Russia's participation in the "Group of Twenty," "the Group of Eight" and the brics




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FOREIGN POLICY
And diplomatic activities
RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2011






OVERVIEW OF RUSSIA





Moscow, March 2012


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

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3

MULTILATERAL DIPLOMACY

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8

Russia's participation in UN activities

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8

Russia's participation in the "Group of Twenty," "the Group of Eight" and the BRICS


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15

International cooperation in the fight against new challenges and
threats


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22

Disarmament, Arms Control and Nonproliferation

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29

Conflict resolution, crisis response

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38

Dialogue between civilizations

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47

GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS OF FOREIGN POLICY

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49

The space of the CIS

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49

Europe

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59

USA and Canada

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90

Asia-Pacific

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98

South Asia

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113

Middle East and North Africa

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116

Africa

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121

Latin America and the Caribbean


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124

ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY

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127

LEGAL SUPPORT OF FOREIGN POLICY

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134

HUMANITARIAN DIRECTION OF FOREIGN POLICY


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142

Human rights issues


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142

Protecting the interests of compatriots abroad

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147

Consular Work

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150

Cooperation in the field of culture, science and education

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154

Collaboration with the Federal Assembly, political parties and civil society



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160

Interregional and transfrontier cooperation

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167

INFORMATION FOR FOREIGN POLICY

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171

HISTORICAL ARCHIVAL ACTIVITY

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173

INSPECTION WORK

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176

SECURITY ZAGRANUCHREZHDENY
And Russian citizens abroad


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177











INTRODUCTION

In 2011, the foreign policy of the Russian Federation carried out under conditions of accelerating the transformation of the geopolitical landscape, accompanied by the accumulation of the crisis in the global economy and turmoil in many countries, including the problems of the eurozone and the dramatic events in the Middle East and North Africa. In this situation, the Russian diplomacy has acted proactively, responsibly, consistently and pragmatically. Despite the growth of turbulence in international relations, for the past year Russia has been generally favorable.
Breakthrough results are achieved in the priority area for us, CIS, celebrates 20 years of education. Signed Agreement on free trade zone, stimulating trade and economic cooperation of the Commonwealth of uniform and transparent rules. He began full-functioning customs union with Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan - 'integration core' Community. Ratified by the basic package of agreements governing the launch of the Single Economic Space (CES) "troika" of January 1, 2012 Particular importance was the signing of the Presidents of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Commission for adoption of the Declaration of the Eurasian economic integration, the task of proclaiming the formation in 2015 , the Eurasian Economic Union, designed to not only revive the historic national economic win-win relation to the former Soviet Union, but also to become defining the future of our country a model of powerful supranational union, open to other states. Being built on universal principles of integration as an integral part of the European space, the new Union must become an effective bridge between Europe and Asia-Pacific region (APR).
The key event marking the outcome of long-term and complex foreign policy work, it was Russia's accession to the WTO take full account of the interests of our national conditions. The beginning of a qualitatively new stage of integration of Russia into world economic system. Russia's accession to the WTO opens new opportunities for advancement along the path of modernization and innovation and technological development.
Filled with concrete actions constructive strategic dialogue with the EU. Russia-EU summit in Brussels, Nizhny Novgorod, and contributed to the progressive realization of the concept of "Partnership for Modernization." Adopted by the "road map" for the joint promotion of visa-free space, work continued on a new basic agreement.
A major step in building mutually beneficial energy partnerships and strengthening the European energy security was the launch of the first phase of trans-European gas pipeline "Nord Stream". Work continued on the project "South Stream".
In cooperation with NATO conducted a search for joint responses to common challenges of our time in order to create a Euro-Atlantic architecture of equal and indivisible security. An important component of this process is the Russian initiative to conclude a treaty on European security.
Steadily and rapidly developing relations with the U.S., including contacts at the highest level. Entered into force a new Russian-US treaty on further reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms, the Agreement on cooperation in peaceful nuclear energy, signed an Agreement on Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, an exchange of notes on the conclusion of agreements on visa simplification. Largely thanks to the assistance the U.S. has successfully completed the multilateral negotiations on Russia's accession to the WTO.
However, fundamental differences persisted on the establishment of the European segment of the U.S. global missile defense, it was not possible to reach mutually acceptable solutions to the legally binding guarantees it’s directed against Russia's strategic potential. In his statement on November 23 in connection with the situation around the ABM system in Europe, NATO, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev emphasized the risks of implementation of these plans for global security and strategic stability, laid out countermeasures to be taken by Russia in the event of further development events on the negative scenario.
Not always, Russian position coincided with the approach of the Western partners in the settlement of internal conflicts and regional crises. In the context of deep turmoil and dramatic events on the vast expanse of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a serious challenge to the existing system of international relations was beyond the scope of UN sanctions, external interference in the internal conflicts of sovereign states, primarily in Libya. Consistently advocated, especially in the UN for an end to violence, from whatever quarter, for the settlement of internal conflicts in accordance with international law, by peaceful means, through a representative inclusive dialogue, while respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the MENA, without interfering with the their internal affairs.
Despite the fundamental transformation in the region, continued efforts to unblock the situation in the Middle East peace process and restart the negotiation process. The focus on questions of Russian diplomacy to seek a peaceful settlement and to avoid power versions of events in connection with the Iranian nuclear program, the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula, the situation around Afghanistan and Pakistan. Positive to record the beginnings of the Nagorno-Karabakh and the Transnistrian settlement.
Russia's foreign policy has remained consistent and multi-vector "polyphonic". Actively participated in UN and other international organizations and multilateral networking associations such as the "Group of Eight," "The Group of Twenty," BRICS, SCO, etc. On the eve of the Russian chairmanship of APEC in 2012 acquired a special significance in the efforts to integrate economic Asia-Pacific area. Connected to the East Asia Summit. Much attention was paid to the expansion of comprehensive cooperation with China, India, Japan and other Asia Pacific countries. Promoted a pragmatic and mutually beneficial relations of partnership with diverse states of the Middle East, Africa and Latin America.
Russian diplomacy has always stood for the supremacy of the fundamental norms of international law in relations between states, remained committed to forming a new, more just and democratic world order. In practice, relied on the fact, which became universal in the fundamental principles of international relations, foreign policy, including pragmatism, openness, predictability, and multidirectional, consistent, but without sliding to confrontation, the promotion of national interests. Have been open to deepening cooperation with all who showed interest in this, on the basis of equality, respect each other's interests and mutual benefit.
Given the increasingly complex and multidimensional nature of modern international relations have sought to reveal the full and effective resource of "soft power", actively supported by the tools of public diplomacy, develop relations with NGOs, experts and the business community, the media in order to ensure a consensual nature and improve the effectiveness of our foreign policy. Prominent role in this work, in particular, played by, in accordance with the orders of the President of the Russian Federation Russian Council for Foreign Affairs and Public Diplomacy Fund Gorchakov.
In general, sought to ensure that our entire foreign policy was aimed at creating favorable external conditions for the modernization of the Russian economy, the implementation of long-term development goals of our country, providing a stable and confident position of the Russian Federation in the mainstream of international life in the unifying agenda aimed to search for joint responses to the challenges of the modern era.
An important event, contributing to strengthening foreign policy coordination and provide a clear and well-coordinated work of all parts of the state apparatus in the field of international activities, including a reliable and effective protection of Russian national interests in relations with foreign states and international organizations in a rapidly changing international environment, the adoption of November 8, 2011 of a new Russian President's Decree "On the coordination of the Russian Foreign Ministry to conduct a common foreign policy of the Russian Federation."

MULTILATERAL DIPLOMACY

Russia's participation in UN activities


Russia supported the further strengthening of the role of the UN, which has a universal mandate and generally recognized legitimacy, in the most important issues in world politics. Particular importance was paid as a guarantor of the rule of international law. The increasing turbulence in international relations, regional imbalance in the political landscape in the Middle East and North Africa, held a steady course to ensure rigorous and responsible attitude to the fundamental norms and principles of the UN Charter, any attempt to counteract or expansion of their use, including for justification for military intervention in internal conflicts. As a permanent member of UN Security Council insisted on the inevitability of their settlement in the peace process based on a meaningful and inclusive dialogue between authorities and opposition and unconditional cessation of violence.Targetted the UN Security Council to develop clear, do not admit of doubt peacekeeping mandates, especially those related to the use of force, and to ensure strict control over their implementation.
During the 66th session of UN General Assembly as a result of purposeful work of the Russian delegation managed to provide increased support for Russia submitted draft resolutions of the UN, "Advances in information and telecommunications in the context of international security" and the "inadmissibility of certain practices that contribute to fueling contemporary forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance. »
As part of promoting the Russian initiative on measures to ensure transparency and confidence building in outer space activities (TCBMs) in the First Committee of the UN consensus decision on the establishment in 2012-2013. Group of Governmental Experts to conduct research in this area.
"In the fields," the 66th session of the UN is actively promoting Russian approaches to nuclear disarmament, emphasizing the dependence of progress in this direction on a number of factors directly affecting the global strategic stability. These include the U.S. and NATO plans to deploy strategic missile defense system in Europe, the threat of weapons in space, the implementation of projects for the creation of strategic offensive armaments in nonnuclear, the continuing imbalance in conventional weapons in Europe, etc.
In September, in order to launch a broad international process on issues of international information security (IIS) as an official document of the 66th Session of the UN was distributed jointly prepared by Russia, China, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan the draft "Rules of conduct in the field of the IIB."
Russia has participated in 10 of the 16 operations of UN peacekeeping by sending 227 peacekeepers to conflict zones, including military observers and police officers. When planning or modification issued by the UN Security Council mandates for peacekeeping operations, questioned the need for improved military expertise through more active use of the capabilities of the Military Staff Committee.
Participated in the activities of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, contributing to its institutional capacity and efficiency of work and continuing to carry out annual contributions to the UN Peacebuilding Fund in the amount of U.S. $ 2 million.
Carried out a consistent line in favor of UN cooperation with regional organizations, especially the CSTO and the SCO. Charts a course to deepen cooperation between the UN and the Collective Security Treaty Organization in the fields of combating terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), to counter transnational crime and drug trafficking, and peacemaking.
Russia pursued a balanced line for UN reform to improve its efficiency and to ensure adequate response to a variety of challenges and threats to international peace and security. Continued to participate actively in the negotiations on modalities of reforming the UN Security Council for the exit on the broadest possible consensus on the final reformist formula. In the preservation of fundamental differences of UN Member States, the Russian delegation supported the continuation of discussion on all the existing proposals, without forcing the decision-making against the artificial restriction on the agenda or statement on the vote of any reform proposals. Firmly set aside attempts to limit the powers of a key UN body with primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security, as well as the prerogatives of its permanent members.
On the economic direction of the UN focused on the use of its socio-economic institutions to address the priorities in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), improving the practical impact of Russia's participation in multilateral economic cooperation and the creation of a favorable international climate for full integration of our country in the global economy.
Reaffirming its commitment to the MDGs, the Russian side was involved in preparing the final document in May the 4th UN Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDCs) - Istanbul Programme of Action for the LDCs, designed to give political impetus to international cooperation in order to derive these states on the path of sustainable growth and sustainable development.
The UN and its regional commissions, with the active participation of Russia held an exchange of information and best practices on road safety (BDD). Our country has firmly cemented its leadership in this area, playing a proactive role in incorporating BJJ perspective on the international agenda. The discussion in the 2012 theme "Global Crisis in the field of road safety," the Russian side intends to make a new draft UN resolution on this issue.
Russia significantly strengthened its position in the Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). Extensive use of their opportunities for promotion of economic cooperation with countries in Europe, Asia and CIS.
The 64th session of the ECE (March) confirmed the importance of Russia's cooperation with this institution. Project activities of the Commission, funded by Russia's voluntary contribution, was focused on the practical needs of the CIS, with emphasis on economic modernization, improvement and diversification of infrastructure, strengthening the mutually beneficial integration links. In the framework of the Russian contribution to the ECE is planned for 15 projects. Among the areas of joint activity - development of transport routes in the Eurasian region, the solution of water and energy problems of Central Asia, the simplification of international trade, issues of statistics.
Russia as a donor country has continued to increase its contribution to ESCAP, which is an important partner in the implementation of international programs in the Asia-Pacific region, including those related to the achievement of the MDGs. Russia's voluntary contribution contributed to the implementation of important projects to promote Asia-Pacific countries.
Concentrated on the increasingly important issues for the global community for sustainable development, environmental protection, urban planning and public health.
Careful attention to the activities of the leading international environmental conventions and agreements, continue its cooperation with the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat).Russia played a leading role in international efforts to reduce human influence on the climate system of the planet, took an active part in the preparation and conduct of the UN Climate Conference in Durban (South Africa, December).
The process of transformation of Russia's cooperation with UN organizations in the context of the transition of our country from the category of recipient countries of technical assistance to the group of donors of international development. Following the United Nations Development Programme in December completed its activities in Russia, the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). Simultaneously, work was carried out to establish the Russian National Committee for UNICEF. In addition to the annual voluntary contribution to the Fund (U.S. $ 1 million), Russia has listed in his line of U.S. $ 1 million to provide humanitarian aid to Libya to fight the effects of famine in the Horn of Africa states.
A voluntary contribution (200 thousand U.S. dollars) in Training and Research (UNITAR), including the organization of international training courses for diplomats of the CIS countries on the basis of MGIMO (University) MFA Russia.
In the framework of enhanced cooperation with UNIDO's work began to prepare for the implementation of new projects in the field of technology transfer, investment and strengthening the industrial capacity in Mongolia, Moldova and other CIS countries from the Russian voluntary contributions to UNIDO (U.S. $ 2.6 million).
Participated in the 4th High-Level Forum on Development (Republic of Korea, November-December). Was the development of regulatory frameworks to create the Russian Agency for International Development.
Prominent place occupied by the interaction with UNESCO. In November, ended Russia's chairmanship of the Executive Council in which Russia strongly promoted their approaches on a wide range of pressing international problems, intensified cooperation in the program areas of UNESCO.
The traditional priority remained the interaction in the field of education. In the North-Eastern Federal University. Ammosov (Yakutsk) established UNESCO Chair in Social and human adaptation of the Arctic regions to climate change. At the International Conference "Partnership UNESCO Chairs in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Education: Innovations and Best Practices" in St. Petersburg decided to form an international network of UNESCO Chairs in ICTs. 25 Russian schools were awarded certificates, "the Associated Schools of UNESCO."
Successfully developing scientific cooperation. In the framework of UNESCO program "Man and Biosphere" (MAB) program of the 40th Russian object - Nature Park "Volga - Akhtuba floodplain" - is included into the World Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO, numbering 580 sites in 114 countries.
Particular attention was paid to promote cooperation with UNESCO, Russian non-state actors. In Brussels, the International Year of Chemistry, signed a Memorandum of Understanding between UNESCO and the Russian Open Society "PhosAgro" (November), providing grants to fund promising research projects of young scientists and chemists.
In contact with UNESCO have been working to strengthen the various mechanisms of inter - civilizational dialogue. Together with the Russian Orthodox Church promoted the idea of
​​a UNESCO Director-General's High Level Group on interreligious dialogue.
Worked closely with the Organization in the field of culture. World Heritage Committee decided to hold its 36th session in St. Petersburg in June and July 2012 in October in Kiev at the 26th meeting of the Council for Cultural Cooperation of the CIS countries at the level of Ministers of Culture of the Russian side at the suggestion of a Centre conservation of World Heritage of the CIS.
In accordance with the Agreement between the Government of Russia and UNESCO in 2010 on the financing of the restoration of Orthodox shrines in Kosovo, our country is in full made a voluntary contribution to the target (U.S. $ 2 million) and has provided expert assistance.
In October, successfully completed an international project for the reconstruction of the Bolshoi Theater, with the participation of experts from UNESCO.
In the field of ICT in the form of Russia's presidency of the Intergovernmental Council of UNESCO program "Information for All" (IFAP) in Yakutsk (July) and Moscow (October), an international conference «Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Cyberspace" and "Preservation of Electronic Information in the Information Society».
Paid serious attention to the framework of UNESCO held in comprehension and analysis of the phenomenon of the Internet. At the initiative of Russian IFAP Intergovernmental Council approved a Code of Ethics for the Information Society.
In the framework of the International Programme for the Development of Communication of UNESCO in Kiev and Odessa hosted the annual World Congress of Russian Press (June).
With active Russian participation by Member States of UNESCO are developed and approved by the manifesto of the digital libraries of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, UNESCO's strategy for the Organization's contribution to the promotion of open access to scientific information and research, the Universal Declaration on Archives.

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