebrush,

rabbitbrush, musk thistle, bull thistle, and introduced grasses (pubescent wheatgrass, orchard grass, and

smooth brome). This has occurred in Crystal (207), Copperfield (2081), Dockney (208H), Rock Creek

(Orphan), and Whiskey Creek (Orphan) subsheds. Native species dependent on lentic environments are

not as prevalent as they were prior to increased brush and conifer stocking levels:

Historic ponderosa pine tree cover was less than 50%.

plants dependent on fire to maintain their presence are currently at lower densities.

Habitat changes have resulted in more generalist (species whose requirements are not specific to one

habitat) and exotic wildlife dominating the available habitats today. Species which focus on areas of

higher conifer plant densities and upland brush are more prominent ( mule deer, elk antelope, flickers,

starlings, house sparrows, etc). Interior forest species such as goshawks, American marten, and

whiteheaded and pileated woodpeckers occur in only minor amounts within the SOS area. Chinook

salmon, bull trout, fisher, California wolverine, and the western pond turtle are not present today.

Beaver, red-band rainbow trout, waterfowl, amphibians, and neotropical birds dependent on hardwood

communities are present, but at lower populations than in the reference period. Historic accounts

regarding the fire regime, as well as occurrence of cottonwoods, aspen, and alder indicate there were

more areas available for these species historically (see Appendix L, Occurrence).

No stream or drainage within the analysis area has been exempt from man's activities. The most obvious

signs are both current and past road systems and, together with other activities, their combined effects on

drainages and riparian communities. Mule deer are the primary focus species in the analysis area, but

Bald Eagles and some other late seral dependent species also receive attention. Overall, management

approach has focused on improving habitat through timber harvesting and improvement projects. These

projects include forage seeding, water developments, and underburning.

Effects of roads have not been corrected. Roads continue be the major source of accelerated runoff,

resulting in lower water tables, slowly reducing the overall extent of riparian communities. This in turn

has reduced the abundance and distribution of riparian plant and animal species. Specific examples

include roads 5813210 and 5813360 in Copperfield Draw; 5810 and other roads that intersect Crystal

Castle Drainage; 1119226 on Dams Meadow and Rock Creek; 5850 and 2228500 on Trout Creek; and

4083 on Whiskey Creek (see Appendix N, Ro 4d Treatment Recommendations).

SOS Watershed Assessment 42

For the reasons stated above, biodiversity has changed within the area, along with the number and

diversity of species. There are probably more plants and animals today, but due to the cumulative effects

of management, both outside and inside the analysis area, there is less abundance of riparian obligate and

fire climax species. Those species dependent on fire are not as well-distributed across the landscape, but

are still present. The extent and frequency of occurrence are not quantified at this time, and the time

frames for this assessment do not allow for such information to be gathered; so this is an assumption

based on limited field and site visits.

Whether one feels that biodiversity has been reduced depends on perspective. If one includes all species

(general habitat users and occupiers along with introduced exotic species), the answer is probably no.

If one looks at historic ranges of both native plants and animals dependent on fire and higher water tables

(and less human manipulation), the answer is probably yes.

Other Factors to Consider:

Some determination of biodiversity change may be made by breaking down the communities present

during different time periods (pre-1900, 1900 to present), and then determining the total acres of

disturbance caused by human management activities for each time frame. Those areas not substantially

influenced by human activities may then be used for comparison to determine the extent of biodiversity

loss or gain within the areas being analyzed.

If biodiversity changes, does that equate to loss?

If connectivity between communities is changed, does that equal loss?

Another method for determining change in biodiversity is to derive the total miles (or meters) of

community edges created by man's activities. These activities tend to create more habitat for species

which utilize such areas (edge), such as mule deer, elk, antelope, flickers, starlings, bullfrogs, and house

sparrows; and less habitat for interior forest species such as goshawks, America marten, and whiteheaded

and pileated woodpeckers.

This leads to several other questions:

How much edge habitat was in the analysis area prior to 1900?

How much has been created since then?

Are interior forest patches isolated?

Does this equate to conifer/brush stocking levels?

How do conifer/brush stocking levels fit into the edge measurements, or is there any correlation?

One hypothesis to consider is that biodiversity has been influenced more in areas closer to water than

areas more removed. This may prove to be valid assumption for the period up until the early 1950's.

SOS Watershed Assessment 43

Appendix A. Bibliography

Agee, J K 1993 Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests Island Press, Washington, DC 493 P

Aikens, C M 1986 Archaeology of Oregon USD1 Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office,

portland, OR. 302 p.

-khlgren, I F and C E Ahlgren. 1960 Ecological Effects of Forest Fires. Botanical Review 26.483-533

.AhgrenI F, and C.E. Ahlgren. 1965. Ecology of prescribed burning on soil microorganisms in a Minnesota

jack pine forest. Ecology 46:304-3 10.

Antevs, E. 1938. Rainfall and tree growth in the Great Basin. Carnegie Instn. of Wash., Publ. 469, Am.

Geogr. Soc. , Spec. Publ. 21. New York.

Bettinger, K. 1994: Unpublished report. Data summary for 1994 neotropical migrant bird survey of the

Winema and Fremont National Forests. On file at Chemult Ranger District.

Bissett, J., and D. Parkinson. 1980. Long-term effects of fire on the composition and activity of the soil

microflora of a subalpine, coniferous forest. Canadian Journal of Botany 58:1704-1721.

Bohn, C.C. and J.C. Bunkhouse. 1986. Effects of Grazing Management on Streambanks. Trans. N. Am.

Wild. Nat. Resour. Conf.; 51:265-271

Bohn, C.C. 1986. Biological Importance of Streambank Stability. Rangelands 8(2). P. 55-56

Borchers, J.G., and D.A. Perry. 1990. Effects of prescribed fire on soil organisms. In: Walstad, J.D. [and

others] eds., Natural and prescribed fire in Pacific Northwest forests. Oregon State University Press: 143-


Bork, Joyce. 1984. Fire history in three vegetation types on the east side of the Oregon Cascades. Ph.. D.

dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Boyer, D.E., and J.D. Dell. 1980. Fire Effects on Pacific Northwest Soils. USDA Forest Service, Pacific

Northwest Region (R-6). Portland, OR. 59 p.

Brooks, K.W., P.F. Folliott, H. M. Gregersen and J.L. Thames. 1993. Hydrology and the Management of

Watersheds. University of Iowa Press, Ames, Iowa. 392 P.

Bryant, L.D. 1979. Livestock Management in the Riparian Ecosystem. P. 285-289. In: Riparian Ecosystems

and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Proceedings from the Symposium. USDA Forest

Service General Technical Report RM-120.

Carlson, Garwin. 1979. Soil Resource Inventory Winema National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Pacific

Northwest Region, Winema National Forest, Klamath Falls, Oregon. pp. 156, 227.

Chandler, C., P. Cheney, P. Thomas, L. Trabaud, and D. Williams. 1983. Fire in forestry, volume I: Forest

fire behavior and effects. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 450 p.

Chapman, D.W. and RL. Demory. 1963. Seasonal Changes in the Food Ingested by Aquatic Insect Larvae

and Nymphs in Two Oregon streams. Ecology, Vol. 44. No. I P.140-146.


Clark, Bob 1994 Soils. \ ater. and Watersheds In Fire Effects Guide NWCG PMS 481 Edited bvy elanme


Clarv. W' P and B F Webster 1990 Ripafian Grazng Guidelines for the Intermountain Region Rangelands

' (4), P 09-212

Cochran, P H and W E Hopkins 1990 Does Fire Exclusion Increase Productivity of Ponderosa Pine" In

Management and Producti'viry of Western Montane Forest Soils: Proceedings of the Symposium University

of Idaho, Boise, ID

Coville, Frederick V, 1898, Forest Growth and Sheep Grazing in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon; USDA

Bulletin No 15

Covington, W W, and S.S. Sackett. 1990. Fire effects on ponderosa pine soils and.their management

implications In Krammes, J S. ed', Effects of fire management of southwestern natural resources USDA

Forest Service Gen Tech Rep RM- 191. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins,

CO pp 105-111

Daubenmire, R. 1968. Plant Communities; A Textbook of Plant Syecology. Harper and Row, Publishers,

New York. 300 P.

Davis, O.D. 1982. Bits and pieces: the last 35,000 years in the Lahontan area. Soc. Amer. Arch. SAA Pap.

No. 2. p. 53-75.

Debyle, Norbert V. and Robert P. Winokur, editors. 1985. Aspen: Ecology and Management in the Westem

United States. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-I 19. GPO, Washington, D.C.

Dieter, C.D. and T.R. Mccabe. 1989. Habitat Use by Beaver Along the Big Sioux River in Eastern South

Dakota. In: Practical Approaches to Riparian Resource Management: Proceedings of the Symposium.

American Fisheries Society.

Dunne, T., and L.B. Leopold. 1978. Water in Environmental Planning. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman Co

Dymness, C.T., & Youngberg, C.T., 1966, Soil-Vegetation Relationships within the Ponderosa Pine Type in

the Central Oregon Pumice Region, Ecology, Vol. 47, No. I

Eglitis, A. 1994. USDA R6 Ecologist. Personal communication with K. Johnson.

Forristal, F.F., and S.P. Gessel. 1955. Soil properties related to forest cover types and productivity on the

Lee Forest, Snohomish County, Washington. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 19: 364-382.

Franklin, J. F. And C.T. Dymess. 1973. Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Oregon State

University Press. Corvallis, Oregon.

Frazier, B. 1994. Winema National Forest. Personal communication with J.Frederick.

Fuller, W.H, S.Shannon, and P.S. Burgess. 1955. Effect of burning on certain forest soils of northern

Arizona. Forest Science 1 :44-50.

Gecy, J.L. and M.V. Wilson. 1990. Initial Establishment of Riparian Vegetation After Disturbance by Debris

Flows in Oregon. Am. Midl. Nat. 123:282-91

GhIl. N1 and R Vautpard 1991 Interdecadal oscillations and the armaing trend in global temperature time

series Nature 350 324-327

Gifford, G F and R H Hawkins 1976 Grazing Systems and Watershed Management: A Look at the Record

J Soil Water Conserv, 31(6):281-283

Gordon. N D. T A McMahon and B.L. Finlayson. 1992 Stream Hydrology: An Introduction for Ecologists.

John Wiley and Sons, New York. 526 P.

Gregory, S V, F J Swanson, A., McKee and K.W. Cummins. 1991. Ecosystem Perspectives of Riparian

Zones. Bioscience 41.540-551.

Groeneveld, D.P. and T.E Griepentrog. 1985. Interdependence of Groundwater, Riparian Vegetation, and

Strearnbank Stability: A Case Study. In: Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting

Uses. Proceedings of the first American Riparian Conference, Tucson, Az.

Grier, C.C. 1975. Wildfire effects on nutrient distribution and leaching in a coniferous ecosystem. Can. J. of

For. Res.-:599-607.

Hackley, P.R. 1989. Riparian Vegetation, Streambank Stability and Land Use in the Salmon River Drainage,

Idaho. -in: Practical Approaches to Riparian Resource Management: Proceedings of the Symposium.

American Fisheries Society.

Harvey, A.E.,J.M. Geist, G.I. McDonald, M.F. Jurgensen, P.H. Cochran, D. Zabowski, and R.T. Meurisse.

1994. Biotic and abiotic processes of Eastside Ecosystems: The effects of management on soil and properties,

processes, and productivity. Gen Tech Rep. PNW GTR-323. Portland, OR- USDA Forest Service, Pacific

Northwest Research Station. 71 p.

Harvey, A.E.,J.M. Geist, G.I. McDonald, M.F. Jurgensen, P.H. Cochran, D. Zabowski, and R.T. Meurisse.

1994. Biotic and abiotic processes of Eastside Ecosystems: The effects of management on soil and properties,

processes, and productivity. Gen Tech Rep. PNW GTR-323. Portland, OR- USDA Forest Service, Pacific

Northwest Research Station. 71 p.

HarveyA.E., M.F.Jurgensen and M.J. Larsen. 1976. Intensive fiber utilization and prescribed fire: effects

on the microbial ecology of forests. USDA Forest Service GTR INT-28. Intermountain Forest and Range

Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 46 p.

Hayes, F.A. 1978. Streambank and Meadow Condition in Relation to Livestock Grazing in Mountain

Meadows of Central Idaho. M.S. Thesis, University of Idaho.

Hayes, Marc P. and Mark R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of Ranid Frog Species in Western North America: Are

Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) Responsible? Journal of Herpetology: 20(4), 490-509.

Helns, J.A., and C. Hipkins 1986. Effects of soil compaction on tree volume in a California ponderosa pine

plantation. USDA For. Serv. Pacific Southwest Region. 4pp.

Holcheck, J.L. 1983. Considerations Concerning Grazing Systems. Rangelands; 5(5):208-211

Hovingh, Peter. 1988. Aquatic Habitats, Life History Observations and Zoogeographic Considerations of

the Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) In Tule Valley, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 53(2), 168-179.

Hupp, C.R. 1992. Riparian Vegetation Recovery Patterns Following Stream Channelization: A Geomorphic

Perspective. Ecology V73. P.1209-26.

Jalaluddin. N1 1968 \ficro-organic colonization of forest soil afler burning. Plant and Soi lXX no I l O-

I 5

Jean, C 1995 Preliminary Findings of the Eastslope Cascades Vascular Plant Panel Unpublished report

prepared for the Eastside Environmental Impact Statement On file at the Chiloquin Ranger District, USFS

Jean, C 1995 Chiloquin Ranger District Personal communication with J. Frederick.

Johnson, C G, R R Causnitzer, P J Mehringer, C D Oliver. 1994 Biotic and abiotic processes of eastside

ecosystems The effects of management on plant and community ecology, and on stand and landscape

vegetation dynamics. Gen. Tech. rep. PNW-GTR-322. Portland, OR, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest

Research Station. 66 p.

Junk, W J ,P B Bayley and R.E. Sparks. 1989.. The Flood Pulse Concept in River-Floodplain Systems.

In. Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquatic. Sci.

Kauffman, J B., K.M. Till, and R.W. Shea. 199X. The Biogeochemistry of Deforestation and Biomass

Burning. In: Durrette,D.B., and R O'Brien. The Science of Global Change: Environmental Impacts of Human

Activity. American Chemical Society. Washington, D.C. (in press].

Kauffman, J B., W.C. Krueger and M. Vavra. 1993. Impacts of Cattle on Streambanks in North-eastern

Oregon. J. Range. Mgt. 36(6) P. 683-685

1983b. Effects of Late Season Cattle Grazing on Riparian Plant Communities. J. Rnge. Mgt

36(6) P. 685-691

Kauffman, J.B. and W.C. Krueger. 1984. Livestock Impacts on Riparian Ecosystems and Streamside

Management Implications... A Review. J. Rnge. Mgt. 37(5). P.430-437.

Kilgore, Bnice M. 1981. Fire in ecosystem distribution and structure: western forests and scrublands, In: Fire

regimes and ecosystems properties. H. A. Mooney, et. al. (Tech. Coord.). USDA General Technical Report

WO-26. Washington, D.C. pp. 58-89.

KimminsJ.P. 1987. Forest Ecology. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY. 531 p.

Knight, R.W. 1978. Streamside Erosional Response to Animal Grazing Practices on Meadow Creek in

Northeast Oregon. Masters Thesis, Oregon State University.

Knopf, Fritz L. 1985. Significanace of Riparian Vegetation to Breeding Birds Across an Altitudinal Cline.

In: Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Proceedings of the first

American Riparian Confrence, Tucson, Az.

Kovalchik, B.L. 1987, Riparian Zone Associations, USDA Forest Service, PNW.

Kovalchick, B.L. and L.A. Chitwood. 1990. Use of geomorphology in the classification of riparian plant

associations in mountainous landscapes of central Oregon, U.S.A. For. Ecol. Mgt. 33/44. 405-418.

Kovalchik, B.L., & Wayne Elmore. Effects of Cattle Grazing Systems on Willow-Dominated Pla.

Associations in Central Oregon.

Kovalchick, B.L. 1987. Riparian Zone Associations of the Deschutes, Fremont, Ochoco and Winema

National Forests. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, R6-ECOL-TP-279.87. 171 P.

Krausman. P R. K R Rautenstrauch and B D Leopold. 1985 Xeronparian Systems hosed by Desert Mule

Deer in Texas and Arnzona In Ripanan Ecosystems and their Management. Reconciling Conflicting Uses

Proceedings of the first American Riparian Confrence, Tucson, Az.

Krebs, Charles J 1994 Ecology The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. HarperCollins

College Publishers. New York. 801P

Lanspa, K 1975 Soils Notes. USDA Six Rivers N F

Leiberg, J B 1899 Cascade Range and Ashland Forest Reserve and Adjacent Regions. Twety-first annual

report, Part II, Washington, D.C . U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.

498 p

Leonard, W.P., H.A. Brown, L.L.C. Jones, K.R. McAllister, and R.M. Storm. 1993. Amphibians of

Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audobon Society, Seattle Washington. 168 p.

Levin, Harold. 1988. The earth through time. Saunders College Publishing, New York, NY.

593 p.

Lowrance, R., R. Todd, J. Fail Jr., 0. Hendrickson, Jr., R. Leonard and L. Asmussen. 1984. Riparian Forests

as Nutrient Filters in Agricultural Watersheds. Bioscience V34(6) P. 374-77

Marcuson, P.E. 1970. Overgrazed Streambanks Depress Fishery Production in Rock Creek, Montana.

Special Report, Mont. Dept. Fish & Game. P. 143-157

Meehan, W.R Editor. 1991. Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their

Habitats. Am. Fish. Soc. Special Pub. 19. P. 389-423.

Marlow, C.B., T.M. Pogacnik and S.P. Quinsey. 1987. Streambank Stability and Cattle Grazing in

Southwestern Montana. J. Soil Water Conserv.; 42(4): 291-296.

McNabb, D.H., and F.J. Swanson. 1990. Effects of fire on soil erosion. In: Walstad,J.D. (and others], eds.

Natural and prescribed fire in Pacific Northwest forests: 159-176. Oregon State University Press. Corvallis,


Miller, Melanie, and Jean Findley. 1994.Plants. In: Fire Effects Guide. NWCG PMS 481. Edited by Melanie


Miller, Richard F. and Peter E. Wigand. 1994. Holocene changes in semiarid pinyon-juniper woodlands.

BioScience 44(7):465-474.

Miller, Richard F., Tony J. Svejcar, and Neil E. West. 1994. Implications of livestock grazing in the

intermountain sagebrush region:plant composition. In: Vavra, M., WA. Laycock, and R-D. Pieper eds.,

Ecological implications of livestock herbivory in the west. Society for Range Management. Denver, CO. pp.


Morrison, R.B. 1964. Lake Lahontan:Geology of Southern Carson Desert, Nevada. Geol. Surv. profess.

Paper 401. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Morrow, R.J. 1985. Age structure and spatial pattern of old-growth ponderosa pine in Pringle Falls

Experimental Forest, Central Oregon. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Munger, T.T. 1917. Western Yellow Pine in Oregon. USDA Bulletin No. 418. 48 P.

Neal. J L . E Wnghit and W B Bollen 1965 Burning Douglas-fir slash physical, chemical, and microbial

effects in the soil Oregon State University Forest Research Lab Research Paper I, Corallis 32 p

Null, H H 1994 Klamath Forest %farsh NOR Personal Communication with J Frederick

Olmedo. E 1994 Winema National Forest Personal communication with J Frederick.

Olson, R And W A Hubert 1994 Beaver Water resources and niparian habitat manager. University of

*Vvorming press, Laramie, Wy 48 P

Oregon State Water Resources Board 1969 Oregon's Long-Range Requirements for Water Agricultural

Expeniment Station, Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, Or pp. 103.

Orr, E.L., W N. Orr, and E. M. Baldwin. 1992. Geology of Oregon, 4th edition. Kendall Hunt Publishing

Company Dubuque, Iowa. pp.. 79-101, 254.

Parker, M., F J. Wood, B.H. Smith and RG. Elder. 1985. Erosional Downcutting in Lower Order Riparian

Ecosystems: Have Historical Changes Been Caused by Beaver? In: Riparian Ecosystems and their

Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Proceedings of the first American Riparian Con~frence, Tucson,


Patton, D.R. 1992. Wildlife Habitat Relationships in Forested Ecosystems. Timber Press, Inc. Portland,

Oregon. 392 P. Specific reference, P. 31.

Pielou, E.C. 1991. After the ice age: the return of life to glaciated North America. University of Chicago

Press. 350 p.

Platts, W S. 1990a. Fish, Wildlife and Livestock: Protection of Riparian Areas. West. Wildlands; 16(2): 16-19

1990b. Manageing Fisheries and Wildlife on Rangelands Grazed by Livestock: A Guidence

and Reference Document for Biologists. Nevada Department of Wildlife publication. 615p.

1982. Livestock and Fishery Interactions: What are the Facts? Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat.

Resour. Conf.;1 7:507-515

Platts, W.S. and R.L. Nelson. 1988. Stream Canopy Conditions and Trout Biomass Relationships on Grazed

Streams in the Intermountain West. Proc. Annu. Conf. West. Assoc. Fish. Wildl. Agencies; 68:207-226

1985a. Stream Habitat and Fisheries Response to Livestock Grazing and Instream Improvement

Structures, Big Creek, Utah. J. Soil Water Conserv.; 40(4) P. 374-379

1985b. Morphological Characteristics of Riparian Community Types with Respect to Livestock

Grazing and Instrearn Structures on Big Creek, Utah. Published in the Montana Riparian Workshop,

Missoula, Montana. Copy on file.

Platts, William S, Karl A. Gebhardt and William A. Jackson. !985. The Effects of Large Storm Events on

Basin-Range Riparian Stream Habitats. In: Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling

Conflicting Uses. Proceedings of the First American Riparian Confrence, Tucson, Az. 1985

Pritchett, William L. and Richard E. Fisher. 1987. Properties and Management of Forest Soils. John Wiley

and Sons, New York. 494 P.

Raui, F. and C.L. Hanson. 1966. Water Intake and Runoff as Affected by Intensity of Grazing. J. Rnge. Mgt.

19. P. 351-56

Rjnne, J N 1988 Grazing Effects on Stream Habitat and Fishes Research Design Considerations N Am

J Fish Ngt 8 240-2147

Rosgen. D L 1985 A Stream Classification System, in Riparian Ecosystems and their Management,

Interagency North Amenrcan Ripanan Conference, Gen. Tech. Report ROM-120, pp 91-95, Rocky Nft For

and Range Expt Sta, USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Salwasser, H 1976. Interstate Wildlife Study: Spring 1975 Preliminary Deer Diets Report. University of

California unpublised report.

Salwasser, H. 1977 Man, Deer and Time on the Devil's Garden. University of California unpublished

report. Manuscript submitted to the Interstate Deer Herd Committee.

Steinbrenner, E.C., and S.P. Gessel. 1955. Unpublished notes. Effects of tractor on soils and Regeneration

in the douglas fir region of southwestern Washington. Soil Sci., Soc. Amer. Proc. 4pp.

Stelczer, K. 1981. Bed Load Transport. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Co. 215p.

Stoddart, L.A., A.D. Smith and T.W. Box. 1975. Range Management. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

York. 531 P.

Stuth, J.W. and A.H. Winward. 1977. Livestock-Deer Relations in the Lodgepole Pine-Pumice Region of

Central Oregon. J. Rnge. Mgt. 30(2) 110-116 *

Thomas, J.W., Technical Editor. 1979. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests of the Blue Mountains of

Oregon and Washington. USFS Agriculture Handbook #553. GPO, Washington, D.C.

Thomas, J.W., Maser, C. and J.E.Rodiek. 1978. Riparian Zones in Managed Rangelands-Their Importance

to Wildlife. In: Proceedings of the forum: Grazing and Riparian\Stream Ecosystems. Denver, Colorado.

Vance, E.D., G.S. Henderson, and D.G. Blevins. Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation in an oak-hickory forest

following long-term prescribed burning. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47:134-137.

Volland, Leonard A., 1978, Trends in Standing Crop and Species Composition of a Rested Kentucky Blue

Grass Meadow over an 11-Year Period, Proceedings of the First International Rangeland Congress.

Wallmo, O.C.(ed). 1981. Mule and Black-Tailed Deer of North America. University of Nebraska Press,

Lincoln, NE. 605 P.

Washington State University Coop Ext., 1981, Interior West Watershed Management

Wesche, T.A., CM. Goertler and C.B. Frye. 1987. Contribution of Riparian Vegetation to Trout Cover in

Small Streams. N. Am. J. Fish Mgt. 7:151-153

Wells, C. G., R.E.Campbell, L.F.DeBano, C.E.Lewis, R.L.Fredriksen, E.C.Franklin, R.C.Froehlich, and

P.H.Dunn. 1979. Effects of Fire on Soil. USDA Forest Service GTR WO-7, Washington, D.C. 34 p.

White, C.S. 1985. Effects of prescribed fire on factors controlling nitrogen mineralization and nitrification

in a ponderosa pine ecosystem. Ph. D. Dissertation. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Wigand, P.E. 1987. Diamond PondHarney County, Oregon:vegetation history and water table in the eastern

Oregon desert. Great Basin Naturalist 47:427-458.

woodmansee. R G . and L S Wallach 1981 Effects of fire regimes on biogeochemical cvcles, p 3.,9-400

In Fire and Ecos, stem Properties Conference Proceedings, USDA Forest Serice, Washington D C Gen

Tech Rep %ko-:5 594 p

Youneberg, C T. & Dyrness, C T. 1959, The Influence of Soils and Topography on the Occurrence of

Lodgepole Pine in Central Oregon, Northwest Science Vol 33, No 3

Youngblood. A P . Padgett, W G and A H. Winward 1985 Riparian Community Type Classification of

Eastern Idaho-Western Wyoming USDA-FS R4-Ecol-85-01. 78 P

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   14


Chiiloquin ranger district iconSu bwatersheds chiloquin Ranger District Winema National Forest

Chiiloquin ranger district iconAps district high school health curriculum framework c ourse Title: P. O. W. E. R. – Philosophy of Wellness that Enriches Relationships District Course Number: 063TF

Chiiloquin ranger district iconOn Appeal From a Judgment of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri, Eastern Division September 24, 2002 *

Chiiloquin ranger district iconI. stature, purpose, and adoption and revision of procedures: Official procedures of District 55, as adopted from time to time by the District Council, are set

Chiiloquin ranger district iconLake George and Seminole Ranger Districts

Chiiloquin ranger district iconDistrict 41 Directory

Chiiloquin ranger district iconHistory of the Third Masonic District

Chiiloquin ranger district icon1 in the united states district court

Chiiloquin ranger district iconStandard for district success 1: curriculum

Chiiloquin ranger district iconRiverside Community College District

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2014
обратиться к администрации
Главная страница