Tools/Sources for Biblical Research

НазваниеTools/Sources for Biblical Research
Размер1.26 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   20

Biblical-Theological Resources

for AGTS Doctoral Students []

Biblical-Theological Resources

The following pages contain a compilation of

biblical-theological resources prepared by

AGTS Biblical Studies Faculty.

Special thanks to Dr. Roger Cotton,

Dr. Edgar Lee, Dr. Doug Oss, Dr. Jim Hernando,

Dr. James Railey, and Dr. Ben Aker for their

contributions to this resource.

Compiled by Dr. Lois Olena, D. Min. Project Coordinator

2 April 2008 [revised July 2010]


Introductory Materials

Basic Exegesis Guidelines (Cotton) 4

Doing Word Studies in the Bible (Cotton) 5

Flow Chart for Doing Word Studies on Bible Words in the Old Testament (Cotton) 7

Studying a Theme of Old Testament Theology (Cotton) 8

How to do a New Testament Word Study (Hernando) 9

Guidelines for Biblical-Theological Papers (Oss) 12

Redemptive-Historical Unfolding (Oss) 18

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research

General Research Resources 21

Theological Research and Writing 21

Books on How to Interpret Scripture 21

Basic Bibliography for Biblical Interpretation (Oss) 23

Bible Versions—English 26

Study Bibles 26

Understanding Bible Translations (Oss) 26

Concordances 27

Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias 27

Background History and Culture Studies 28

Word Books/Theological Dictionaries 28

Old Testament 28

New Testament 29

Lexicons 30

Biblical Theologies 30

General 30

Old Testament Theology 30

New Testament Theology 36

Biblical Theological Reflection on the Church and Ministry 37

Systematic Theology Resources 39

Introductions and Specialized Studies 39

Arminian/Wesleyan 40

Lutheran 41

Neo-Orthodox/Modern Continental 41

Pentecostal/Charismatic 42

Reformed/Baptistic/Dispensational 43

Roman-Catholic 44

Surveys 44

Old Testament Survey 44

New Testament Survey 44

Commentaries 45

Sets 45

One-Volume Commentaries 45

Old Testament 45

New Testament 51

Other 52

Difficult Questions


Essays in books that are collections of essays

Specialized scholarly books on a focused topic


Evangel University Resources (These were prepared for undergraduates, but 53

contain helpful resources available for graduate and doctoral

students as well.)

  • Information Sources: Biblical Studies (rev. 2009) 53

  • Information Sources: Exegesis (rev. 2009) 58

  • Religions Indexes Journal Listing (rev. 2010) 70

Introductory Materials


by Roger D. Cotton

  1. Keep sound hermeneutical, exegetical thinking.

A. Keep asking: What was the author’s intended meaning?

B. Consider all the contextual evidence for the meaning from language, history and culture, literary features, and theology. Prioritize in circles of context: 1) the surrounding literary unit; 2) the book; 3) the same author; 4) the same genre; 5) the same subject; 6) the same time period; 7) the rest of the testament; 8) the whole Bible.

C. Seek to understand the significance of what is written for the people then, culturally and theologically, and state it in terms of principles. Then propose the significance for us today in

terms of theological principles and finally specific applications.

2. Answer the major questions from the basic resources.

  1. Study the most probable meanings of the major terms and phrases. Read in various versions including NASB, ESV, CEV, NLT, and NIV. Use: lexicons—BAGD, HALOT; concordances—New Englishman’s Hebrew or Greek Conc. or NIV ones; wordbooks including NIDOTTE, TWOT, TDNT or abridged, NIDNTT. Study cross-references and parallel passages.

B. Determine the meaning and significance for them then of essential historical and cultural points.

Use: encyclopedias, surveys, background books, exegetical commentaries.

C. Analyze the flow of thought within the passage by diagramming it.

D. Place the passage within the document by outlining the latter and comparing yours to the outlines

in the best exegetical commentaries.

E. Note what the genre characteristics and literary devices indicate about the author’s intent. See what the best exegetical commentaries and literary scholars say about them. Check Dictionary of Bib. Imagery.

F. Read the studies available on the passage by other exegetes, especially on the theology of it. See: the best exegetical commentaries especially NIC, Tyndale, Expositor’s, Word; journals; specialized studies, e.g. Horton’s on the Holy Spirit; OT theologies, e.g. Martens, House, (OT) and Ladd (NT).

G. Draw conclusions on the meaning and significance then and the significance now. Meditate and


3. For a topic, bring together the above results for each of the passages pertaining to it and

synthesize the Bible teaching on the topic.

A. Be sure to let each Bible writer give his unique contribution to the topic.

B. Try not to force any categories on the data but seek those of the Bible writers.

Doing Word Studies in the Bible

By Roger Cotton

The key question we must ask to interpret a passage of the Scriptures and understand what God is saying through it is what did the Bible writer, led by the Holy Spirit, mean in that context to those people? To get at that meaning, one of the basic questions to ask is how did the writer use the key words or phrases considering how they were used in that world? The answer to that question is found by doing word studies because we have not grown up in their world, speaking their language. However, there is a temptation in doing word studies that we must avoid and that is to treat Bible words as having magical power to be discovered, especially by tracing their roots. Words, including those used in the Bible, are just symbols, used in human language, to communicate truths and concepts. God speaks to humanity clearly, not in secret codes. He gave us His written word through real people in real human language the way those people actually spoke.

Therefore, the goal of a word study should be to understand the meaning the Bible writer intended by the word or phrase in the passage under study by presenting the evidence of all the possible uses/meanings of the word or phrase in the world of that Bible writer and then choosing the meaning that best fits the particular context. It is important to always remember that words are used and are to be understood in combination with other words. Nevertheless, the tool one must use to find every use in the Old or New Testaments—the data base for any word study—is an exhaustive concordance. (A wonderful, unique, ability of computers is to search combinations of words, quickly and thoroughly.) Old Testament words must be studied from the Hebrew text of the OT (or Aramaic in parts of Ezra and Daniel). New Testament words must be studied from the Greek New Testament but can also be connected to usage in the ancient Greek translation of the OT, which was used by the first century Christians, called the Septuagint. A concordance is the key tool for any word studies.

The first step in an Old Testament or a New Testament word study is to find the Hebrew or Greek word behind the English word that the translators chose and that represents an idea we want to understand better from a certain passage. Then, we can look up the original word in a Hebrew or Greek concordance and see every place it was used in the OT or the NT. From reading those references we should list the various meanings for the word in the OT or NT that are possible in our passage and choose the meaning that best fits this context. Finally, after doing this work, ourselves, from the biblical data, we then need to read the word studies done by OT or NT scholars and draw our own conclusions on the best understanding. Just because a person is a scholar does not mean he or she is right about the meaning of every Bible passage.

For English speaking Bible students who do not know Hebrew or Greek there are plenty of tools to enable them to do word studies. Obviously, various computer programs can provide needed information. Among printed books, there are concordances to particular versions which use a numbering system for identifying the Hebrew or Greek words behind the English words. Next, there are Hebrew and Greek concordances which use those numbering systems so that we can go to that Hebrew or Greek word and see a listing of every place it is used. For the King James Version there is Strong’s concordance and numbering system which then is used by the Englishman’s Hebrew or Greek Concordances. For the NIV there is the NIV Exhaustive Concordance with their numbering system and then the Hebrew-English or Greek-English Concordances for use with the NIV. After we do this study we should read the article on the word in either the New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis for a Hebrew word, or the corresponding dictionary for the NT Greek words. Finally, we should write our own summary of the meaning with our reasons for our conclusions based on the best Bible references that illustrate that meaning in similar situations elsewhere in the Scriptures.

An example is the word for “kill” in Exodus 20:13 in the KJV or “murder” in the NIV. Through the concordances for either version we can get a number that leads us to the Hebrew word ratsach and the list of its every occurrence in the Old Testament. From this list we can see that it is not a general word for killing but is used only of killing people. Furthermore, it is sometimes used of accidental killing, especially in Numbers. Thus, we may conclude that the basic idea represented by this word is the action of taking a human life that is not authorized by God. Certainly, in the context of the Ten Commandments this word refers to a willful choice that is prohibited and thus, is best translated murder. However, God may authorize a government to execute capital punishment or warfare which does not break this commandment.

Anyone can do this kind of study and come to a much more accurate and insightful understanding of the Bible writer’s message as well as be much better equipped to evaluate what scholars are saying. Thank the Lord for the many tools we have. Let us diligently examine the Scriptures as the Bereans did (Acts 17:11) and be workers who do not need to be ashamed (2 Tim. 2:15).

Flow Chart for Doing Word Studies on Bible Words in the Old Testament

By Roger Cotton, Th.D.

1. English word

2. Find the Hebrew word through the number in an English concordance

3. Look at every use through a Hebrew concordance

4. Read scholarly word studies

Begin with an English Word in a verse that deals with something that could be helpful you understood better how the Bible people meant it.

Recommended tool:


Go to an exhaustive English Concordance for that translation. You need to be working with a version with a concordance that has a number system to designate the Hebrew word behind the English word so that you can get at the real idea you want to understand better.

Find your verse under the English word and get the number for the Hebrew word that it translates.

[NIV Exhaustive Concordance]

Go to that number—that Hebrew word—in an exhaustive Hebrew-English Concordance keyed to that number system and find the Hebrew word. Then look at every place it is used in the O.T. List the various uses and show the range of usage. Then propose where your verse fits in that range.

[NIV Hebrew English Concordance]

Go to scholarly word studies on the Hebrew word that are keyed to the number system.


  1. Finally, write your own summary essay on the use of this word in God’s teachings and what He meant through the human writer in your passage.


by Roger Cotton

1. Make sure you have narrowed the theme down to a manageable size for your purpose and have clearly restricted it to the specific aspects you are really interested in.

2. Identify the key words and phrases as well as images, metaphors, and cultural comparisons used to describe the truths of your theme, from the major passages that deal with it.

3. Find every passage that makes any significant contribution to the understanding of your theme in the Old Testament from concordances and various sources of cross references. Be sure to use the New Englishman's Hebrew concordance, or another that lists every place a Hebrew word is used, or a computer program that does the same, for all the references to the key Hebrew words and phrases involved in your theme.

4. List the principles you see in each of the passages, distinguishing the contexts of the various writers, genres, and time periods as you do, so that you recognize the different purposes and angles being stressed. Let each writer speak their own contribution in their own context. You must do quick but accurate exegesis of each passage.

5. Read the word studies done in NIDOTTE; also may want to check TWOT, and TDOT.

6. Research the key words, phrases, and the theme topic in other scholarly literature including: Bible encyclopedias (new ISBE, and ABD); New Dictionary of Biblical Theology; Dictionaries of the OT: Pentateuch, History, etc.; Dictionary of Biblical Imagery; monographs; journals; the best exegetical commentaries; Old Testament Theologies (Davidson, Eichrodt, Von Rad, Payne, Martens, House, Waltke, Dyrness); and NIDOTTE, vol 4, Topical Dictionary).

7. Compile all the principles or truths you have found to be involved in your theme as you have studied all the significant passages and what the scholars have observed. Then find a few basic, natural, groupings of the principles in order to organize your material. Be aware of the Bible writers' categories versus ours.

8. Outline the presentation simply, clearly, logically, consistently, using either a natural topical order or the order of the canon, the latter showing any progressive revelation, for presentation to a seminary class. Be sure to cite all major supporting scriptures.

9. Draw conclusions on what God was saying to Israel then and what principles He wants us to apply to the church today.

For an excellent summary of the principles and process of doing Old Testament theology, with illustrations, see essay # 10 in NIDOTTE vol 1, pp. 185-205, “Integrating Old Testament Theology and Exegesis: Literary, Thematic, and Canonical Issues,” by Richard Schultz.

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   20


Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconDigital Arts Research Concepts, Artifacts and Tools for Creative Practice

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconThis list contains titles on the folklore reference shelves which should be useful in searching for pertinent sources for folkloristic research. Like the books

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconModeling & Tools: Information Systems Using the Knowledge Pyramid to Characterize Systems J. N. Martin, The Aerospace Corporation Modeling & Tools: Multiple Sectors

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconКонспект лекций по курсу
Линейные управляемые источники, задаваемые преобразованиями Лапласа (Laplace Sources) и z-преобразованиями (z transform Sources)...
Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconThe Art of Biblical Narrative

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconAn Analysis of Biblical Feminist Hermeneutics

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconThe location of medieval and biblical ziklag

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconBiblical Languages, Texts and Translations V

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconNature and development of operation research, some mathematical preliminaries, general methodology of operation research, application of operation research to

Tools/Sources for Biblical Research iconGet the promotional tools you need here

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2014
обратиться к администрации
Главная страница