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Theory




Chromosomes, Mandelian inheritance and DNA as a carrier of genetic information; double-helical structure of DNA; forces stabilizing nucleic acid structures; supercoiled DNA; nucleic acids fractionation and sequencing; chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides; DNA polymerase; DNA replication, general aspects and enzymes involved; prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication mechanisms; mutagenesis and mechanism of DNA repair; telomeres and aging; recombination and mobile genetic elements; DNA methylation.

RNAs and their role in protein synthesis; RNA polymerase and transcription; regulation of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; post transcriptional processing.


The genetic code; structure of transfer RNA; prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomal structure; translational processes and their control, protein synthesis inhibitors; post transnational modifications; protein targeting; protein degradation; nonribosomal polypeptide synthesis; structure and genomic organization, regulation of eukoryotic gene expression; cell differentiation; oncogenes and cancer.
Practical:


Preparation and estimation of DNA and RNA; plasmid preparation; DNA restriction and gel electrophoresis.

Recommended Books

  • Molecular Biology, Daved Freifelder, Second Edition (1987), Jones & Barlet Publisher, Boston.

 Molecular Biology of the Cell, B. Alberts. D. Bray, J. Lewis. M. Raff, K. Roberts and J.D. Watson, Third Edition(1994), Garland Publishers.


Ento-401 Introduction to Entomology 3rd semester 3(2-2) credits


Course contents same as included in the prospectus for B. Sc (Hons) Agriculture


Stat-401 Statistics-I 3rd semester 3(2-2) credits


Course contents same as included in the prospectus for B. Sc (Hons) Agriculture


PakS-401 Pakistan Studies 3rd semester 2(2-0)


Course contents same as included in the prospectus for B. Sc (Hons) Agriculture


IBGE-411 RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY 4th semester 4 (3-2) credit


Theory:

An outline of DNA cloning experiment, cloning vectors including plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids, YAC vectors, shuttle and expression vectors; tumor inducing (Ti) plasmids; restriction enzymes; gene splicing, genomic and cDNA libraries, screening methods for gene libraries; Southern and Northern blotting; chromosome walking; site specific mutagenesis; potentials of recombinant DNA technology; PCR; production of proteins; tissue culture techniques; transgenic organisms and gene therapies; restriction fragment length polymorphisms and disease detection (e.g. cystic fibrosis); human genome project; stem cells and therapeutic cloning; social considerations.

Practical


PCR, Southern and Northern blotting; RFLP.

Recommended Books

  • DNA Cloning: A Practical Approach, 2nd edition.4 Volumes. D.M Clover. 1995. Oxford University Press.

  • An Introduction to Genetic Engineering. Desmond S. T. Nicholl. 2002.

  • Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA. B. R. Glick and J. J. Pasternak. 2002. ASM Press



IBGE-412 Biological Chemistry-II 4th Semester 4 (3-2) Credits


THEORY:


1 Carbohydrates


Introduction, Occurrence, Classification of Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides (maltose, Lactose and Sucrose) and Polysaccharides (Starch, glycogen, cellulose, heparin, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluyronic acid), Reactions of Monosaccharides, their structures, functions and biological significance.


2. Lipids


Introduction, Classification, Simple lipids (triacylglyceride, chemistry, physical & chemical properties; waxes), Compound lipids (phospholipid, glycolipid, sulfolipid, lipoprotein) and Derived lipid (Fatty acid, structure, functions, physical & chemical properties; Glycerol and Steroids (Cholesterol, Ergosterol & 7-Dehytdrocholesterol), Functions, separation and biological significance of lipids.


3. Nucleic Acid/ Polynucleotide


Introduction, chemical composition of nucleic acid, Nucleosides and Nucleotides, Classification, DNA (primary & secondary structures, biological functions); RNA (primary & secondary structure, types of RNA, biological functions), separation and significance of Nucleic acids.

PRACTICAL:


Separation and estimation of mono-di-, and polysaccharides; Estimation of sucrose by polar meter; Paper chromatography of sugars; Nucleic acid quantification and separation.


Recommended Books


  • Biochemistry, G. Zubay, 4th Edition. 1998. Brow Dubuque, lowa.

  • Biochemistry, L. Stryer, 5th Edition. 2002). W.H. Freeman & Co.

  • Harper’s Biochemistry, R.K. Murray, D.K. Grammer, P.A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, 25th Edition. 2000. Appleton & Lange.



IBGE-413 MICROBIAL GENETICS 4th semester 4 (3-2) Credits


Theory:


Morphology and life cycles of bacteria and viruses; recombination in bacteria, transformation, transduction and conjugation, their types, mechanisms and significance. gene mapping in bacteria; mode of action of antibiotics and development of resistance; extra chromosomal elements; plasmids classification with emphasis on R-factors, bactariocins, biodegradative and yeast plasmids; transposable elements; IS elements, types and function; muphage-structure, life cycle integration and significance, transposition; integrons; recombination in bacteriophages; virulent and avirulent phages.


Practical:


Growth curve of bacteria; induction of lytic cycle by U.V; oligodynamic action of metals on bacteria and yeast; detection of R-plasmids in bacterial strains; detection of transposons in bacterial strains; curing of bacterial plasmids; detection of mutants using replica plating techniques; transfer of genetic markers through conjugation; gene mapping by interrupted mating in bacteria and detection of mutagenic activity by Ames test/yeast system.


Recommended Books


  • Microbial Genetics, Maloy S. R. , J. Jr Cronan, D. Freifelder, J. E. Cronan, Second Edition, Jones & Bartlett Pub; 1994

  • Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, Dale J. , 3rd edition, John Wiley & Son Ltd; 1998

  • Modern Microbial Genetics, Streips U. N. , R. E. Yasbin, 2nd edition, 2002, John Wiley & Sons.

  • Microbial Gene Techniques (Methods in Molecular Genetics Vol 6), Adolph K. W. Academic Press; 1995.



Stat-411 Statistics-II 4th semester 3(2-2)


Course contents same as included in the prospectus for B. Sc (Hons) Agriculture


PPL-411 Introduction to Plant Pathology 4th semester 3(2-2)


Course contents same as included in the prospectus for B. Sc (Hons) Agriculture
IBGE-501 METABOLISM-I 5th Semester 4 (3-2) Credits
THEORY:
Introduction of Metabolism (catabolic and anabolic pathways); Principles & Regulation of pathways; Role of ATP in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipid and proteins; Interrelationships between carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
Carbohydrate metabolism, sources of glucose to organism (exogenous and endogenous), digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, utilization and storage of glucose, anaerobic and aerobic oxidation of glucose, alternate pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (HMP shunt), Gluconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism; Electron transport chain.
The biosynthesis of fatty acids (Lipogenesis), its importance, inhibition and regulation, microsomal system of fatty acid elonation; Fatty acid oxidation, Alpa, beta and omea-oxidation of fatty acid, its importance and regulation; Ketone bodies formation, excretion and their utilization by the body; Biosynthesis of molo, di and triacylglycerols & phospholipids (lecithin, cephalin), their importance and regulation and catabolism; Biosynthesis, regulation and inhibition of Cholesterol.



PRACTICAL:


Estimation of glucose, lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid etc; Determination of fatty acid, triacylglycerol, lycerol, pospolipids and cholesterol.


Recommended Books


  • Concepts in Biochemistry, R. F. Boyer. 1999. Books –Cole Publishing Co., USA.

  • The Basic Protein and Peptide Protocols, J.M. Walker. 1994. Humana Press.



IBGE-502 TECHNIQUES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 5th semester 4 (3-2) Credits


Theory:


General methods of fractionation and characterization of proteins and nucleic acids; dialysis; ultrafiltration; lyophilisation; principles and application of visible, UV, IR, MALDI – TOF, NMR spectroscopy in biotechnology; flame photometry; atomic absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction, principle and application in the study of proteins; principle and applications of electron microscopy; principle and applications of centrifugation; principles and applications of adsorption, partition, ion-exchange, hydrophobic and affinity chromatography; chromatofocussing; principles and application of gas chromatography and HPLC; native and SDS-PAGE; isoelectric focussing,; immunoelectrophoresis; . 2-D gel electrophoresis; Western blotting: ELISA.
Practical:


Use and demonstration of variety of chromatographic, electrophoretic and other techniques used for the study of biological compounds and reactions. Western blotting for protein identification.
Recommended Books

  • Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology. S. Surzyeki. 2000. Springer.

  • Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. M. Ausubel. 2001. Cold-Springer-Harber.

  • Molecular Cloning: A laboratory Manual 3Vol. Set. Joseph Sambrook. 3rd Edition.

  • An Introduction to Genetic Engineering. Desmond S. T. Nicholl. 2002.



IBGE-503 Enzymology 5th Semester 4 (3-2)Credits


THEORY



Enzymes; Nomenclature and Classification of enzymes; General properties of enzymes; Chemical nature of enzymes; Co-enzymes, Prosthetic groups of catalyzed reactions (Effect of pH and temperature, Substrate concentration, Enzyme concentration, End product inhibition, Presence of metal ions); Enzyme inhibition and kinetics (Competitive, Non-competitive and Un-competitive inhibition); Bi-substrate reactions; Catalytic mechanisms; Enzyme units and determination of enzyme activity; Isolation and intracellular localization of enzymes; Allosteric enzyme and its regulation; Enzyme kinetics, Michaelis-Menten equation, Lineweaver-Burk’s plot, Determination of Km and Kcat.


PRACTICAL


Preparation of crude extract and enzyme assay; Effect of pH, temperature, substrate and enzyme concentration on activity of enzyme; Effect of co-factors, activators and inhibitors; Determination of enzyme kinetics, Km and V max. Enzyme stability study.


Recommended Books


  • Fundamentals of Enzymology. N. Price, and L. Stevens, 1999. 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.

  • Biochemistry, G. Zubay, Fourth Edition (1998), WCB publisher.



IBGE-504 BIOINFORMATICS 5th semester 4 (4-0) Credits
Theory:


Introduction to computer hardware and software; computer applications for biotechnologists, basic principles, spreadsheet work, word processing, graphical and statistical analysis packages, document preparation; software for biotechnology teaching and research; websites retrieving for biotechnological information; genomic and proteomic data; interpretation of sequence data.

Recommended Books




  • Introduction to Bioinformatics. (A Theoretical and Practical Approach). A. Krawetz and D. Womble. 2002. Humana Press.



PPL-502 Introduction to Plant Viruses (Elective) 5th semester 4(3-2) credits


Course contents same as included in the prospectus for B. Sc (Hons) Agriculture


IBGE-511 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 6th semester 4 (3-2) Credits


Theory:


History of plant tissue culture; different basic media and their components; tatipotancy; callus culture; haploid production; organogenesis; embryogensis; somaclonal variation, in vitro multiplication, cell and protoplast culture; cryopreservation; germ plasma preservation. Plant genetic engineering; delivery system (electroparation, agrobactgerim and particle gun); transgenic plant production and molecular analysis; GM crops and their assessment; biosafety guidelines; marker assisted selection; DNA finger printing; biofertilizers and bio insectisides


Practical:

Seed culture; embryo culture; anther culture, microspore culture for double, haploid, micro propagation by auxiliary buds; adventitious shoot proliferation; plant regeneration by organgenisis; somatic embryogenesis from callus culture; meristems culture for virus elimination; in vitro fertilization; protoplast isolation and culture; agrobacterium mediated transformation; ELISA to certify pathogen free plants.

Recommended Books

  • Plant Biotechnology. S. Ignacimutu, 1997. Oxford IBH Publisher, N. Delhi.

  • Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology: A Laboratory Manual M. S.. Punia, 1999. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.

  • Applied Plant Biotechnology. V.L. Chopra, V.S. Malik and S.R. Bhat. 2000. Oxford IBH Publishers, New Delhi.


IBGE-512 ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 6th semeter 4(3-2) Credits


History and application of cell and tissue culture techniques; cell and its environment; factors effecting growth of cultured cells; contact inhibition, cell types and morphology, cell strains. Establishment of cell lines; cell cycle, chromosomes, polyploidy, karyotypes; genetics of cells in culture; cell transformation with physical, chemical and biological agents; origin of mutant cell line, negative selection, cell fusion, heterokaryons and hybridomas.


Practical:

Handling and preservation of animal cells; primary culture of chick embryo fibroblasts cloning of animal cells,; culture of lymphoid cells, cytotoxicity evaluation, cell transformation.
Recommended Books

  • Animal Biotechnology, Comprehensive Biotechnology, I.A. Philips and M. Moo-Young (1989), Elsevier Science.

  • Molecular Biotechnology, Principle and Applications, Glick, B.R. (1996), A.S.M. Press.


IBGE-513 METABOLISM II 6th Semester 4 (3-2) Credits


THEORY:


Nitrogen metabolism, Biocemical ractions involved in amino acid metabolism i. e. deamination, decarboxylation and Transamination; Urea cycle and its regulation; Metabolic breakdown of essential and non-essential amino acids; Amino acids as biosynthetic precursors.


Chemical nature and synthesis of rebonucleotides; Nucleotide degradation; Synthesis of nucleotide coenzymes; Integration, control and disorders of metabolic pathways related to amino acids and nucleotides metabolism.


PRACTICAL:

Determination of proteins, amino acid, urea, uric acid, NH3; separation of nucleotides and nucleosides by TLC.


Recommended Books


  • Concepts in Biochemistry, R. F. Boyer. 1999. Books –Cole Publishing Co., USA.

  • The Basic Protein and Peptide Protocols, J.M. Walker. 1994. Humana Press.



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