Chiiloquin ranger district

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Table of Contents


II. OVERVIEW . ....... .. . ...... . . 2

II. ISSUES AND KEY QUESTIONS ...... ..... .. .. . . .. ..... 7

I How have streams, soil and hydrologic function changed from the reference era? What has

caused these changes? What are the effects of these changes? . .7...... .. . . 7

A. Have changes occurred in the streams, soil and hydrologic function in the South of

Sprague Watershed Analysis area? ............................... . ....... 7

B. Is water leaving the watershed entering proposed critical habitat at higher temperatures

than during the reference era? .. . ................ .......... 8

C. Have past federal actions (BIA or Forest Service) contributed, or will proposed actions

contribute, to excess sediment and/or nutrients to proposed critical habitat in the Sprague

River System? 8......... ... ... ....... ..... .... . 8

D. Have the timing and duration of peak flows changed since the reference era? .9

2. How have fire exclusion, grazing, timber harvest, road construction, railroad construction

and other management activities changed the biological and physical elements of the

landscape from the reference condition? ..... ........ ..... .......... .... 13

A. What aspects of these activities mimic reference processes? ... ..... .. ... 13

B. How have vegetative conditions changed since the reference era? ............... 13

3. What Are the Current and Reference Era Risks of Stand Replacement Events from Fire,

Insects, or Disease? ........................................................ 28

A. How do the current and reference era risks of stand replacement events differ? .. .... 28

B. What is the frequency of conditions that lead to stand replacement events? ........... 29

C. What actions or events would lead to reduced risk of stand replacement events? ... .. 30

4. What are the relationships between management activities and TES habitat? How has

habitat been altered by management activities? .................................... 31

A. What was the role of reference era disturbance regimes in the creation of key habitat

areas? .... ................... 31

B. What federal activities have led to an increase or decrease in the quantity or quality of

habitat for TES species? ................................................... 31

C. What federal activities affect specific key habitats for TES species, and how are these

habitats affected? .......... .......................................... .. 32

5. Has soil compaction increased and what impact has this had on vegetation? .... .... 37


3 518 004138 3

Table of Contents (cont.)

6 Has soil productivity increased or decreased since the reference period? What impact has

this had on vegetation? .. .... . . . ...... .. ... . .... 39

A. What does the soil currently produce? How does this differ from the reference period? 39

B. Can a change in productivity (fertility?) be attributed to management activities? .39

C. Has localized soil loss, such as has occurred in the near bank area of some riparian

areas, resulted in a reduction in productivity? .. ..... ..................... 40

7. How does the cost of maintaining high stocking levels in conifer stands differ from the

cost of maintaining historic stocking levels in those stands? .41

A. Is the conifer stocking level higher now than in the reference period? If so, to what

extent is stocking higher? ................ .. 41

B. Has biodiversity been reduced as a result of higher conifer and brush stocking levels? . .. 41


Appendix A. Bibliography

Appendix B. Rosgen Stream Type (Rst)

Appendix C. F unctional Condition of Streams Examined In Copperfield Subshed

Appendix D. Subwatersheds

Appendix E. Notes from Leiberg

Appendix F. Excerpts from Munger

Appendix G. 1920 Cruise Volume Distribution Maps

Appendix H. Subwatershed Current Conditions

Appendix I. Additional Graphs and Charts

Appendix J. Lands Acquired by forest Service Through Exchange or Purchase

Appendix K. Grazing Systems Effects on Vegetation & Hydrologic function

Appendix L. WNF Threatened and Endangered Species

Appendix M. Summary of Harvest Related Activities from Available Information

Appendix N. Road Treatment Recommendations

Appendix 0. Watershed Assessment Team



The intent of this assessment is to provide a general description of ecosystem structure, process, and

function occurring within the watersheds of the SOS analysis area. Understanding the past, present, and

possible future of the Vegetation, riparian communities, wildlife, and other ecosystem components will

help identify the potential and limitations of the watersheds involved in this analysis.

This assessment is a blend of current scientific knowledge, information gathered during on-site visits,

interviews with local publics familiar with the area, and a review of existing records and documents

(Appendix A, Bibliography) New inventories and surveys to fill gaps in existing information are not part

of this analysis effort.

This is not a decision document. It will neither resolve issues, nor provide answers to specific policy

questions This document is prepared to provide a foundation for project level analysis and support the

line officer in decision making.

The Chiloquin District Ranger requested that the assessment team focus on the following concerns

1. How have streams, soil and hydrologic function changed from the reference era? What has

caused these changes? What are the effects of these changes?

2. How have fire exclusion, grazing, timber harvest, road construction, railroad construction and

other management activities changed the biological and physical elements of the landscape from

the reference condition?

3. What are the current and reference era risks of stand replacement events from fire, insects, or


4. What is the relationship between management activities and TE&S habitat? How has habitat

been altered by management activities?

5. Has soil compaction increased and what impact has this had on vegetation?

6. Has soil productivity increased or decreased since the reference period? What impact has this

had on vegetation? .

7. How does the impact of maintaining high stocking levels in conifer stands differ from the

impact of maintaining historic stocking levels in those stands? .

In order for the assessment team to portray the current processes, function, and condition for the

watersheds, two timeframes were selected: Pre-1900, and current. 1900 was selected because this

was about the time when post-European contact activities began to most affect change across the

landscape; as opposed to natural or indigenous population activities.

SOS Watershed Assessment I


To aid in site-specific discussions, the study area boundary is divided into fifteen subdivisions identified in

the map above. From west to east they are: Crystal Castle, Substation, Corbell, Copperfield, No Name

Flat, Dockney Flat, Trout Creek, Skeen, South, Riddle, Headwaters, Rock Creek, 208Z, Cliney Flat, and

South Whiskey. The study area boundary for SOS (108,239 acres) does not include the bulk of the

private lands between the Winema National Forest boundary and the Sprague River, due to the lack of

data available on these lands and time constraints precluding further research.

The hydrologic assessment portion of the study (148,103 acres) includes all lands south of and within the

Sprague River Watershed between the Williamson and Sycan Rivers. The assessment encompasses 15%

of the Sprague River drainage. Five units identified on the Winema GIS watershed layer are included:

The main Sprague River (1801020208Z), Whiskey Creek (1801020208B), Trout Creek (1801020208E),

Dockney Flat (1801020208H), and Copperfield Draw (18010202081). The inclusion of the Whiskey

Creek and 208Z subdivisions in the hydrologic assessment, although outside the study area, was deemed

necessary to understand the hydrologic function of the total system and evaluate the National Forest's role

in stream restoration.

Total acreage involved in SOS study area: 108,239 acres.

Winema National Forest: 86,634 acres (80% of study area).

Private ownership: 18,137 acres (17% of study area).

Fremont National Forest: 3,192 acres (2.75% of study area).

BLM and State ownership: 276 acres (.25% of study area)

SOS Watershed Assessment 2

Additions to study area for hydrologic assessment 39,864 acres

Private lands 33,386 acres

Fremont National Forest 6,308 acres

State lands. 167 acres

Winema National Forest 3 acres


The SOS area is dominated by volcanic parent materials extruded through and onto lake bottom

sediments of the Pliocene era. The western portion of the study area includes the major eruptive centers

of Edgewood Mtn., Swan Lake Mtn., Swan Lake Point, and Saddle Mtn. Lower elevations near the

Sprague River contain more recent shallow basalt flows and lake sediments, with small inclusions of

recent alluvial sediments in the valley bottoms. The east half has one major eruptive center, Yainax

Butte. Much of the remaining area is shallow (20 to 30 feet) basalt flows over lake sediments. The area

near the Sprague River is predominantly Pliocene lake sediments, and recent alluvial sediments from the

Holocene period

The entire analysis area is influenced by many northwest tending fault lines. These control much of the

area's topography, and have a major influence on surface and sub-surface hydrology. Interpretation of

mid-level and deep aquifer flow extent and direction is very difficult, due to significant bedrock

modification by the extensive fault systems.

SOS Watershed Assessment 3

Elevation Ranges and the amount of the study area occupied are

4, 170 (Mouth of Sprague River) to 5,000 feet - 67%/o

5,001 to 6,000 feet - 28%

6,001 to 7,000 feet - 5% (The bulk of these lands occur on Swan Lake Mountain and along Ya

Whee Plateau Rim, essentially formring the southern boundary of the study area.)

Ground slopes vary from

0% to over 70%. Slopes

over 40% occupy only SOS Watershed

2% of the area. The S Classes

steeper slopes are Slope Classes

associated with the area's

prominent geologic

features (Chiloquin

Ridge, Ya Whee Rim,

Saddle Mtn., Swan Lake

Mtn., Swan Lake Point,

Yainax Butte). Nearly

67% of SOS has slopes

less than 10%.

The dominant aspects l T 10%

are North (38%), and Less Than 10%

east (3 1%). Only 8% of GreaterThan 40%

the area contains South

facing slopes. This

orientation limits solar

gain and maintains snow

pack later into the spring, directly affecting the timing of stream flows.


Climate is characterized by warm dry summers and moderately cold wet winters. Annual precipitation

averages from 15 to 30 inches per year, occurring mostly as snow in the months of November through

February. Widely scattered summer thunderstorms also occur throughout the area annually. Summer

temperatures reach as high as 1050 F, and winter lows have dropped to minus 240 F. Average daily

temperatures range from 29° F in January to 680 in July. Records show a low total annual precipitation

value of 8.49 inches in 1977 and a high of 32.3 inches in 1982. The average for a 56 year period of

record is 18.41 inches. Substantial variation in total precipitation and its timing from year to year is the

norm, but the average over a ten year period is generally within 2 to 3 inches of the average.

Area streams are fed by snow melt in the spring months and by ground water in the summer months.

Much of the stream system is intermittent and goes dry in mid summer. The rate and timing of snow melt

is extremely variable from year to year and is dependent on daily temperatures and warm rain storms

during the melt season. Trout Creek is the only perennial stream which feeds the Sprague River in SOS

SOS Watershed Assessment 4


The soils database in GIS was used to map existing land types within the study area. Only National Forest

lands were inventoried and entered, so information regarding lands under other ownerships have not been

mapped. Approximately 44% of the land within the study area falls within the "other ownership"

category. Information regarding soil types on private ownerships within the study area is available

through SCS, but was not used in this assessment. Private lands have generally been developed for

agriculture, and have been modified for this purpose.

The dominant soil group is HI, which covers 64% of the area. H soils are well drained, with moderate to

rapid infiltration rates. Permeability is greatest within the first 12 inches of the surface, but is significantly

less below 12 inches. This tends to cause water (rain and snow melt) to move along the surface of the

lower, less permeable material, and then resurface at a road cut or other area where the soil profile is

exposed. Field observations in the Trout Creek and Copperfield Draw areas in the spring of 1995

confirm this relationship. This type has moderate natural fertility for vegetation growth, but may have

between 10 and 75 percent rock by volume. Potential for detrimental compaction varies from high to low

as the percentage of rock increases. This also holds true for planting success and ease of sub-soiling.

Soil type B covers approximately 5% of SOS. These soils have formed in an air-laid mantle of Mazama

pumice and ash over a buried residual soil. B soils are excessively drained, with rapid infiltration rates

and very rapid permeability. Water will tend to move vertically into this soil until it reaches the buried

residual soils two to five feet below the surface. Road cuts will generally not intercept this contact zone

These soils are located in the western half of the study area at lower elevations near the Sprague River

Meadow lands (excluding private agriculture and pasture lands) make up approximately 16% of the study

area. These lands have a high potential for detrimental compaction and a moderate to high potential for

gully erosion. These soils are generally poorly drained and often inundated with snow melt waters in the


SOS Watershed Assessment 5

The soil survey identified 6% of the area as being Scab Rock Flats These areas are scattered throughout

the study area, located primarily where the the shrub and grass vegetation groups occur. They have

moderate infiltration rates in the A soil horizon (10 to 20 inches) and then very slow permeability below

this level This tends to make the surface soil easy to saturate during spring snow melt. Overland flow of

snow melt, as well as lateral flow through the soil profile, is common. This flow is easily intercepted and

redirected by roads and other areas where the soil profile is exposed.


Nearly 75% of the National Forest lands within SOS are predominately coniferous forested,

approximately one third of this area has greater than 40% .crown coverage. Over 16% is grassy

meadows, and an additional 9% is in shrub covered or sparsely vegetated.

The GIS data base identifies approximately 5% of the study area as riparian; 56% coniferous cover. (24%

with a crown cover greater than 40%); 28% grassy meadow; and 16% shrub dominated or sparsely


SOS Watershed Assessment 6


1. How have streams, soil and hydrologic function changed from the reference era?

What has caused these changes? What are the effects of these changes?

A. Have changes occurred in the streams, soil and hydrologic function in the South of Sprague

Watershed Analysis area?

Streams - Long term grazing, timber harvest, and railroad grade and road construction over the past 70

to 100 years have all impacted the stream systems of SOS. Grazing has modified the amount and species

of riparian vegetation along portions of most, if not all streams. Stream banks have been broken down by

cattle and sheep in the past Railroad grades have channelized, displaced and dammed many of the

streams at some time in their history. Roads have intensified this effect over time, and there are currently

3.25 miles of road maintained for regular use per square mile. Streams presently reflect these changes

through loss of sinuosity, segments of downcut channels, unvegetated or under-vegetated and actively

eroding banks, and areas where the normal flood plain has been abandoned and a new channel is forming.

Soils - Over the past century grazing, timber harvest, and construction of a transportation system have

influenced the soils of SOS. Grazing, concentrated on meadow lands, has subjected these lands to

repeated compaction since the 1850's (some areas received year-round livestock use). Repeated logging

has occurred on virtually all of the forested areas. Tractor logging has subjected soils to various levels of

compaction (skid trails being the most intense) and displacement of the surface layers. Transportation

system construction maximizes compaction and disruption of the soil profile and discourages any

recovery of basic soil function. Between 1% and 2% of the area is directly committed to the

transportation system. Compaction reduces pore space, water holding capacity, infiltration rates, and

(possibly) the basic productivity of the soil. The SOS area needs a survey on soils conditions in order to

quantify these effects.

Hydrologic Function - The primary observable change in the hydrologic function in SOS is the effect of

the road system on the delivery of precipitation to the stream system. The normal routing of precipitation

is from snow melt into the soil profile to and along the interface between the A and B horizons, or into

the ground water table, then into the valley bottoms and the stream system as spring runoff or base flows.

The road system interferes with this process. Road cuts intercept both overland and sub-surface flows

along the A and B horizon interface, and route the flows into a ditch, efficiently delivering the water as

surface flow to the stream channel system. This change in hydrologic function tends to reduce the

delivery time of snow melt to the stream channel from days (or weeks), to minutes or hours. The results

are: An increase in peak channel flows; a reduction in the duration of flows; intermittent systems drying

up earlier in the year; and perennial systems changing to intermittent.

Changes in stream channel morphology, such as loss of sinuosity, tend to move water through the

channel system more rapidly, reducing water retention in the channel. This causes the channel to dry

earlier in the year. These effects have not been quantified in SOS.

Road location and construction have caused water to be captured and moved off site rapidly, reducing its

availability for on site use by flora and fauna. The GIS data base shows that 50% of the total road system

is located within 1/4 mile of the stream system. Field observations in the spring of 1995 indicate that the

road system functions as an extension of the stream system for at least this distance, effectively doubling

the length of the natural stream system.

SOS Watershed Assessment 7

B. Is water leaving the watershed entering proposed critical habitat at higher temperatures than

during the reference era?

This question is difficult to answer, as we have no water temperature data from the reference period to

compare with current data. We can, however, make the following assumption based on current

observations and knowledge

The only perennial system present in SOS is Trout Creek, though Rock Creek does have some reaches

with perennial flow. All other systems within the study area are intermittent. During the summer, when

higher temperatures would translate into high stream temperatures, most SOS channels are dry. The

systems are also generally diverted for agricultural use starting in early summer, and would not reach the

Sprague during the period when temperatures are on the rise. Summer months flow in the Sprague River

ranges between 200 and 500 CFS. The potential contributions from SOS in this same period of time

would be less than 10 CFS, most likely in the range of 1-2 CFS. This volume would not significantly

alter the temperatures in the Sprague River.

The amount of water reaching the Sprague River during the summer months has been greatly reduced

due to changes that have occurred to the stream channels (entrenchment, widening, shallowing, removal

of bank vegetation, diversion). This reduction has eliminated any cooling effect (however small) these

waters may have had on the Sprague River's lower reaches. Whether any of the present intermittent

streams were previously perennial is not known, but it is possible that Rock Creek was, prior to the

channel's manipulation to accommodate agricultural development. If many of the intermittent systems were

at one time perennial, it is possible that they had a larger cooling effect on the Sprague, but quantifying

this effect is not possible with current information.

C. Have past federal actions (BIA or Forest Service) contributed, or will proposed actions

contribute, to excess sediment and/or nutrients to proposed critical habitat in the Sprague

River System?

The SOS assessment represents only 15% of the total Sprague River watershed system. Although the

streams in SOS all have degraded segments that are currently yielding more sediment than stable systems

would, they are not unique in the Sprague River system. The contribution of SOS to the current

sediment load of the Sprague River is not likely to be out of proportion to its relative land area. The

question of whether the sediment produced on federal lands reaches the Sprague River system is not

easily addressed. In the case of Butler Creek and Crystal Castle Springs, sediment has easy access to the

main river channel. Sediment delivery through most other channels is not easy to quantify, as the material

passes through agricultural lands and is diverted into irrigation systems before it reaches the Sprague.

This is most evident in the Rock and Whiskey Creek systems. Seasonal stream flows and channel

material are capable of transporting sediments, particularly, but not limited to, the silt-to-small-gravel size

material. If this material reaches the Sprague, it could easily be transported further downstream due to

the much higher flows in the Sprague River.

Past federal actions have contributed to current stream channel conditions, producing quantities of

sediment greater than that estimated prior to development. Limited visits to the watersheds have found

no unusually large sedimentary depositions in SOS stream channels, leading us to believe that sediment is

adequately passing through the system. The effect on the Sprague River as a result of these higher

sediment loads is difficult to quantify, since nearly all streams pass through private property prior to

entering the river. SOS contributes only a small fraction of the total annual sediment load of the Sprague


SOS Watershed Assessment 8

D. Have the timing and duration of peak flows changed since the reference era?

Precipitation is the main source of water for most subwatersheds in SOS, snowmelt providing the

greatest input into the systems The rate and volume of water which is delivered to and through any

system depends largely on the accumulated snow pack, and how rapidly it melts. Rain on snow events

and localized thunderstorms occur in the area periodically. When these occur, large volumes of water are

directed into the system at a faster pace (but shorter peak duration) than would occur under normal

spring melt conditions

The rate at which runoff moves toward the stream is dependent on the drainage efficiency of the hill

slopes. Drainage efficiency is influenced by the slope and length of the upland surface, it's topography,

the permeability and moisture content of the soil, subsurface geology, and vegetative. cover. The

hydrograph shape is affected by these factors as well as catchment shape, drainage density, channel

characteristics, and storm patterns. The condition and shape of the channel (wide, shallow, narrow, or

deep), plus the presence of vegetation in and along the channel will also have an effect on the hydrograph


Modification of vegetation distribution and reduction in wetland function affects the hydrograph.

Riparian vegetation, along with its capacity to hold water, has decreased due to grazing and streambank

erosion. Logging has reduced the forest's ability to hold water. The reduced canopy cover of the

watershed allows solar radiation to melt snow more rapidly. The disturbance of the forest floor has

diminished it's ability to store water due to soil compaction.

Channelization from degraded road and railroad systems, or structures such as culverts, prohibit the

systems from utilizing their floodplains when discharge exceeds the capacity of the original channel. Loss

of sinuosity moves water more rapidly though the system, due to a shorter distance and a steeper

gradient. Sedimentation increases, thereby reducing riparian vegetation that holds moisture and reduces


Fire suppression has created a potential for more intense/severe fires. These fires can destroy moisture

holding vegetation, often leaving bare soil that is susceptible to erosion, routing water quickly to

the stream system. Extremely hot fires can create hydrophobic layers that repel water, inhibiting the

infiltration and storage capacity of the forest.

The timing and duration of peak flows may have changed since the reference era, as a result of land use

and human influence. Generally, there are earlier peak flows of shorter duration. The hydrograph has a

steeper rising limb, indicating water entering the system more quickly. The falling limb is also steep, as

water moves through the system rapidly. The peak of the hydrograph is higher because more water is

entering the system in a shorter period of time.

The Chiloquin Weather Station, located near the low point of SOS, is the closest and longest running

station available for the SOS analysis. Since this station is the only source providing long term data, and

it's location is close to SOS, we decided to include it in this analysis. This station will give a generally

accurate account of the amount of precipitation received by the lower elevation portions of the study area

over a 56 year period. The amount of precipitation, as well as the type, will likely differ as elevation

increases from the Sprague River.

SOS Watershed Assessment 9


Most precipitation comes

in the fall and winter

months in the form of

snow A low

precipitation value of

8.49 inches was recorded

in 1977, and a high of

32.3 inches in 1982. The

annual average for the 56

year period is 18.41

inches. Records show

substantial variation from

year to year as the norm.

Over a. ten year period,

the average is within +3

inches of the average for

the 56 year period. Low

stream flows and short

duration flows in

intermittent systems

reflect low precipitation


Sprague River Flows

Chiloquin Gage Station



o) 400000 ------------- -----------

300000--------- ---

< 200000 - 1- / - -- -

- 100000 - - --------------




0 -


1940 1960 1980



The following two peak flow graphs display the number of days, by year, that flows in the Sprague River

at Chiloquin exceeded the 5 year one day high flow, and the 2 year peak flow. The 5 year one day high

flow is the highest one day flow expected in any five year period. The 2 year peak flow is Lne highest

measured instantaneous flow over any given two year period. These graphs indicate periods over the last

70-plus years when flows were high enough to aggressively modify channels.

Sprague River Flows at Chiloquin

Days Above 5 yr., I Day High Flow


1920 1930 1940 1950.-

2 1 5 - ----- ------ -- -- - -- - - -- - - -I - - -

1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000


The Sprague River is not

necessarily the perfect

indicator for the stream

systems in SOS, but it is

assumed that the flows in

the Sprague are a general

indicator of flow


Data from the gaging

station on the Sprague

River at Chiloquin

displays daily mean flow

for a period from March

1, 1921 through February

27, 1995. Summaries of

this data show a 5 year

return, one-day low flow

of 137 CFS for the

period 1932 through

1987. The 5 year return,

SOS Watershed Assessment 10

one-day high flow was 3,910 CFS for the period 1922 through 1987. The instantaneous peak flow

presented for a 2 year return interval is 2,090 CFS.

The 5 year high flow value was exceeded by 10 or more days in seven years since 1938. In 1956, this

value was exceeded nearly 30 days during the high flow season.

The 2 year peak flow value

indicates a flow level at Sprague River Flows at Chiloquin

which channel forming Days Above 2 Yr., Peak Flow

processes are at work

(channel bank erosion, bed

load and suspended 90 ---

sediment transport). The

normal channel is full or 70 -

slightly over full and the I

flow is beginning to occupy ml 50 -------------- -- ---------K----------------------

the flood plain. 3 .1l

Since 1921, there have been 3(i

17 years which had 20 or 10

more days exceeding the 2 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

year peak flow value. 1952 Year

and 1956 had 60 or more

days exceeding this value.

The 5 year return high flow is nearly double the two year peak flow, and fully occupies the flood plain.

This level of flow has substantial potential to damage or degrade channels, especially if the channels were

in a weakened or unstable condition (lack of riparian vegetation, increased channel gradient, diverted

channel, dammed or blocked channels). This level of flow often subjects channels to instantaneous very

high peak flows and unusual quantities of debris, enough to block drainage structures in road fills and

cause fills to fail.

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