Appendix b – hibernacula: forest habitat analysis 98 appendix c – literature cited 101




НазваниеAppendix b – hibernacula: forest habitat analysis 98 appendix c – literature cited 101
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Management Prescription Area MM provides for the protection and maintenance of environmental values and the health and safety of the public on 7,900 acres. Management activities and investments are at a minimal level. Management activities that may be seen include prescribed burning, logging, temporary road construction, opening maintenance, trail and recreation area construction and maintenance, pond maintenance and non-native invasive species control.


Table 8. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area MM

Management Prescription/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probably in Second Decade

ATV/OHV Travelway Reconstruction


Miles


2


0

Prescribed Burning

- Landscape scale site prep for oak


Acres


440


440


Management Prescription Area MO provides for wetland and floodplain management on 8,700 acres of the historic floodplains of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. The emphasis is to provide non-motorized dispersed recreational opportunities such as hiking, hunting and wildlife viewing. Management activities that may be seen include prescribed burning, temporary road construction and maintenance, trail and recreation area construction, maintenance or improvement, openings maintenance, and levee and dam construction and maintenance.


Table 9. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area MO

Management Practice/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Reforestation

- Planting


Acres


2,000


2,000

Timber Stand Improvement

Acres

2,262

1,000

Prescribed Burning

- Site prep/brush disposal

- Landscape scale site prep for oak


Acres

Acres


1,500

200


1,500

200

Wetland Structures

Structures

10

10

No other scheduled management practices. Specific practices needed to manage for bottomland hardwoods and wetlands will be determined during Plan implementation.


Management Prescription Area NA provides for the preservation, protection and enhancement of the unique scientific, educational or natural values found on approximately 15,400 acres of research natural areas, national natural landmarks, geological areas, zoological areas and botanical areas. Management activities that may be seen include prescribed burning, tree and shrub removal, trail construction and maintenance and non-native invasive species control.


Table 10. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area NA

Management Practice/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Equestrian/Hiking Trail Construction


Miles


3


0

Prescribed Burning

- Landscape scale site prep for oak

- Ecological for barrens in NA’s


Acres

Acres



611

30,000



611

30,000

No other scheduled management practices. Specific practices needed to manage for bottomland hardwoods and wetlands will be determined during Plan implementation.


Management Prescription Area NM provides direction for the management of the Camp Hutchins and Ripple Hollow areas totaling approximately 6,900 acres. Management emphases are ecological integrity and non-motorized recreation. Camp Hutchins is a relatively undisturbed ecosystem adjoining the LaRue Pine Hills ecological area, the Clear Springs and Bald Knob wildernesses and Hutchins Creek, a candidate wild and scenic river. Ripple Hollow contains unique botanical resources as a significant barrens natural area. Management activities that may be seen include prescribed burning, logging, temporary road construction and maintenance, trail and recreation area construction, maintenance or improvement, wildlife-opening maintenance, pond maintenance, and non-native invasive species control.


Table 11. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area NM

Management Practice/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Equestrian/Hiking Trail Construction


Miles


2


0

Prescribed Burning

- Landscape scale site prep for oak


Acres



7,223


7,223


Management Prescription Area OB provides direction for a 4,700-acre bottomland forest ecosystem in the Mississippi River floodplain. The management emphasis is to provide flooded habitat for migratory and wintering waterfowl and other game and non-game species, including songbirds, raptors, reptiles and amphibians. Management activities that may be seen include prescribed burning; logging; temporary road construction and maintenance; opening maintenance; levee and dam construction and maintenance; and controlled flooding.


The following composition-objectives apply:


Species Composition

Management Area

Permanent Water Bodies

1%

Moist-soil Openings

2-4%

Bottomland Hardwood Types

91-95%1

Age-Class Distribution Objectives

Age 0-9 10-20%; Age 30-60 40-60%; Age 60-80 10-20%

1 At least 60% oak types. This will be primarily pin oak with other oak species, such as cherrybark, chinquapin, and willow where appropriate.


Table 12. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area OB

Management Practice/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Reforestation

- Planting


Acres


1,500


1,500

Timber Stand Improvement

Acres

1,500

1,500

Prescribed burning

- Site prep/brush disposal


Acres


1,500


1,500


Management Prescription Area RA provides for a variety of intensive research needs. The 7,700 acres managed under this prescription include the Kaskaskia Experimental Forest, Dixon Springs Experimental Station and the Palzo Reclamation Site. Management activities that may be seen include grazing, logging, surface-mine restoration, prescribed fire, intensive research, pond and building maintenance and non-native invasive species control.


Table 13. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area RA

Management Practice/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Equestrian/Hiking Trail Construction


Miles


2


0

No other scheduled management Practices. Specific practices involved with research will be determined during Plan implementation.


Management Prescription Area WW provides for the protection of water quality in water-supply watersheds, including Kinkaid Lake, Cedar Lake and Lake of Egypt. A total of 17,400 acres are managed under this prescription. Management activities that may be seen include prescribed burning; temporary road construction and maintenance; openings maintenance; pond maintenance; and non-native invasive species control.


Table 14. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area WW

Management Practice/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Equestrian/Hiking Trail Construction


Miles


5


0

Wildlife Habitat Improvement

- Large openland maintenance


Acres


400


400

Prescribed Burning

- Large openland management


Acres


1,600


1,600

No other scheduled management practices. Specific practices needed for management of water supply watersheds will be determined Plan implementation.


Management Prescription Area WD provides opportunities for challenge and solitude within the seven wilderness areas designated by Congress in the Illinois Wilderness Act of 1990: Bald Knob (5,786 acres), Bay Creek (2,769 acres), Burden Falls (3,687 acres), Clear Springs (4,769 acres), Garden of the Gods (3,996 acres), Lusk Creek (6,298 acres) and Panther Den (839 acres). The primary purpose of management is to encourage native ecosystems and to protect the wilderness character. Management activities that may be seen include fire suppression; prescribed burning; eradication of non-native exotic plants and control of non-native invasive species; and trail and support facility construction, reconstruction or maintenance.


Table 15. Scheduled Management Practices – Management Area WD

Management Practice/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Equestrian/Hiking Trail Construction


Miles


60


0

No other scheduled management Practices. Specific practices involved with research will be determined during Plan implementation.


Table 16. Scheduled Management Practices Forestwide – All Management Areas

Management Practices/Activity

Unit of Measure

Amount Proposed in First Decade

Amount Probable in Second Decade

Timber Harvest

- Hardwood Shelterwood

- Hardwood Shelterwood with reserves 1

- Pine Shelterwood with reserves

- Intermediate Treatments 2


Acres

Acres


Acres

Acres


3,197

1,500


3,814

263


6,175

3,000


6,369
172

Reforestation

- Site prep for natural regeneration

- Planting


Acres

Acres


7,490

6,166


9,663

7,186

Timber Stand Improvement

Acres

5,362

12,656

Roads

- Reconstruction

- Obliteration 3


Miles

Miles


94

20


105

20

Equestrian/Hiking Trail Construction 4


Miles


235


0

Wildlife Habitat Improvement

- Wildlife opening maintenance

- Large openland maintenance

- Pine restoration to hardwoods 5

- Shelterwood for oak mgmt. 6

- Shelterwood with reserves 7

- Intermediate treatments 2


Acres

Acres

Acres

Acres

Acres

Acres


700

2,700

586

659

400

95


700

2,700

1,431

1,330

800

45

Prescribed Burning

- Site prep/brush disposal 8

- Landscape scale site prep for oak9

- Ecological for barrens in NA’s10

- Large openland mgmt. 11


Acres

Acres

Acres

Acres


17,371

66,218

30,000

10,800


26,847

66,218

30,000

10,800

Wetland Structures

Structures

10

10

1 Shelterwood with reserves primarily in forest interior blocks.

2 Primarily in bottoms in forest interior blocks.

3 Road obliteration may be performed in any management area where needed.

4 Equestrian/Hiking trail construction allocations by management area are estimates based on the 1992 Plan and existing trail system.

5 Pine restoration to native hardwoods on lands unsuited for timber management.

6 Shelterwood for oak management on lands unsuited for timber management.

7 Shelterwood with reserves in forest interior blocks on lands unsuited for timber management.

8 Prescribed burning at time of harvest.

9 Landscape scale burning for oak management.

10 Three burns per decade on 10,000 acres of natural areas to maintain barrens ecosystems.

11 Four burns per decade on 2,700 acres of large openland habitat.


Management Practices/Activities Proposed to Accomplish Forest Plan Goals and Objectives


Various types of management practices and activities are proposed to accomplish Forest Plan goals and objectives. These management activities are:


Timber Harvest/Management


Timber harvest methods that may be used include even-aged systems (i.e., clearcut, seed tree, shelterwood and shelterwood with reserves) and uneven-aged systems (i.e., group selection and single tree selection). Shelterwood and shelterwood with reserves will be the predominant methods of harvest. Intermediate treatments include release treatments, pre-commercial thinning, commercial thinning (thinning from above, thinning from below, mechanical thinning, restoration thinning, and selection thinning), improvement cuts and other timber stand improvement measures. Intermediate treatments are proposed in bottomlands for forest interior wildlife habitat management. Definitions of these methods can be found in the 2006 Forest Plan Appendix D (USFS 2005c). There are several standards and guidelines in the 2006 Forest Plan that direct how, when, and where all of these management activities can occur. Many of these harvest methods will require temporary roads, skid trails and landings.

Fire Management


Prescribed fire will be used to accomplish the goals and objectives of the 2006 Forest Plan. Prescribed fire can be broken into discrete components to analyze – fireline construction and pre-treatment work, ignition methods, burn, and mop-up methods. The standards and guidelines in the 2006 Forest Plan direct how, when and where burns can occur. Smoke-management guidelines have been developed by the Forest Service to reduce the atmospheric impacts of prescribed fire (USDA 1976, USFS 2005c). This system consists of five steps: (1) plotting the trajectory of the smoke; (2) identifying smoke-sensitive areas such as highways, airports, hospitals or schools; (3) identifying critical targets, i.e., targets close to the burn or those that already have an air-pollution problem; (4) determining the fuel-type to be burned, e.g., whether the fuel-load is light as with a mature pine-stand with a grass understory, or heavy as the logging slash following clearcutting; and (5) minimizing risk by burning under atmospheric conditions that hasten smoke dispersion, or by using appropriate firing techniques and timing to reduce smoke pollution (Van Lear and Waldrop 1989, USFS 2005c). Forest prescribed burning plans include smoke-management requirements that provide for smoke dissipation to meet state and Federal air-quality standards.


In accordance with the 2006 Forest Plan a fire-management plan is maintained which provides direction for wildfire prevention, detection and suppression and hazardous fuels reduction. The plan directs fire suppression activities including fireline construction, use of fire retardants, and post-fire activities to control erosion and to promote revegetation of burned areas. Agreements for fire detection and suppression on Forest lands by cooperating firefighting agencies must define suppression-action commensurate with established resource-management prescriptions and fire-plans.


Within wilderness areas, wildfire detection and suppression will be commensurate with the resource value to be protected and utilize the appropriate range of suppression strategies available. Detection and suppression should be based on the potential threat to health, safety and adjacent property. All fire-suppression activities will be in accordance with established wilderness policy. This generally means that preference will be given to using methods and equipment that cause the least: 1) alteration of the wilderness landscape; 2) disturbance of the land surface; 3) disturbance to visitor solitude; 4) reduction of visibility during periods of visitor use; and 5) adverse effect on other air quality related values.


Integrated Pest Management


Pesticides may be used on a case by case basis on the SNF only if alternative analysis demonstrates that pesticide use is the most effective means to meet overall management objectives. Currently approved herbicides for right-of-way maintenance include: picloram; 2,4-D; 2,4-DP; triclopyr and dicamba. Other herbicides used on the Forest are primarily glyphosate for developed site housekeeping. The only insecticides used in the last ten years have been small quantities of commercially available insect spray to control mosquitoes and wasp infestations in recreation areas and administrative sites. The aquatic pesticide rotenone is proposed for pond maintenance activities.


Range Management


Range management will not be a major use of the forest outside the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center and is allowed for research purposes only. Grazing is prohibited on range or pasture within filter strips except as may be prescribed at the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center. Mowing and sale of hay is allowed as a vegetation and/or wildlife-habitat management tool.


Riparian Management


Riparian corridor (filter strip) and riparian-area Forest-wide standards and guidelines shall supersede other, less restrictive, management-prescription area standards and guidelines. Filter strips shall be established adjacent to lakes, wetlands, perennial streams, intermittent streams and ephemeral streams, except in the Oakwood Bottoms Greentree Reservoir and Mississippi and Ohio River Floodplains Management Prescription Areas. The width of filter strips along perennial and intermittent streams and lakes will be based on slope. The minimum width along perennial streams is 100 feet and along intermittent streams is 50 feet. The maximum width along perennial streams is 300 feet and along intermittent streams is 150 feet. The minimum filter-strip width along the edge of wetlands is 100 feet and along ephemeral streams is 25 feet. Riparian corridors are not part of the suitable timber base. In addition, no-surface occupancy for extraction of minerals is allowed within filter-strips.


Recreational Management


The SNF is enjoyed by many people for various recreational uses. Recreational facilities such as campgrounds, trails (motorized and non-motorized), trail heads, and picnic areas will be maintained and/or constructed as necessary to meet documented demands of existing or targeted users. Maintenance includes general upkeep of the facilities, signs, and trails; mowing; and the removal of hazard trees.


Minerals Management


Exploration and/or development of oil, gas or minerals on the Forest can occur to some extent in all management areas except wilderness areas. Occasionally, temporary roads would be built associated with exploration and/or development. Removal of trees as part of temporary road construction and other developments could occur. Operations on these acres would require protection and/or avoidance of threatened and endangered species and their habitats according to Forest-wide standards and guidelines. Commercial borrow and reserve pits shall not be allowed. Based on past and current trends, few total acres would be affected.


Soil and Water Resource Management


Soil and water resource management activities such as water barring and other soil erosion control methods will be conducted across the SNF.


Special Use Permits

Special use permits primarily involving the construction and maintenance of utility rights-of-way or road access to private lands adjoining Forest Service lands will be issued as necessary.


Habitat Management Guidelines


In addition to various management activities, the SNF has developed habitat-management guidelines to provide for viable populations of all native species on the forest. These guidelines include the following:


  1. Oak-hickory deciduous forest – Maintain a variety of age-classes of oak-hickory deciduous forest through active vegetation management in the Oakwood Bottoms Greentree Reservoir, even-aged hardwood forest, mature hardwood forest and natural area management prescription areas.

  2. Barrens and other native grasslands – Maintain the diversity of native barrens and grasslands through active management in the even-aged hardwood forest, mature hardwood forest, large openland and natural area management prescription areas.

  3. Mesic deciduous forests – Maintain or increase the acreage and diversity of mesic, deciduous forests through management or plant succession in the wilderness, non-motorized recreation area, candidate wild and scenic river, and portions of even-aged and mature hardwood forest management prescription areas.

  4. Riparian deciduous forests – Maintain the quality and quantity of this habitat through Forest-wide standards and guidelines for filter-strip management, and through the water-supply watershed, Mississippi and Ohio River floodplains and natural area management prescription areas.

  5. Bottomland deciduous forests – Maintain or increase the ecological diversity and quantity of bottomland deciduous forests in the Oakwood Bottoms Greentree Reservoir, even-aged hardwood forest, Mississippi and Ohio River floodplains and candidate wild and scenic river management prescription areas.

  6. Caves – Maintain the quality and diversity of cave habitats through the standards and guidelines for cave management.

  7. Swamps – Improve or maintain the quality and quantity of swamp habitats through forest-wide riparian filter strip standards and guidelines and through the Mississippi and Ohio River floodplains and candidate wild and scenic river management prescription areas.

  8. Cliffs – Maintain or improve the diversity of cliff habitats directly in the natural area management prescription area and indirectly in the Wilderness management prescription area.

  9. Springs/seeps – Protect existing spring seeps and other water-areas critical to wildlife. Identify sites requiring protection prior to implementing adjacent resource management activities.

  10. Streams – Improve or maintain the abundance and diversity of streams through the natural area and candidate wild and scenic river management prescription areas and forest-wide riparian filter-strip standards and guidelines.

  11. Wetlands – Maintain or improve the overall diversity and abundance of wetland habitats in the Oakwood Bottoms Greentree Reservoir, Mississippi and Ohio Rivers floodplains, natural area and candidate wild and scenic river management prescription areas and through forest-wide riparian filter-strip standards and guidelines.

  12. Snags and cavities – To ensure that a sufficient component of cavity trees and snags remain within the hardwood component following harvest and timber-stand improvement activities, a minimum number of cavity trees should be retained in clumps within the harvest area; one clump per five acres of regeneration. All snags should be retained except those that are safety hazards to equipment operators.


Table 17. Snag and cavity-tree objectives for upland habitat types under even-aged management

Tree Size

Cavity/Trees

Diameter greater than 19 inches

1/acre

Diameter 11 to 19 inches

4/acre

Diameter 10 inches or less

2/acre


Wildlife habitat management guidelines will also include management of forest-interior habitat. Forest interior management standards and guidelines proposed for implementation include the following (USFS 2005d):


● All areas that are at least one-mile-diameter in size (approximately 500 acres) and do not include power-lines, paved roads, levees and lakes can be considered for forest interior management objectives.


● Forest-wide interior management guidelines apply in all management areas and would be implemented to the extent possible as consistent with individual management areas objectives and standards and guidelines.


● Forest land 400 meters from edges (edges are paved or graveled country roads or higher road standard, levees, major power-line corridors and large reservoirs or lakes) is considered buffer area in the one-mile diameter area. Greater than about a quarter-mile from edges is interior habitat. Interior habitats would be assigned along major streams or ravine bottoms where possible in each individual interior unit.


● Management for large oak-hickory forests in portions of the interior habitats is important.


● Forest management to maintain oak-hickory forests should be concentrated in historical oak areas.


● Multi-species oak-hickory forests on oak sites should be featured with white, red and black oaks as major components of the overstory.


● Both hardwoods and pine should be included for management as interior habitat in these 1+ mile diameter forest areas.


● Frequent burning to promote oak-hickory regeneration and control shade tolerant competition could occur throughout both buffer and interior areas.


● Shelterwood, thinning, or improvement cutting should be used to help create conditions favorable for establishment of adequate oak regeneration on ridge tops and upper slopes, where consistent with management area objectives. On lower slopes and in ravine bottoms, thinning (commercial or non-commercial) could be used to increase sunlight for oak-hickory regeneration.


● Artificial regeneration can be used where natural regeneration is not adequate.


● Wildlife opening management in the interior habitat areas (greater than about a quarter-mile from hard edges) would be eliminated within each 1+ mile diameter area.


● Wildlife openings in buffer areas (within about a quarter-mile from edges) should be managed to reduce parasitism and predation effects on forest interior birds.


○ This should include fall disking and plowing and planting of legumes and wheat cover crops, or native warm season grasses and shrubs.


○ All mowing would occur after August 1st.


No more than two percent of the Forest should be managed in wildlife openings. Where openings are created, they should be one-half to ten acres, with an average size of three acres in upland areas. Non-native invasive species will not be planted or seeded in wildlife openings. Permanent wildlife openings will be maintained by prescribed burning, seeding, disking, mowing, hydro-axing, bulldozing and the use of soil amendments and herbicides.


Excessive vegetation in lakes and ponds should be controlled when it impedes the use-objective for the water body. Control may be mechanical, biological or chemical, and management practices such as aquatic weed control, use of selective pesticides and annual drawdown are allowed. Construction of ponds will be based on site-availability and analysis of anticipated recreational demand.


Action Area


The action area includes all areas to be affected directly or indirectly by the Federal action and not merely the immediate area involved in the action (50 CFR 402.02). The action area is defined by measurable or detectable changes in land, air and water or to other measurable factors that will result from the proposed action. The action area is not limited to the “footprint” of the action, but rather encompasses the biotic, chemical, and physical impacts to the environment resulting directly or indirectly from the action.


The action area for the Forest Plan is the area that encapsulates the reach of all the direct and indirect environmental impacts of the project. That is, the area in which the biotic, chemical, and physical impacts to the environment that are anticipated to occur. The action area for the Forest Plan will encompasses the entire SNF proclamation boundary plus lands one mile outside of the proclamation boundary for SNF lands that abut the boundary.


The area indirectly affected by the action includes the area affected by noise, smoke and sediment transport from upland areas into streams that occur in response to activities on the SNF property. Activities such as timber harvest and road construction will generate noise. The level of noise generated will vary depending upon the methods and equipment being used or operated, but is not expected to reach outside the project boundary. As an example bulldozers and chainsaws run at full throttle are expected to produce low frequency noise, that at a half mile away is detected at the decibel level of normal conversation (de Hoop and Lalonde 2003). Prescribed fire will generate smoke that may drift short distances from the project area. Smoke dissipates into the air column and detectable levels are minimal at a distance of one mile from the fire. Similarly, sediment originating on SNF lands and entering an aquatic system is likely to be deposited a certain distance downstream, depending on velocity and mean particle size (Ritter et al. 1995). Based on channel morphology and velocity of streams on the SNF, sediment particles would be expected to be deposited within one mile of the origination point under normal flow conditions. Thus, the action area encompasses the entire proclamation boundary and extends out 1 mile.


Mead=s milkweed (Asclepias meadii)


STATUS OF THE SPECIES

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