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OSCAR WILDE



Oscar Wilde was born in 1856 in Dublin. His father was a famous oculist and his mother was widely known as an Irish national poetess and the presiding genius of a famous literary salon.

Oscar graduated from Trinity College in Dublin in 1873 and passed to Magdalen College at Oxford. His academic career at Oxford was remarkable for he obtained the double distinction of a "First" in "Classical Moderations" and "Literae Humaniores" (he could never have been therefore as idle as he pretended). Even at his early age he was a man of exceptionally wide culture. The new ideas in particular those of aesthetic cult with its supreme dominance of Art and Beauty over other values of life began to exercise the younger minds. Oscar became the apostle of a new cult the symbols of which were supposed to be peacock's feathers, sunflowers, blue china, long hair and velveteen knee-breeches.

In 1882 Oscar Wilde went to America to lecture on his aesthetic philosophy. He had been invited to America as a figure of fun; he came away with the reputation of a man of cultivation, taste, imagination, education and refinement.

In England his Poems were not very successful with the public. He tried his hand at journalism. In 1884 he married Constance Lloyd and they had two children. He visited France many times as he shared the ideas of the French "Decadent" school.

In 1888 he wrote his first collection of short stories "The Happy Prince and Other Tales". Though many of them recalled the work of Flaubert, Рое, Hans Andersen, they have their own individuality, their own flavour.

The success encouraged O. Wilde to attempt something more ambitious, and in 1891 appeared his first and last novel, "The Picture of Dorian Gray". The critics pointed out that the theme had been treated before (Balzac, Рое, Stevenson). Nevertheless O. Wilde gave the old story a new twist, and his original treatment of it rescued it from any charge of plagiarism.

He established himself as a writer of consequence. His extraordinary powers of conversation, his almost irresistible personal charm carried him away even into circles which were prejudiced against him. And yet not only his enemies were beginning to feel uneasy at the spectacle of his triumph. There seemed to be a new insolence in his contempt for current standards and prejudices.

In 1892 he tried his hand at theatre. His first comedy "Lady Windermere's Fan" had a hailing success with the public. "A Woman of No Importance" (1893) and "An Ideal Husband" (1895) which followed were also very well received by the public.

In 1895 he was accused of male prostitution and sentenced to two years' imprisonment. In 1900 O. Wilde died in Paris.

The dark and scandalous side of O. Wilde's life can't shadow his distinguished work as a playwright, a story teller, an essayist which earned him success in his lifetime and continues to delight readers and theatrical audiences all over the globe.


from James Laver. O. Wilde.

H. Montgomery Hyde. O. Wilde.

LADY WINDERMERE'S FAN*


* Wilde O. Plays. M., 1961.

The Persons of the Play


Lord Windermere, Arthur ['wndma, ':]

Lord Darlington ['d:ltn]

Lord Augustus [:'sts]

Mr. Dumby ['dmb]

Mr. Cecil Graham ['sesl 'grem]

Mr. Hopper ['hp]

Parker, butler ['р:k]

Lady Windermere, Margaret ['m:rt]

The Duchess of Berwick ['dts v 'berk]

Lady Agatha [']

Lady Plymdale ['plmdl]

Lady Stutfield ['sttf:ld]

Lady Jedburgh ['dedbr]

Mrs Cowper-Cowper ['kaup 'kaup]

Mrs Erlynne [':ln]

Other proper names


p.23 Carlton House Terrace ['k:ltn 'ters]

p.24 Selby ['selb]

p.32 Curzon ['k:zn]

p.32 Homburg ['hmb:]

p.32 Aix ['eks]

p.42 Sydney ['sdn]

p.47 Caroline ['krlan]

p.54 Grosvenor Square ['rvn 'skw]


Assignments

First Act

I. Find English equivalents of the following phrases:


быть совершеннолетним (р.24), устроить вечер (р.24), быть в стесненных обстоятельствах (р.24), доставлять удовольствие (р.25), не идти на компромисс (р.26), жертвовать (р.26), сомнительная репутация (р.27), утешиться (р.27), вставать на чью-то сторону (р. 27), совершить проступок (р.27), устоять перед соблазном (р.28), (не) быть принятым в обществе (pp.29, 31), придираться по мелочам (р.29), подавать пример (р.31), увлечься кем-то (р.31).


II. Translate into English.


1. Сегодня мне исполнился 21 год и по этому поводу мой отец устраивает вечер. Вы придете? 2. Он привык делать мне комплименты и считает, что они доставляют мне удовольствие, но я признаюсь, они меня раздражают. 3. Многие из его друзей находятся в стесненных обстоятельствах и им нередко приходится обращаться за помощью к людям с сомнительной репутацией. 4. Она была принципиальным человеком и никогда не шла на компромисс. 5. В молодости эта дама совершила проступок, и теперь ее не принимали в обществе. 6. Ее муж не устоял перед соблазном и увлекся молоденькой гувернанткой. 7. В спорах он всегда принимал сторону своей жены, что доставляло ей удовольствие. 8. После смерти мужа она долго не могла утешиться. 9. Она считает, что жены время от времени должны пилить своих мужей, чтобы напоминать им о своем существовании.


III. a) Translate into Russian:


to pretend, conceited, a scandal about smb, to get elbowed into the corner, to have smth. to do with smb, to call on smb, to talk scandal, to do wonders, to spy on smb, to repent, to avoid public scandal, to suffer for one's own faults.


b) Recall the situations in which the above phrases are used.


IV. Explain in English:


to have little vanities (p.25), to be a Puritan (p.26), to be behind the age (p.26), to look on smb/smth as (p.26), to be hard on smb/smth (p.27), mercenary (p.27), to look forward to smth (p.29), a select party (p.29), to be distressed about smth (p.31), to be jealous of smb's honour (p.35), to have position (p.36), to leave smb no choice (p.40).


V. Answer the following questions.


  1. What kept Lady Windermere busy in the morning?

  2. Why wasn't Lady Windermere pleased with Lord Darlington's compliments?

  3. What hints did Lord Darlington make when speaking about friendship.

  1. What news did Duchess of Berwick bring to LadyWindermere?

  2. How did Duchess of Berwick try to console LadyWindermere?

  1. How did Lady Windermere make sure that her husband had squandered money on Mrs. Erlynne, "that horrrid woman"?

  2. Why did Lord Windermere insist that his wife should send Mrs. Erlynne an invitation for the party?

  3. Why did Lady Windermere threaten to strike Mrs. Erlynne across the face with the fan, if the latter crossed her threshold?


VI. Comment on the following paradoxes.


"Life is far too important a thing ever to talk seriously about it". Lord Darlington (p.30)

"Good people do a great deal of harm in this world". Lord Darlington (p.27)

"How hard good women are!" Lord Windermere (p.38)


VII. Express your opinion on the following statements.

"Nowadays to be intelligible is to be found out". Lord Darlington, (p.30)

"It's absurd to divide people into good and bad. People are either charming or tedious". Lord Darlington (p.27)

"It's a dangerous thing to reform any one". Lord Darlington (p.30)

"Men never grow any better. Men become old, but they never become good". Duchess of Berwick (p.33)

"Crying is the refuge of plain women, but ruin of pretty ones". Duchess of Berwick (p.34)


VIII. Answer the following questions.


  1. What people go about London Society?

  2. What does Lady Windermere protest against when she refuses to admit Mrs. Erlynne into her house?

  3. What does Lord Windermere mean to say that if his wife insults Mrs. Erlynne there will be no woman in London who wouldn't pity Lady Windermere?

  4. Whose remarks in Act One make you smile? What can you say about their stylistic character? How is the comical effect achieved?


IX. Write a summary of Act One.

Second Act


I. Find English equivalents of the following phrases:


относиться к кому-либо безразлично (р.44), избавить кого-либо от тревоги (р.44), рассуждать о морали (р.45), доверять (р.46), иметь успех (р.47), насмехаться над кем-либо (р.50), не идти на компромисс (р.52), иметь здравый взгляд на жизнь (р.53), любовь с первого взгляда (р.54), возражать кому-либо (р.54), ревновать (р.54), делать кому-либо предложение руки и сердца (р.55).


II. a) Explain in English:


to have enough of smb (p.43), to be worn to a shadow (p.43), nuisance (p.44), to be down on smb (p.44), to beat about the bush (p.44), not to leave a rag on smb (p.44), to spare smb insult (p.50), to dance attendance upon smb (p.50), to be degraded in one's eyes (p.50), common sense (p.54).


b) Comment on the situations in which the phrases are used.


III. Translate into English.


1. Я доверяю ее трезвому взгляду на вещи, она не рассуждает о морали, а подает своим поведением пример честности и высоких принципов.

  1. Было очевидно, что это любовь с первого взгляда и никто не удивился, когда вскоре он сделал ей предложение.

  2. Вы можете возразить мне, но я считаю, что никогда нельзя идти на компромисс.

  1. Все насмехались над ним и он никому не доверял.

  1. Я слежу за его политической карьерой и уверена, он будет иметь огромный успех.

  1. Он очень изменился, от него осталась одна тень.

  1. Его манера никогда не говорить прямо, ходить вокруг да около действует мне на нервы.

  1. Избавьте меня от ваших глупых замечаний.

  1. Удивительно, как может такой солидный джентльмен, как вы, быть на побегушках у этой гадкой женщины?

  1. Все женщины нападали на миссис Эрлин, а Арабелла просто смешала ее с грязью.

  2. Он признался, что сам себя перестал уважать за то, что сделал накануне.

  1. "Такая тоска, эти родственники", воскликнул юноша.

  1. Мы достаточно общались сегодня с Питером, с меня хватит.


IV. Answer the following questions.

  1. What can you say about Lady Windermere's guests? What was the main topic of their conversation?

  2. How did Mrs. Erlynne manage to charm the guests who at first spoke so very much against her?

  3. What miserable future did Lord Darlington picture before Lady Windermere?

  4. What distressed Mrs. Erlynne at the party?

5. Why did Mrs. Erlynne want Lord Augustus to keep Lord Windermere at the club?

  1. What "proper background" did Mrs. Erlynne want from Lord Windermere?


V. Comment on the following utterances.


Lady Plymdale: "The world has grown so suspicious of anything that looks like a happy married life." (p.45)

Mrs. Erlynne: "He thinks like a Tory, and talks like a Radical, and that's so important nowadays." (p.47)

Lady Windermere: "It is he who has broken the bond of marriage -not I, I only break its bondage." (p.57)

Duchess of Berwick: "Still, I should go to Homburg, dear, really should, she is just a little too attractive." (p.53)


VI. Express your opinion on the following.


Mrs. Erlynne: "When men give up saying what is charming, they give up thinking what is charming." (p.56)

Lord Darlington: "It's wrong for a wife to remain with a man who so dishonours her." (p.52)

Duchess of Berwick: "I'm so glad Lady Windermere has revived cards. They're a mother's only safeguard." (p.41)


VII. Count how many times Duchess of Berwick changes her opinion and sounds self-contradictory if not ridiculous? What effect does it produce upon the reader?


VIII. Write out the adjectives which describe Mrs. Erlynne before and after her triumph at the ball.


IX. Exchange your impressions of the events of Act Two (pair work). Refer to the functional phrases given in ex. II, p. 94-95.


X. Write a summary of Act Two.

Third Act


I. Find English equivalents of the following phrases:


быть очарованным кем-то (р.60), быть в зависимости от (р.60), обесчестить (р.60), на грани гибели (р.61), служить прикрытием (р.61), спасти от гибели (р.63), под предлогом (р.63), иметь власть над кем-либо (р.64), иметь в перспективе (р.65), морально пасть (р.65), быть изгоем (р.65), разрыдаться (р.65), случайно встретиться (р.68), сплетничать (р.69).


II. a) Translate into Russian in writing.


  1. "You don't know what it is to fall into the pit, to be despised,mocked, abandoned, sneered at – to be an outcast!"

  2. "What object do you think I have in coming here, except to save you from utter ruin, to save you from the consequence of a hideous mistake."

3. "I promise you never to communicate with him again on any pretext - never to see him, never to have anything to do with his life or yours."


b) Comment on the above passionate confessions of Mrs. Erlynne.


III. Translate into English.


1. Ему повезло, он встретил женщину, которая полностью его понимает. 2. Не губите свою жизнь из-за меня, вы не представляете, что вас может ждать в будущем, если вы немедленно не покинете этот дом. 3. Его единственное желание – избавить вас от стыда и позора, вы должны ему доверять. 4. Как ужасно быть изгоем, всюду встречать холодный отказ, издевательский смех и презрение. Я признаю, что приходится платить за свои грехи и ошибки. 5. К счастью, его друзья спасли его от морального падения. 6. Она разрыдалась и призналась, что не имеет никакого влияния на своего мужа и все это время служила прикрытием его сомнительных дел. 7. Мы все были очарованы ее безукоризненными манерами.


IV. Answer the following question:


  1. What object did Mrs. Erlynne have in coming to Lord Darlington's place?

  2. Why does Lady Windermere say that Mrs. Erlynne fills her with horror?

3. How does Mrs. Erlynne explain the hold over Lord Windermere to Lady Windermere?

  1. What may be in store for Lady Windermere if she doesn't trust Mrs. Erlynne?

  2. What kind of woman do Lord Darlington's friends understand by "a good woman" ?

  3. Why did Lord Windermere call Lord Darlington a scoundrel?


V. Act out the dialogue between Lady Windermere and Mrs.Erlynne (p.63), beginning with Mrs. Erlynne: "Oh! why do you disbelieve everything I tell you? ... up to (p.64) Mrs. Erlynne:"...Oh! Arthur loves you!"


VI. a) Comment on the following fragments:


Mrs. Erlynne: "The money that he gave me, he gave me not through love, but through hatred, not in worship, but in contempt" (pp.63, 64).

Mrs. Erlynne: "You haven't got the kind of brains that enables a woman to get back. You have neither the wit nor the courage" (p.65).

Cecil Graham: "Wicked women bother one. Good women bore one" (p.68).

Cecil Graham: "I never talk scandal. I only talk gossip" (p.69).

Cecil Graham: "The world is perfectly packed with good women. To know them is a middle class education" (p.71).


b) Speak about the stylistic colouring of the above fragments.


VII. Express your opinion.


  1. Whose point of view on "a good woman" do you share? Why?Who do you consider "a good woman" in the play?

  2. How do you understand the definition of a cynic given by Lord Darlington and that of a sentimentalist, given by Cecil Graham?(p.72)

  3. Do you think Mrs. Erlynne has no heart? What prompted Mrs.Erlynne to commit an act of self-sacrifice?


VIII. Comment on the following paradoxes:


Dumby: "In this world there are only two tragedies. One is not getting what one wants, and the other is getting it." (p.71)

Lady Windermere: "We make gods of them (men) and they leave us. Others make brutes of them and they fawn and are faithful. How hideous life is!" (p.60)

Lady Windermere: "If a woman wants to hold a man, she has merely to appeal to what is worst in him." (p.60)


IX. Comment on Mrs. Erlynne's monologue (p.65) (pair work).


X. Write a summary of Act Three.


Fourth Act I.


a) Find English equivalents of the following phrases:


смотреть прямо в лицо (р.75), совершить акт самопожертвования (р.76), вести порядочную жизнь (р.77), причинить вред (p.77), быть не допущенным куда-либо (р.77), действовать на нервы (р.79), шантажировать (р.81), уйти в монастырь (р.83), материнские чувства (р.82), принять чью-либо жертву (р.86), причинять кому-либо беспокойство (р.80).


b) Recall the situations the above phrases are used in the text.


II. Translate into English.


1. Смотри мне прямо в глаза и говори правду, не ходи вокруг да около. Скажи, кто шантажирует тебя. 2. Она говорит, что уйдет в монастырь ради моего счастья, но я никогда не приму эту жертву. 3. Известно, что материнские чувства способны творить чудеса и что каждая мать может совершить акт самопожертвования ради своего ребенка. 4. Миссис Эрлин страстно желала избавить свою дочь от бесчестия и унижения и не дать ей совершить чудовищную ошибку. 5. Я воспользовался возможностью передать вам записку лично. 6. Юноша был тактичный и никогда не причинял беспокойства другим людям. 7. В наше время, немногие способны совершить благородный акт самопожертвования, не так ли? 8. Все эти слухи и сплетни действуют мне на нервы и поэтому завтра я покидаю Лондон и возвращаюсь в Европу. 9. Миссис Эрлин хотела вновь вернуться в общество и вести порядочную жизнь, но, к сожалению, к ней все были несправедливы и черствы и никто не хотел ее принимать в своем доме. 10. Она сама была на краю гибели, но смогла спасти репутацию и честь своей дочери.


III. Answer the following questions.


  1. What is "a bitter irony" Lady Windermere speaks about?(p.76)

  2. Why do the Windermeres want to go to the country?

  3. What does Lady Windermere think of Mrs. Erlynne after the latter has spared her public dishonour?

  4. How does Lord Windermere interpret Mrs. Erlynne's behaviour at Lord Darlington's place?

  5. What is officially known about Lady Windermere's parents?

  6. What advice does Mrs. Erlynne give to Lady Windermere?

  7. Who turned out to be the happiest man in the play? Why?


IV. Comment on the following.


  1. Mrs. Erlynne: "The English climate doesn't suit me. My heart is affected here." (p.79)

  2. Mrs. Erlynne: "I thought I had no heart. I find I have, and a heart doesn't suit me . Somehow it doesn't go with modern dress."(p.83)

  3. Lady Windermere: "Nowadays people seem to look on life as a speculation. It is not a speculation. It is a sacrament. Its ideal is Love. Its purification is sacrifice". (Act One, p.26)

Note: Comment on the light of Mrs. Erlynne's reckless and noble act of self-sacrifice.

4. Lady Windermere: "There is the same world for all of us, and good and evil, sin and innocence go through it hand in hand."(p.88)


V. a) Translate the following phrases into Russian.


to make a mistake, to do a sin, to do a folly, to disgrace oneself, to dishonour oneself, to ruin one's reputation, to do a shameful act, to enter a pit of shame, to ruin oneself, to sink into the depth of degradation, to wretch oneself, to make one's name infamous, to be inadmissible, to go about under an assumed name, to abandon smb for smb, a wretched woman, to cause infinite pain, to humiliate, to sneer at smb.


b) Speak about Mrs. Erlynne's past using the above phrases.


VI. Express your opinion.


  1. Do you think Lord Windermere was hard on Mrs. Erlynne or do you think she deserved to be treated as a wicked woman?

  2. Was it clever of Lord Windermere to insist on telling his wife the truth about Mrs. Erlynne?

  3. Do you agree to Mrs. Erlynne's words: "My dear Windermere,manners before morals!" (p.79) Why?

  4. Why do you think Mrs. Erlynne preferred "to live childless still"? (p.82)


VII. Answer the following questions.


  1. What helped Lady Windermere to open her eyes on life?

  2. Why does Lord Windermere look upon Mrs. Erlynne as a worthless and vicious woman and demand that she should leave hisfamily for ever?

3. Who is Lady Windermere's ideal in life? Why does Mrs.Erlynne think that ideals are dangerous things?


VIII. Write a brief summary of Act Four.


FINAL DISCUSSION


I. Choose one of Lady Windermere's or Mrs. Erlynne's monologues,learn it by heart and perform in class.


II. Exchange your impressions of the main characters of the play.Note their appearance, age, manners, interests and other elements of their background (pair work). Use the functional phrases given in ex. II, p. 94-95.


III. Answer the following questions.


  1. What is the main idea of the play? Compare this play with O. Wilde's other comedies. What characters bear some resemblance?

  2. What problems are touched upon in the play? What do you think is the author's attitude to London society?

  3. What makes the play enjoyable when reading?



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