Учебно-методическое пособие по переводу и употреблению английских речевых стратегий




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Elena Zhdanova


ENGLISH SPEECH STRATEGIES: UNDERSTANDING AND TRANSLATION





Учебно-методическое пособие по переводу

и употреблению английских речевых стратегий


Е.В. Жданова


ENGLISH SPEECH STRATEGIES: UNDERSTANDING AND TRANSLATION


Учебно-методическое пособие по переводу и употреблению английских речевых стратегий


ББК

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Жданова Е.В. English Speech Strategies: Practice of Understanding and Translation. Учебно-методическое пособие по переводу.- 100 с.


Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов, совершенствующих свои знания в области перевода английских речевых образцов кооперативного и конфликтного общения с английского языка на русский и с русского языка на английский. Студенты также знакомятся с видами речевых стратегий и тактик, используемых в общении представителями английской и русской лингвокультуры.


Рецензенты: доктор филологических наук, профессор

Н.Л. Грейдина;


© Е.В. Жданова, 2011


Методическая записка


Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов средних и старших курсов в рамках дисциплин «переводоведение», «практический курс перевода первого иностранного языка», «практикум по культуре речевого общения».

Пособие направлено, прежде всего, на формирование и совершенствование навыков литературного перевода с английского языка на русский и обратно.

Целью пособия является также ознакомление студентов с основными речевыми стратегиями и тактиками, используемыми в английской и русской профессиональной и межличностной коммуникации, а также формирование практики использования разнообразных стратегических и тактических речевых образцов на иностранном языке.

Представлено краткое описание сущности каждой речевой стратегии, а также ее роль в конструировании эффективного общения на иностранном языке.

Практический материал представляет собой диалогические отрывки из художественных произведений английских и русских писателей XX века.


CONTENTS


I. Cooperative speech strategies...................................6

1. The strategy of argumentation..........................................6

2. The strategy of advice.......................................................13

3. The strategy of pointing out one’s own point of wiew...25

4. The sttrategy of gentle disagreement.............................31

5. The strategy of compliment.............................................33

6. The strategy of apologizing..............................................40

7. The strategy of suggestion................................................43

8. The strategy of agreement................................................47

9. The strategy of politeness.................................................51

10. The strategy of confession..............................................57

11. The strategy of verbal comfort......................................64

II. Conflict and negative speech strategies.............. 72

1. The strategy of disagreement.........................................73

2. The strategy of threat.....................................................81

3. The invective strategy......................................................82

4. The strategy of accusation...............................................85

5. The strategy of complaint..............................................88

6. The strategy of negative selfpresentation.......................92

III. The list of literature works.........................................95


I. COOPERATIVE SPEECH STRATEGIES




1. The strategy of argumentatiion


Read the following information about argumentation and arguments. Translate this text into Russian.


One of the major modes of discourse, argumentation can be applied to virtually all assignments involving critical reasoning no matter the subject or discipline. As it involves a higher level of reasoning than associated with descriptive writing, or narrative writing, or expository writing per se, it is crucial for the successful university-level student to understand and master the principles, indeed the concepts that drive the critical thinking skills associated with argumentative writing.

The argument also consists of an introduction, body and conclusion. It also is built around a major premise (in this instance, called the Proposition rather than the Thesis Statement). Additionally, there is a definite pattern of organization used in developing the argument. But before delving more deeply into this, let us go to the fundamentals.

First, one must be familiar with the terminology. In this instance, the term argument refers to "a reasoned attempt to convince the audience to accept a particular point of view about a debatable topic." Looking more closely at this definition, we observe that the argument is not irrational; it does not depend strictly on passion or emotion. Rather, argumentation represents a "reasoned attempt," that is, an effort based on careful thinking and planning where the appeal is to the mind, the intellect of the audience at hand. Why? The answer to this is that one wants to "convince the audience to accept a particular point of view."

The key concept here is "to convince the audience," that is, you must make them believe your position, accept your logic and evidence. Not only do you want them to accept the evidence, but you want that audience to accept "a particular point of view" -- that point of view, or perspective, is yours. It is your position, your proposition. Understand that all too often the audience may be intrigued by the evidence presented, but that intrigue alone is not enough to convince them of the validity or authority of your position in the matter.

The aim of this strategy is to make the recipient do some verbal or practical acts.


Translate the following passages from English into Russian. Analyze what grammar events are used in these passages.


А.

1. “You are glad you have met me, Mr. Gray,” said Lord Henry, looking at him.

“Yes, I am glad now. I wonder shall I always be glad?”

Always! That is a dreadful word. It makes me shudder when I hear it. Women are so fond of using it. They spoil every romance by trying to make it last for ever. It is a meaningless word, too. The only difference between a caprice and a lifelong passion is that the caprice lasts a little longer.” (Wilde, 1979, p. 106).


2. "I think it's much deeper than that." Ashurst felt again that wish to dominate.

"You think so," he said; "but wanting the 'quid pro quo' is about the deepest thing in all of us! It's jolly hard to get to the bottom of it!"

She wrinkled her brows in a puzzled frown.

"I don't think I understand."

"Well, think, and see if the most religious people aren't those who feel that this life doesn't give them all they want. I believe in being good because to be good is good in itself. (Galsworthy, 1988 in book: English Short Stories, p. 99).


3. "What are the gaieties of the Rich, the splendours of the Powerful, what is the pride of the Great, what are the gaudy pleasures of High Society?"

The voice, which had risen in tone, questioningly, from sentence to sentence, dropped suddenly and boomed reply.

'"They are nothing. Vanity, fluff, dandelion seed in the wind, thin vapours of fever. The things that matter happen in the heart. Seen things are sweet, but those unseen are a thousand times more significant. It is the Unseen that counts in Life." (Huxley, 2001, p. 6).


4. "After all, civilization is a kind of dream. Supposing a man suddenly woke up from that dream? Wouldn't it be enough to make him commit suicide?"

I was thinking about Karel Weissman, and he knew it. He said:

"But what about these delusions about monsters?" (Wilson, 1986, p. 27).


5. "That's because the public isn't really interested in the theatre. In the great days of the English stage peo­ple didn't go to see the plays, they went to see the play­ers. It didn't matter what Kemble and Mrs. Siddons act­ed. The public went to see them. And even now, though I don't deny that if the play's wrong you're dished, I do contend that if the play's right, it's the actors the public go to see, not the play."

"I don't think anyone can deny that," said Julia.

''All an actress like Julia wants is a vehicle. Give her that and she'll do the rest." (Maugham, 1998, p. 13).


Б.

Translate the following passages from Russian into English


1.- Но поймите, любезная Вера Ивановна, поймите. Талант - это такая редкость! Едва ли не редчайшее изо всего, что есть на свете. И упустить его, потерять - это преступление. А здесь - явное чудо (Рекемчук, 1977: 381).


2. Не все лгут, - возразила я. – Поверь, что очень многие, так же как и ты, ненавидят ложь и предпочитают говорить правду, какой бы горькой она ни была!

- Мало таких! – угрюмо заметил Олег.

- А по-моему, много, - сказала я (Уварова, 1987: 64).


3. - Что есть, то есть, он, конечно, неглупый, - согласился Олег. – Главное, очень хитрый.

- Допустим, пусть не умный, скорее хитрый, во всяком случае не дурак. Но неужели он не понимает, что любая неправда так или иначе вылезет наружу? Ведь это же совсем нетрудно – проверить все его слова и убедиться, что и на фронте он не был, и дети не приемыши, а родные, и письма пишутся, чуть ли не под его диктовку… (Уварова, 1987: 64).


4. - А по-моему, все очень ясно. Он невероятно честолюбив, вот потому-то ни с кем и ни с чем не хочет считаться….

- Допустим, - не сдавалась я. – Допустим, он жаждет славы, популярности и всего такого прочего. Но может же он, в конце концов, заглянуть хотя бы немного вперед и осознать, что будет, когда проверят и выяснят, что это все чистой воды неправда? (Уварова. 1987: 64).


5. - Ты, я чувствую, большой оптимист... Верно?

- Что это такое? — спросил юный Чекин.

- Оптимист?

- Ну да.

- Оптимист... это человек, любящий жизнь.

- Чудак вы, Иван Павлович. А чего ж ее не любить? (Иванов, 208).


2. The strategy of advice


The main aim of this strategy is to give advice how to behave in different situations, what’s better to do to overcome difficulties, misunderstanding and so on.


A.

Translate the following passages from English into Russian. Analyze what grammar events are used in these passages.




1. ‘But what is to happen to me?’ said Paul.

I think you ought to find some work,’ said his guardian thoughtfully. ‘Nothing like it for taking the mind off nasty subjects.’

‘But what kind of work?’

Just work... You have led too sheltered a life, Paul. Perhaps I am to blame. It will do you the world of good to face facts a bit - look at life in the raw, you know. See things steadily and see them whole, eh?’ And Paul’s guardian lit another cigar. (Evelyn Waugh, the Prose, p. 40-41).


2. "She looks a bit gloomy, Father, don't you think?"

"No," said the priest, "I think it looks fine. If you start dressing it up in cloth you'll spoil the line." (Spark, 2001, p. 8).


3."You can’t take everything on your shoulders," said Raymond. "You do very well by Elizabeth." (Spark, 2001, p. 17).

4. "Perhaps we should try," she said. "God won’t give us a child if wearen’t meant to have one."

"We have to make some decisions for ourselves," he said. "And to tell you the truth if you don’t want a child, I don't." (Spark, 2001, p. 25).


5. "But neither of us are dark," said Raymond.

"You've seen my wife. You see me -"

"That's something you must work out for yourselves. I'd have a word with the doctor if I were you. But whatever conclusion you come to, please don't upset your wife at this stage. She has already refused to feed the child, says it isn't hers, which is ridiculous." (Spark, 2001, p.30-31).


6. "Look there. I tell you that is Needle."

"You're ill, George. Heavens, you must be seeing things. Come on home. (Spark, 2001, p. 76).


7. "Don't ask for sympathy then."

"A nice friend you are," he said, "I must say after all these years." (Spark, 2001, p. 88).


8. "Maybe I'll marry Skinny when he's well again."

"Make it definite, Needle, and not so much of the maybe. You don't know when you're well off," she said. (Spark, 2001, p. 93).

9. "I don't even feel I can ring him up at home until I've met his mother. I'd feel shy of talking to her on the phone. I must meet her. It's becoming a sort of obsession."

"It certainly is," Gwen said. "Why don't you just say to him, 'I'd like to meet your mother'?"

"Well, Gwen, there are some things a girl can't say."

"No, but a woman can." (Spark, 2001, p. 151-152).


10. “Your husband should have help”.

“What with? She said.

He should see a psychiatrist” (Spark, 1976, p. 43).


11.“Well, tis as she says. Drink is no good to any man and she can’t say as I ain’t reprimanded you” (Coppard, 2002, p. 26).


12. “It’s no good flying in the face of everything like that, Dan, it’s folly” (Coppard, 2002, p. 27).


13. “Clever girl, Williams. Don’t let her fool you. Shouldn’t make funof her.” The old man stared down at the drawing (Fowles, 1980, p. 52).


14. “You’re not going to paint any better by forcing yourself to be abnormal”.

“Doing what everyone expects”.

Surely what you ought to do is what you feel you need. And to hell with everyone” (Fowles, 1980, p. 109).


15. “Never marry a woman with straw coloured hair, Dorian,” he said after a few puffs.

“Why, Harry?”

“Because they are so sentimental.”

“But I like sentimental people.”

Never marry at all, Dorian. Men marry because they are tired; women, because they are curious: both are disappointed.” (Wilde, 1979, p. 134).


16. “You dear old Jim, you talk as if you were a hundred. Some day you will be in love yourself. Then you will know what it is. Don’t look so sulky. Surely you should be glad to think that, though you are going away, you leave me happier than I have ever been before. Life has been hard for us both, terribly hard and difficult. (Wilde, 1979, p. 159).


17. "But I should have thought you could have made a comfortablе living out of engineering. In England consulting engineers are princes."

"Oh yes!"

"And engineering might have cured your neurasthenia, if you had taken it in sufficiently large quantities;"

"It would," he agreed quietly (Bennett, 1988 in book: English Short stories, p. 54).


18. “What you need, Denis, is a nice plump young wife, a fixed income, and a little congenial but regular work.' (Huxley, 2001, p. 32).


19. 'Listen to me,' he said, laying his hand on Denis's sleeve. 'You want to make your living by writing; you're young, you're inexperienced. Let me give you a little sound advice.' (Huxley, 2001, p. 43).


20. “Your mother,” she said, “will be happier if she’s quite free, Val. Good-night, my dear boy; and don’t wear loud waistcoats up at Oxford, they’re not the thing just now. Here’s a little present.” (Galsworthy, 1974, p. 72).


21. Yes, boy, she was just beginning to get around.’ Sammy wagged his finger at me. ‘Never let them out of your sight, that’s the only way!’ (Murdoch, 1979, p. 72).


22. "Pull yourself together, Mrs. Parker, she's a lovely child."

"You must care for your infant," said the priest (Spark, 2001, p. 33).


23. "Look here," he said. "I'd like to talk to you, Needle."

"We'll talk tonight, George. Better not keep your cousin waiting for the milk." I found myself speaking to him almost as if he were a child (Spark, 2001, p. 90).


24. "'When is your father coming up?" Gwen said.

"Not for ages, if at all. He can't leave Leicester just now, and he hates London."

"You must get him to come and ask Richard what his intentions are. A young girl like you needs protection." (Spark, 2001, p. 150).

25. “Go and wash, Felix, and come quickly and have your tea”, laughed Mary Tincler (Coppard, 2002, p. 112).


26. “You mustn’t look as if you doubt his word. In that area”.

He laughed. “Right” (Fowles, 1980, p. 60).


27. “I shouldn’t like you to do without a holiday that I dare say you’ve been lloking forward to. I can very well go on like this for another week. Go and have your holiday and come to me when it’s over”.

“Thank you very much, sir. Would it do if I came in tomorrow week”.

“Quite well” (Maugham, 1996, p. 186).


28. “That’s not very likely. Have a little pluck, Kitty. How can it possibly be your husband?..(Maugham, 1997, p. 6).


29. “Harry, don’t talk like that. As long as I live, the personality of Dorian Gray will dominate me. You can’t feel what I feel. You change too often.”

“Ah, my dear Basil, that is exactly why I can feel it. Those who are faithful know only the trivial side of love: it is the faithless who know love’s tragedies.” (Wilde, 1979, p. 93).


30. Her name is Sibyl Vane.”

“Never heard of her.”

“No one has. People will some day, however. She is a genius.”

My dear boy, no woman is a genius. Women are a decorative sex. They never have anything to say, but they say it charmingly. Women represent the triumph of matter over mind, just as men represent the triumph of mind over morals.”

“Harry, how can you?”

My dear Dorian, it is quite true. I am analysing women at present, so I ought to know. The subject is not so abstruse as I thought it was. (Wilde, 1979, p. 134).


31. To the present day I can’t make out why I did so; and yet if I hadn’t - my dear Harry, if I hadn’t - I should have missed the greatest romance of my life. I see you are laughing. It is horrid of you!”

“I am not laughing, Dorian; at least I am not laughing at you. But you should not say the greatest romance of your life. You should say the first romance of your life. You will always be loved, and you will always be in love with love. A grande passion is the privilege of people who have nothing to do. That is the one use of the idle classes of a country. Don’t be afraid. There are exquisite things in store for you. This is merely the beginning.” (Wilde, 1979, p. 136).


32. But an actress! How different an actress is! Harry! why didn’t you tell me that the only thing worth loving is an actress?”

“Because I have loved so many of them, Dorian.”

“Oh, yes, horrid people with dyed hair and painted faces.”

Don’t run down dyed hair and painted faces. There is an extraordinary charm in them, sometimes,” said Lord Henry. (Wilde, 1979, p. 139).


33. “Of course,” he said, “we must act with moderation. I’m no jingo. We must be firm without bullying. Will you come up and see my pictures?” (Galsworhty, 1974, p. 75).

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