Учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине Иностранные языки




НазваниеУчебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине Иностранные языки
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ТипУчебно-методический комплекс
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В

Чтение


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THE WORLD'S LONGEST RAILROAD

The world's first transcontinental railroad was completed in North America in 1869, when the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific were joined. But Russia's Trans-Siberian Railroad, whose construction started 20 years later, was a much more ambitious project in incomparably more difficult natural conditions.

Siberia covers nearly a quarter of Asia. It is a land of mighty rivers, endless swamps and high mountains. The idea of building a railroad through this wilderness emerged in the mid-19th century. The first relatively small railroad line was built in Siberia in 1885.

It was not until the 1890s that the question of building the Trans-Siberian acquired a practical ring. This period was a time when the state was increasing its influence in the area of railroads. From the outset the Trans-Siberian was a government undertaking financed from the state budget. The whole project was supervised by the Siberian Railway Committee set up for the purpose. An important part in its initiation was played by the prominent Russian statesman Sergei Witte.

The railroad was built in stages. May 1, 1891, is regarded as the official start of the construction project.

The first section, Chelyabinsk-Ob, was relatively easy, requiring little excavation work. Construction proceeded at record-breaking rates. To overcome the shortage of manpower, the committee bought steam shovels abroad. The West Siberian part of the Trans-Siberian Railroad was completed in 1895, having taken just over three years to build. Meanwhile work on the central part had started in 1893 in two places, the Ob and the Yenisei, and construction moved east from both sites. This part proved to be far more difficult with huge trees, swamps and mountains. For the first time engineers encountered permafrost, which they did not yet know how to deal with. Embankments and bridge collapsed. There was also a shortage of lumber for sleepers, since the taiga forest could not be used to produce quality sleepers. Delivery of rails, sleepers and other things needed for the construction was largely carried out through the Arctic Ocean and up Siberian rivers. One of the first vessels to make the difficult trip flew a Russian flag but was commanded by British polar explorer Joseph Wiggins. Eventually 27 vessels delivered materials for the Trans-Siberian.

The number of workers employed in the project ranged from 10000 at the start to 100000 at the peak of the work. Many of the workers were convicts sent to Siberia for various crimes. Among the engineers was the prominent writer Garin-Mikhailovsky, who, incidentally, was attacked by the press for bypassing the city of Tomsk. He successfully defended himself by referring to the fact to have Tomsk on the line the length of the Trans-Siberian would have had to be extended for a distance that was greater than the branch linking the main line to the city. Indeed, the main consideration in plotting the route was to make it as short as possible. As a result, even the capital of Siberia, Tobolsk, was not on the Trans-Siberian. The decisions made in routing the line had a decisive impact on the further development of cities. Thus, both Omsk and Krasnoyarsk flourished following the construction of the railroad.

Выберите верный вариант ответа:

I. When was the official start of the Trans-Siberian Railroad construction?
1. in the mid-19th century

2. in 1885

3. on the first of May, 1891 *


II. What part in its construction was played by the state?

1. It was a government undertaking financed from the state budget. *

2. The state was decreasing its influence in the area of railroads.

3. The construction was not supervised by the state.


III. What section of the Trans-Siberian Railroad construction was relatively easy?

1. the Chelyabinsk - Ob section*

2. the Ob - Yenisei section

3. the line around Lake Baikal


IV. What complications did engineers and workers encounter during construction of the central part?

1. the shortage of steam shovels

2. the vertical rocks

3. the huge trees, swamps, mountains, permafrost *


V. How many workers employed in the project at the beginning the Trans-Siberian Railroad construction?

1. ten thousand *

2. one hundred thousand

3. some one million


C

Лексика (железнодорожные термины)


  1. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

car

  1. купе

  2. поезд

  3. вагон *


II. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

rolling stock

  1. железнодорожное полотно

  2. железнодорожный подвижной состав *

  3. железнодорожный путь


III. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

машинист

  1. yardmaster

  2. driver *

  3. foreman


IV. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

поезд дальнего следования

  1. long-distance train *

  2. high-speed train

  3. suburban train


V. Найдите правильный перевод данного предложения:

The underground appeared in Paris later than in London.

  1. Первая подземная железная дорога была построена в Лондоне.

  2. Метро в Париже появилось раньше, чем в Лондоне.

  3. Метро в Париже появилось позже, чем в Лондоне. *



ТЕСТ КОНТРОЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

для студентов технических специальностей и направлений


IV ВАРИАНТ


А

Грамматика


  1. Определите по суффиксу часть речи.

scientific

  1. существительное

  2. прилагательное *

  3. наречие




  1. Из приведённых ниже глагольных форм выберите неопределённую форму глагола (инфинитив).

  1. to improve *

  2. improve

  3. improved

  4. improving



  1. Укажите время и залог сказуемого в предложении.

He has been offered a very interesting job.

  1. Present Perfect Active

  2. Present Perfect Passive *

  3. Past Indefinite Active



  1. Укажите, в каком предложении глагол to have является модальным.

  1. Our scientists are making wonderful discoveries.

  2. They are shown the way to the station.

  3. Students are to attend lectures and seminars. *




  1. Определите, какой модальный глагол нужно употребить в приведённом предложении.

Я могу говорить по-английски.

  1. can *

  2. may

  3. must




  1. Выберите правильный вариант перевода английского сложного предложения на русский язык, учитывая правило согласования времён.

We did not know where she would live.

  1. Мы не знали, где она будет жить. *

  2. Мы не знаем, где она будет жить.

  3. Мы не знали, где она живет.




  1. Выберите правильный вариант перевода английского сложного предложения на русский язык, учитывая союзное и бессоюзное подчинение.

Here are the books he gave us.

  1. Вот книги, которые он даст нам.

  2. Вот книги, которые он нам даёт.

  3. Вот книги, которые он дал нам. *



  1. Определите, какую функцию выполняет причастие.

Having finished the translation he typed it.

  1. обстоятельство *

  2. определение



  1. Выберите правильный вариант перевода английского причастия на русский язык.

When asked he refused to answer the question.

  1. Когда его спросили, он отказался отвечать на вопрос. *

  2. Когда его спрашивают, он отказывается отвечать на вопрос.

  3. Его спросили, он отказался отвечать на вопрос.



  1. В английском предложении найдите независимый причастный оборот и выберите правильный вариант перевода на русский язык.

The scientists having completed the analytical work, they worked out the plan of experiments.

  1. Закончив аналитическую работу, учёные разработали план эксперимента.

  2. Когда учёные закончили аналитическую работу, они разработали план эксперимента. *

  3. Учёные закончили аналитическую работу и разработали план эксперимента.



В

Чтение


Прочитайте текст и выполните задание.

METRO BUILDERS IN SIBERIA

More than a hundred Muscovites helped to build Siberia's first underground rail line (nine kilometres and five stations) in Novosibirsk. Muscovites took part in designing and putting together the tunnel shields and the building of the tunnels and the stations. The weather is freezing here, and since the granite and marble finishing slabs for the stations were frozen, we've got to warm them before they can be used. Before our work crew came to Siberia, we had worked at Metro projects all over the country, and nowhere else did we meet so many difficulties as we met here. The average annual temperature in Novosibirsk is below the freezing point, but we didn't realize how many problems that would pose. For example before starting the finishing work for the stations' surface entrances we had to build heated shelters for them. Generally speaking, much of the work we did here during the winter is usually done in summer at other Metro projects. The summer here is very short and if we followed the usual practice, we would have dragged out the construction for another five years.

Builders from different places also worked on the project, since it is usual for Metro builders to pool efforts when a city undertakes such a major project. When we're through with our work here we'll go back to Moscow. And we'll return to Siberia because there are blueprints for the construction of Metro also in Omsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk.


Выберите верный вариант ответа:

I. Who helped to build Siberia's first underground line?

1. a hundred Muscovites

2. some one hundred Muscovites

3. more than one hundred Muscovites and builders from different places *


II. What difficulties did the builders met there?

1. the freezing weather *

2. the shortage of granite and marble finishing slabs

3. the labor shortage


III. When did the builders do much of the work?

1. in spring, summer and autumn

2. only in summer

3. during the winter *


IV. How many years would the builders have dragged out the construction for, if they followed the usual practice?

1. for an indefinite term

2. for some years

3. for another five years *


V. Are there blueprints for the Metro construction anywhere else in Siberia?

1. Yes, there are blueprints for Metro in Omsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk. *

2. No, there are not. It is a labor-intensive construction.

3. No one knows.

C

Лексика (железнодорожные термины)


  1. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

works

  1. работа; труд

  2. место работы; должность

  3. завод, мастерская *


II. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

rail gauge

  1. рельсовая колея *

  2. рельсовый стык

  3. железная дорога


III. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

поезд

  1. track

  2. car

  3. train *


IV. Найдите правильный эквивалент:

локомотивная бригада

  1. train crew

  2. locomotive crew *

  3. steam locomotive


V. Найдите правильный перевод данного предложения:

Many stations needed rebuilding and there was a shortage of rolling stock.

  1. Многие станции следует реконструировать, и надо решить проблему дефицита подвижного состава.

  2. Многие станции нуждаются в реконструкции и испытывают недостаток подвижного состава.

  3. Многие станции нуждались в реконструкции и испытывали нехватку подвижного состава. *



Контрольные работы


Контрольная работа №1 (вариант 1)


1. Определите время предложений и переведите их:

1. The growing importance of automatic in industry attracts world-wide attention.

2. This discovery made possible the invention of the telegraph.

3. The builders will have built the new railway station by the end of the year.

4. While he was reading, I was preparing for my exam in history.

5. The scientist has visited our laboratory several times.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные функции глаголов to have и to be:

1. By that time the University had already trained many young specialists.

2. It is the work which we have to do.

3. This town has a new railway station.

4. I am to become a good engineer.

5. Our students are translating this text now.

6. Colleges in England are places where the students live, study and have meals together.

3. Образуйте наречие от прилагательного high, образуйте существительные от глаголов: to develop, to improve; переведите их на русский язык.

4. Переведите текст с помощью словаря.

London’s Underground

It was the year 1863 when 30.000 Londoners used a new mode of travel – the first underground railway in the world. The first train covered the distance of almost four miles.

At first the carriages were “blind” and the trains were cable operated. Then appeared small electric trains. Now, a hundred and a half years later, the London Underground carries two million passengers every day over its 244 miles of route with their 263 stations.

Now it has been claimed that the London Tube is the safest form of transport. Safety was always one of the main concerns of London transport. Automatic signaling is operated by the trains themselves. A programmer machine controls routes.

Cable operated- двигались по кабелю

Tube- метрополитен (в Лондоне)

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