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Researcher of National Institutes of Health crystalline residues of sarmentosis glycostdes

I he efforts of many investigators, the genes were found to be particles of chromosomes, Their chemical nature became the subject of intensive investigation. In America, Alfred E. Mireky (1943) applied ultraviolet epectroscopy and chemical extraction to the problem and found that the genes are made up of nucleo proteins. The chromosome is now known to possess a definite nucleoprotein structure, the activity of which determines the course of development: Each species has a characteristic gene configuration,

Imitation of genie effects can be produced by external agents—­for example, there is a lack of metamorphosis in tadpoles which are fed diets deficient in iodine. Bed eye pigments can be pro­duced in inflects by administering kynurenine, which is formed from the dietary essential amino acid, tryptopban. Kynurenine is now known to be the necessary component of the Drosophila V+ gene hormone. In the biochemistry of the genes, we can estimate the effect of at least one biochemical substance on growth, normal and abnormal. Moreover, there is some indi­cation that a study of gene stimulators, retarders, or imitators may lead to the differentiation of cancer tissue from noncancer tissue.

The complexity of the field covered by the Division of Biological Chemistry is well illustrated by the program of last year's 118th national meeting of the american chemical society at Chi­cago, 111. Some 160 papers were presented, on fats, tracer ele­ments, enzymes, hormones, amino acids, steroids, tumors, cancer, antibodies, toxins, antibiotics, nucleic acids and derivatives, microbiological assays, and chromatography. In addition, there were symposia on steroids and ACTH. The program covered biochemistry, health, disease, and public welfare—a multifaceted exposition of the applications of chemistry and physics to living processes.

Early Contributors

The tremendous growth of biochemistry in many fields makes it difficult to name originators or leaders. However, some men­tion should be made of a few early contributors.

Russell II. Chittenden, who conducted the first course in physiological chemistry in America, trained a number of research workers and teachers in the field. By studying how the growth curves of young rats are influenced by diet, amino acids, and vitamins, T. B. Osborne and Lafayette B. Mendel added much to our knowledge of what constitutes an adequate diet, Elmer V. McCollum did outstanding work in the vitamin field and in general nutrition.

quottx spectrophotometer is widely employed

in the analysis of biochemkal compounds

Alfred F. Hess conducted extensive investigations into infantile

At Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, samples containing radioactive carbon are used in tracer research

scurvy and suggested sunlight as a cure of rickets. Harry Steen-bock found that irradiation with ultraviolet rays caused inactive vegetable oils to acquire antirachitic potency. Herbert M. Evans discovered the fertility vitamin which B. Sure labeled vitamin E. William C. Rose, by emphasizing the classification of amino acids into those required in the diet and those which are nonessential, added much to our understanding of nutrition.

Otto Folin and Stanley R. Benedict were leaders in developing new methods for rapid analysis of important biological constitu­ents, such as creative, creatinine, and uric acid. John J. Abel I did outstanding work on adrenaline and insulin. W. H. Howell I became noted for his study of^lood coagulation, Treat B, 1 Johnson was a pioneer in the synthesis of compounds important 1 in plant and animal metabolism. E. C. Kendall, a nfeo Nobel I laureate, won acclaim for his work on thyroxin and steroids. I Phoebus A. Levene was a master mind in elucidating the struc-I tural formulas of nucleic acids. H. B. Lewis, M. X. Sullivan, I Erwin Brand, J. A, Stekol, and Vincent duVigneaud added much I new knowledge concerning the role of sulfur compounds in health ( and disease.

H. B, Vickery studied plant and animal proteins. Robert JR. Williams et al. synthesized vitamin Bi or thiamine. R. J. I Williams isolated pantothenic acid. H. H. Mitchell investigated I the biological value of proteins. H. D. Dakin added consider-1 ably to our knowledge of chemical reactions in intermediary I metabolism and oxidation-reduction. Donald D. Van Slyke de-1 veloped procedures of great value to biochemists, especially those (engaged hi the study of blood gases, acid-base balance, and I microanalysis. Lawrence J. Henderson was a noted applior of I physical chemistry to biological problems, particularly problems relating to blood. P. B. Hawk did excellent work on digestion and is especially noted for his textbook, "Practical Physiological



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