Appendix b – hibernacula: forest habitat analysis 98 appendix c – literature cited 101




НазваниеAppendix b – hibernacula: forest habitat analysis 98 appendix c – literature cited 101
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Administrative Management



Activities associated with administrative management may have direct and indirect effects on Mead’s milkweed. Activities under this management regime include pollen and seed collection, captive breeding and growth, introduction of plants and seeds, administrative protection, and monitoring of populations and habitat. Many of these actions are being carried out in cooperation with the Morton Arboretum to produce juvenile plants and seeds for reintroduction. Direct mortality or injury may occur to wild plants during the collection of seeds and pollen. As a result, a range of responses is possible and include reduced reproductive success (damage to umbel and/or reduced flower/seed production) reduced growth or vigor (damage to stem during collection), and mortality (delayed from injury). The potential for injury and/or mortality during pollen and seed collection is considered to be very low given the experience level of the few individuals trained to carry out this action. Captive breeding and growth is carried out by the Morton Arboretum. Collection of individual plants from the SNF has not occurred and is not proposed under this action. Therefore, no negative fitness consequences are anticipated from this activity.


Introduction of plants and seeds is being carried out by the Morton Arboretum in conjunction with the Forest Service. Juvenile plants and seeds are produced in captivity and then transported to Mead’s milkweed sites on the SNF and transplanted. Species responses to this action include injury and/or mortality during transport, transplant shock (resulting in reduced growth and/or mortality), increased seed and juvenile survival (transplanted individuals likely more robust than wild plants), improved reproductive success (earlier flowering and decreased chance of inbreeding depression), and increased population size. The benefits derived from this activity are anticipated to greatly outweigh any potential negative impacts.


Administrative protection is the protection of Mead’s milkweed plants from theft and is primarily a law enforcement activity. Past actions have also included rerouting of trails. The effect of this action in the past has lead to no additional thefts. No negative effects are anticipated as a result of these activities. Beneficial effects will continue.


The following Mead’s milkweed standard and guideline will be implemented to benefit Mead’s milkweed:


1. Expand current populations into restored habitat through the use of propagated plants.


Population and habitat monitoring is also a component of administrative management. Monitoring is carried out by trained individuals from the SNF, Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), or the Morton Arboretum. The potential adverse effects from this action are limited to accidental trampling during surveys. Trampling may cause damage to stems or leaves (injury), reduced growth and vigor, reduced reproduction (reduced flower/seed production), and mortality (rootstock dies after repeated above ground growth failure). However, the likelihood of trampling is very low due to the limited number of individuals who conduct the surveys and the amount of training individuals receive prior to surveying. Therefore, the anticipated negative impacts from this action are expected to be insignificant.

Recreation Management



Recreation management includes road and trail management and use, dispersed recreation and water bar construction. Populations of Mead’s milkweed do not occur on roads or trails and no new roads or trails are proposed within Research Natural Areas. Therefore, road and trial management and use is not likely to result in negative fitness consequences for Mead’s milkweed. However, several indirect effects are possible as a result of dispersed recreation.


Dispersed recreation may include cross county hiking, hunting, bird watching, and nature viewing. Since these activities are allowed in Natural Areas it is possible that individuals (e.g., hikers, hunters, etc) may trample Mead’s milkweed, which could result in damage to stems or leaves (injury), reduced growth and vigor, reduced reproduction (damaged individuals may not produce flowers), and mortality (rootstock dies after repeated above ground growth failure). Currently the likelihood of trampling is anticipated to be very low (insignificant) given the dispersed nature of these actions and large acreage available in relation to the small areas that are occupied by Mead’s milkweed (each site is less than 0.1 ha). However, as management activities (e.g., prescribed burning) are implemented to improve/enhance the Mead’s milkweed populations, the impacts of dispersed recreation are likely to increase.


The Forest has developed standards and guidelines to reduce/ameliorate the impacts associated with recreational management. This includes:


  1. Where impacts occur or are expected to occur as a result of recreational use adjacent to known populations, implement corrective actions as needed to avoid or stop the impact.


With implementation of this standard, the potential for individual plants to be trampled during dispersed recreational activities is greatly reduced.


Road and trail maintenance includes: site access, surface hardening, and water bar placement. Access to road and trail maintenance sites could lead to trampling of individual plants in populations that occur near roads and trails. Trampling may cause damage to stems or leaves (injury), reduced growth and vigor, reduced reproduction (reduced flower/seed production), and mortality (rootstock dies after repeated above ground growth failure). However, this is expected to be minimal given that only one native population is located near trails.


In the past, one population has been negatively impacted by excessive water runoff and erosion from trails. Hardening of trail surfaces and placement of water bars is expected to reduce or eliminate erosion, which will have only positive benefits for individual Mead’s milkweed plants. This could result in a range of responses including: improved growth and vigor, increased seed production, increased juvenile survival, and population increase. These beneficial effects would further reduce any negative fitness consequences associated with trampling during site access for maintenance activities.
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