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1. Kux, Estranged Democracies, p. 250.
2. "Minutes of Meeting of the 303 Committee, 22 April 1966," 26 April 1966, DDRS, #2460-1999.
3. "Text of Cable from Ambassador Bowles," 28 April 1966, DDRS, #3302-1999.
4. Walker interview.
5. Tashi Choedak interview.
6. Gen Gyurme interview.
7. Ibid.; Tendar interview; Baba Yeshi interview; Lobsang Tsultrim interview.
8. "Memorandum for the 303 Committee," 26 January 1968, in FRUS, 1964-1968, 30:740.
9. During a July 1966 trip to Moscow, Mrs. Gandhi offered less than nonaligned remarks about the U.S. role in Vietnam. Although such words pleased her Soviet hosts, President Johnson was livid. Any further thought of linking Vietnam with India's willingness to open a second front in Tibet was quietly dropped.
10. Seifarth lived with his wife at a bungalow at Dehra Dun, a privilege only he enjoyed due to his close rapport with Brigadier Uban. Uban interview; Seifarth interview.
11. On his way back to San Diego, Gougelmann apparently unleashed some of his fury on captured Japanese. His official files include a letter of admonition dated 18 August for his conduct in the treatment of prisoners.
12. New York Times, 13 December 1947, p. 1.
13. Critchfield interview.
14. Interview with Don Stephens, 14 April 2000.
15. Interview with Alan Wolfe, 28 Apri1 2000.
16. Gougelmann's maritime effort is detailed in Conboy and Andrade, Spies and Commandos.
17. Fosmire interview.
18. A sensor had been hurriedly left near the summit of Nanda Devi in October 1965, with the intention of assembling the device properly during the following climbing season. When a second expedition returned to the mountain in May 1966, it discovered that the nuclear generator had been swept away in an avalanche. Fearful that its contents would spill into the sacred Ganges River and poison millions of Hindu worshippers, U.S. and Indian mountaineers began combing Nanda Devi's lower slopes to locate the missing equipment. On 23 July, Gougelmann flew to the Nanda Devi Sanctuary aboard an ARC chopper to inspect this recovery effort.
19. Interview with Henry Booth, 11 April 2000.
20. Uban interview.
21. Sanford interview.
22. Jamba Kalden interview.
23. Although the Tibetans still occasionally made use of the large airborne training base at Oak Tree, Sarsawa's closer proximity to Chakrata made it the favored location for SFF parachute instruction.
24. Hale graduate Conrad, who sampled the special tsampa in 1965, remembers that it had an oily residue but overall good taste. A 1997 letter to the author from Kellogg's Consumer Affairs Department stated that information on the tsampa was considered "proprietary and confidential." Cheme Namgyal interview; correspondence with Diane Backus, Kellogg's Consumer Affairs Department, 1 August 1997.
25. Anand interview.
26. Thuermer interview; Grimsley interview.
27. "Memo for Secretary from Acting Secretary," 21 March 1967, DDRS, #"524-1982.
28. Interview with Woodson Johnson, 27 November 1998.
29. Critchfield interview.
30. Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, r974), p. 50.
31. Lobsang Tsultrim interview; FRUS, 1964-1968,30:741.
32. Interview with John Rickard, 15 November 1999.
33. Bajaj interview.
34. Grimsley interview.
18. Civil War
1. Gen Gyurme interview.
2. Gyalo Thondup interview.
3. Interview with Kesang Kunga, 6 February 1998.
4. Gen Gyurme interview.
5. Lhamo Tsering interview.
6. Tashi Choedak interview.
7. A History of Sino-Indian Relations and "American Diplomacy and the God King," Foreign Service Journal (February 1967): 36-37, were both published under the pen name John Rowland. Tibet: A Chronicle of Exploration (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970) was published under Waller's second pen name, John MacGregor.
8. As RAW director, Kao eventually came to wear a second hat as director general of security.
9. Targeting these sources was not new. Duane Clarridge, a CIA officer assigned to Kathmandu in the late 1950s, recruited a Nepalese trader who had good contacts at the Nepalese mission in Lhasa. See Duane R. Clarridge with Digby Diehl, A Spy For All Seasons: My Life in the CIA (New York: Scribner, 1997), p. 67.
10. Peissel, Mustang, p. 34.
11. "Memorandum prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency," 23 February 1968, in FRUS, 1964-1968, 30:660.
12. Wangchuk Tsering interview.
13. Arnold does not discount the possibility that his ROC competitors scored their own successes. "They might have had some of the same sources as us," he noted (ibid.).
14. Kesang Kunga interview.
15. Lhamo Tsering interview; Lobsang Tsultrim interview.
16. Gyalo Thondup interview. Gyalo kept the extent of his contact with Soviet officials a secret from the CIA and Intelligence Bureau until after it ceased. During a December 1968 conversation with State Department officials, he admitted to having private meetings with Soviet officials, who had allegedly shown greater sympathy toward a potential Tibet resolution at the United Nations. "Memorandum of Conversation," 6 December 1968, in FRUS, 1964-1968,30:743.
17. Interview with William Stites, 19 November 1998.
18. Tashi Choedak interview.
19. Blee interview.
20. Bajaj interview.
21. CIA airborne adviser Alexander MacPherson, a Scot by birth and a naturalized U.S. citizen, qualified the first Indian free-fall parachutist from an An-12 in May 1968.
22. Chutter, Confidential Study, p. 19.
23. In the summer of 1968, Tucker Gougelmann finished his tour and was replaced as the senior CIA paramilitary adviser by another former marine, Joseph "Dick" Johnson. In rnid-1970, Johnson completed his posting and was not replaced by a successor.
24. Uban, Phantoms, p. 40.
25. P. P. Talwar, "Scruffy Guerrillas Are Full of Life," Sainik Samachar, 2 August 1987, p. 8.
26. Uban interview.
28. During the brief December 1971 war, there were fears in Washington that Beijing would intervene on behalf of Pakistan, which in turn would draw the Soviet Union into a wider South Asian conflict. If this had happened, Nixon would have warned Moscow that the United States would not accept Soviet intervention against China if Beijing took action against India. National security adviser Henry Kissinger claims that Nixon would have backed China in that scenario. If true, this is remarkable, given the CIA's nearly decade-long paramilitary program in India to guard against Chinese attack. "National Security Council Memorandum, " 4 February 1977, DDRS, # 3409-1999; Kux, Estranged Democracies, p. 323 n.
19. A Pass Too Far
1. Later guests included former secretary of defense Robert McNamara.
2. Interview with Gen Wongya, 27 October 1998; Bista Temba interview; Peissel, Mustang, p. 148.
3. Interview with Gyanu Babu Adhikari, 31 October 1998.
4. The Rising Nepal, 26 July 1974, p. 1; Gen Gyurme interview.
5. Tashi Choedak interview; Gyanu Babu Adhikari interview.
6. Gyanu Babu Adhikari interview; Gen Gyurme interview.
7. Gen Gyurme interview.
8. Interview with James Lys, 21 November 1998; Gyanu Babu Adhikari interview.
9. The Rising Nepal, 16 October 1974, p. 1. In January 1975, King Birendra handed out another 200 medals, certificates, and cash awards for the Mustang operation. Far Eastern Economic Review, 7 February 1975, p. 35; Gyanu Babu Adhikari interview.
10. The Rising Nepal, 15 October 1974, p. 1. Not wishing to point the finger at the United States, the Nepalese Home Ministry claimed that the captured gear could be purchased in "some markets."
11. The Rising Nepal, 12 September 1974, p. 1; 13 September 1974, p. 4.
12. Wangchuk Tsering interview.
1. Conversation with R. N. Kao, 14 February 1998.
2. Uban's Son, Brigadier G. S. Uban, would later command the SFF until October 2000.
3. Anand interview; interview with Bruce Lehfeldt, 19 May 1999. One of the experimental chutes, with a twenty-eight-foot canopy made of nonporous cloth, was found unsuitable. A larger conical chute was used during successful high-altitude jumps at Ladakh during May 1977.
4. Lieutenant General K. S. Brar, Operation Blue Star, the True Story (New Delhi: UBS Publishers, 1993), p. 39.
5. Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 February 1976, p. 5; 20 May 1977, p. 33. Kathmandu's angst was somewhat understandable. Arms caches were still being uncovered several years after Kaisang was occupied (in 1976, Kaisang was converted into the Mountain Warfare School of the Royal Nepalese Army). Near Tangya, two boys herding yaks were killed by unexploded ordnance as late as 1991.
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