I declare that I have written the thesis independently and all cited resources have been listed in the references




НазваниеI declare that I have written the thesis independently and all cited resources have been listed in the references
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MASARYK UNIVERSITY

Faculty of Social Studies

Department of Psychology


M.A. Anna Ševčíková


Online sexuality and its relation to the adolescents' offline world


Thesis


Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. David Šmahel, M.Sc. et Ph.D.


Brno 2012

I declare that I have written the thesis independently and all cited resources have been listed in the references.





Brno 20 April, 2012 Anna Ševčíková

Contents





I declare that I have written the thesis independently and all cited resources have been listed in the references. 2

Contents 3

Acknowledgements 4

List of original publications and papers 9

Setting the problem 10

Online sexuality 10

Perspectives of the research on online sexuality in relation to offline sexual behavior: what affects and how it affects 13

Theoretical considerations 18

Co-construction model 18

Theory of sexual scripts 19

Czech context 22

Research problems 26

Research questions 30

Method 31

Data sources 31

Measures 32

Findings 34

The relationship between sexually related online activities and offline sexual behaviors 34

Characteristics of young users who have experiences with sexually related online activities 36

Particularities of sexually related online activities in the Czech Republic 40

Discussion 42

Sexually related online activities: the same or reversed from offline world? 43

The co-constructing model and a blurred line between being an actor and passive recipient on the internet 44

Exposure to online sexual material in the Czech context: Are there cultural specifics? 45

A few notes on implications 47

Conclusion 50

References 51

Papers 62

Study I 62

Study II 83

Study III 109

Study IV 121

Methods 129

Study V 154

1. Introduction 154

Considering previous research, the North, the East and the South of Europe differ in the level of internet use and internet access (Eurostat, 2009; Livingstone et al. 2011). For instance, South Europe is known for lower internet penetration in comparison to Nordic countries and some Eastern countries, among which particularly Estonia and the Czech Republic have experienced rapid growth of internet penetration (Internet World Stats, 2011). In relation to EOSM, the expansion of broadband penetration may be related to the extent of EOSM as high speed internet connections allow access to a relatively large amount of data in a short time, including sexual images. Therefore, we hypothesize that broadband penetration rates might help explain the cross-country differences in EOSM. 155

Furthermore, the findings have shown that lower EOSM was found in the Southern catholic European countries. In general, it is known that religiosity varies across European countries (EVS, 2008) and, at the same time, it has a regulatory effect on sexual behavior. For instance, higher religiosity delays sexual development (Hardy and Raffaelli, 2003). In terms of EOSM, children with lower religiosity have been found to be more likely to see sexual images online (Mesch, 2009). Therefore, we hypothesize that religious faith may contribute to the differences in EOSM in Europe. 155

Finally, Nordic countries are known for progressive gender role attitudes (e.g. Sjöberg, 2004). Considering strong evidence for gender differences in EOSM in the fact that more boys have seen sexual images on the internet than girls (Mesch, 2009; Peter and Valkenburg, 2006; Wolak et al. 2007), we hypothesize that in countries with liberal sexual norms women might be more sexually empowered and thus more active in seeking sexual stimulations (see Clement, Schmidt, and Kruse, 1984). With this in mind, we expect that countries with lower gender differences in EOSM might have higher rates of EOSM than countries with greater gender differences. 155

To sum up, the study aimed to examine to what extent cultural specifics might explain variations in EOSM across Europe and to identify country-level factors that could be responsible for these national differences. Considering the important role of psychological difficulties and risk factors in EOSM, emotional problems, sensation seeking and excessive internet use were also included in the analyses. Demographic characteristics such as age and gender were controlled as well. 155

155

2. Methods 155

Exposure to online sexual materials. This variable was measured using two filter questions: (1) “In the past year, you have seen lots of different images. Some of these might be sexual. Have you seen anything of this kind in the past 12 months?” indicating general exposure (see Table 1) and (2) “Have you seen these kind of things on any websites in the past 12 months?”. These items examined the occurrence of exposure (Yes or No). Children who answered “yes” on both the questions were identified as those having experience with EOSM. 156

3. Results 158

4. Discussion 162

Acknowledgements 163

References 164

Study VI 166



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