Sallie Bernard* Albert Enayati, B. S., Ch. E., M. S. M. E. Heidi Roger

НазваниеSallie Bernard* Albert Enayati, B. S., Ch. E., M. S. M. E. Heidi Roger
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Case Studies: Mercury Poisoning

A 12 year old girl with recent mercury vapor poisoning was initially diagnosed as having a psychiatric disturbance. Her behavior was more normal when she was unaware of being watched. She became upset when people were around, was reluctant to speak when others were present, spoke in a soft, mumbling voice, lacked eye contact, had a flat affect, was sometimes tearful, experienced auditory hallucinations of voices laughing at her, wished to stay alone in her room with the lights off and her head covered, and had frequent temper tantrums (Fagala and Wigg, 1992).

Sufferers of Mad Hatter’s disease, arising from prolonged mercury vapor exposure, were known to suffer from depression, lassitude, acute anxiety, and irrational fears. They also became nervous, timid, and shy. They blushed readily, were embarrassed in social situations, objected to being watched, and sought to avoid people. They felt a constant impulse to return home. They were easily upset, and were prone to agitation, irritability, anger, and aggressive behavior (O’Carroll et al, 1995).

A survey on an Internet site of adult acrodynia victims, which compared the symptoms of adults who suffered from acrodynia as children with controls, reported the following symptoms as seen to a greater degree in acrodynia sufferers than in controls: dislikes being touched or hugged, is a loner, lacks self confidence, feels nervousness and has a racing heart, has depression and suicidal feelings (Farnesworth, 1997). One acrodynia victim described his own situation: “not having learnt normal social skills I spent a lot of my time alone…Gradually by age 11 or so, I was becoming ‘normal’…But, I have never overcome the headache problem, irritability, shyness with real people, not wanting to be touched, depression, fear of doctors, great anxiety…” (Neville's Recollection, Pink Disease site)

A doctor from the 19th century described several cases of mercury poisoning from dental amalgams: “There is mental excitability as well as mental depression; perplexing events cause the highest degree of excitement, ordinary conversation sometimes causes complete confusion, headache, palpitation, intense solicitude, and anxiety, without reason for it. Such are some of the symptoms attending these cases.” As an example he cites the case of a young woman who “had come to be melancholic and to withdraw herself from her family and friends, seeking the seclusion of her room -- refusing to go out or to associate with others, or even with the members of her own household.” (Tuthill, 1899)

Nearly a century later, initial questioning of a 28 year old woman, subsequently found to have mercury vapor poisoning, “elicited the fact that she had become increasingly withdrawn from social activities and had felt most uncomfortable when with strangers. She also felt that her friends had turned against her. She had a repetitive disturbing dream of electric fire around the frames of the windows in her bedroom.” (Ross et al, 1977)

Lenny and The Mad Hatter

  1. Rigid literal interpretation of word meaning; word meaning and pragmatic errors which interfere with social communication

Lenny -

"He was very literal minded, and words spoken to him became matters of immutable fact. For example, he was trying on new shoes. His mother asked him if they slipped up and down. He said they didn't, and when asked again if he were sure, he replied, 'No, they don't slip up and down; they slip down and then they slip up.' "

The Mad Hatter -

"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I ca'n't take more."

"You mean you ca'n't take less," said the Hatter: "It's very easy to take more than nothing."

  1. Social deficits, inability to interpret social rules, leading to perceived rude behavior

Lenny -

"Although he tried working in his father's business for a time, his immaturity, self-centered behavior, and lack of social judgment required his return to a sheltered setting."

The Mad Hatter -

"Your hair wants cutting," said the Hatter. He had been looking at Alice for some time with great curiosity, and this was his first speech.

"You should learn not to make personal remarks," Alice said with some severity: "it's very rude."

The Hatter opened his eyes wide upon hearing this; but all he said was "Why is a raven like a writing desk?"

  1. Inability to engage in meaningful social conversation; poor conversational interpretation skills; perseverative thoughts

Lenny -

"During one interview he engaged in a 20 minute monologue about a broken washing mashine. The interviewer momentarily dozed off. Upon rousing, the interviewer exclaimed, 'Oh, Lenny, I'm sorry!' 'It's all right,' Lenny replied calmly, 'the washing machine got fixed."

The Mad Hatter (who talks obsessively/perseveratively about Time for a good portion of the chapter) -

"What a funny watch!" she remarked. "It tells the day of the month, and doesn't tell what o'clock it is!"

"Why should it?" muttered the Hatter. "Does your watch tell you what year it is?"

"Of course not, " Alice replied very readily: "but that's because it stays the same year for such a long time altogether."

"Which is just the case with mine," said the Hatter.

Alice felt dreadfully puzzled. The Hatter's remark seemed to her to have no sort of meaning in it, and yet it was certainly plain English.

b. Language and Hearing

The third diagnostic criterion for autism is a qualitative impairment in communication (APA, 1994), and such impairment is a primary feature of mercury poisoning.

Delayed language onset is often among the first overt signs of ASD (Eisenmajer et al, 1998). Historically, half of those with classic autism failed to develop meaningful speech (Gillberg & Coleman, 1992; Prizant, 1996); and oral-motor deficits (e.g. chewing, swallowing) are often present (Filipek et al, 1999). When speech develops, there may be “specific neuromotor speech disorders,” including verbal dyspraxia, a dysfunction in the ability to plan the coordinated movements to produce intelligible sequences of speech sounds, or dysarthria, a weakness or lack of control of the oral musculature” leading to articulation problems (Filipek et al, 1999). Echolalic speech and pronoun reversals are typically found in younger children. Many ASD subjects show poorer performance on tests of verbal IQ relative to performance IQ (Dawson, 1996; Filipek at al, 1999). Higher functioning individuals, such as those with Asperger’s Syndrome, may have language fluency but still exhibit semantic (word meaning) and pragmatic (use of language to communicate) errors (Filipek et al, 1999).

Auditory impairment is also common. Two separate studies, for example, both found that 24% of autistic subjects have a hearing deficit (Gillberg & Coleman, 1992). More recently Rosenhall et al (1999) have diagnosed hearing loss ranging from mild to profound, as well as hyperacusis, otitis media, and conductive hearing loss, in a minority of ASD subjects, and these traits were independent of IQ status. Among the earliest signs of autism noted by mothers were strange reactions to sound and abnormal babble (Gillberg & Coleman, 1992), and many ASD children are tested for deafness before receiving a formal autism diagnosis (Vostanis et al, 1998). “Delayed or prompted response to name” differentiates 9-12 months old toddlers, later diagnosed with autism, from mentally retarded and typical controls (Baranek, 1999). In fact, “bizarre responses” to auditory stimuli are nearly universal in autism and may present as “either a lack of responsiveness or an exaggerated reaction to auditory stimuli” (Roux et al, 1998), possibly due to sound sensitivity (Grandin, 1996). Kanner noted an aversion to certain types of sounds, such as vacuum cleaners (Kanner, 1943). Severe deficits in language comprehension are often present (Filipek et al, 1999). Difficulties in picking out conversational speech from background noise are commonly reported by high functioning ASD individuals (Grandin, 1995; MAAP, 1997-1998).

In regard to language and auditory phenomena, autism's parallels to mercurialism are striking. Emerging signs of mercury poisoning are dysarthria (defective articulation in speech due to CNS dysfunction) and then auditory disturbance, leading to deafness in very high doses (Clarkson, 1992). In some cases, hearing impairment manifests as an inability to comprehend speech rather than an inability to hear sound (Dales, 1972). Hg poisoning can also result in aphasia, the inability to understand and/or physically express words (Kark et al, 1971). Speech difficulties may arise from “intention tremor, which can be noticeable about the mouth, tongue, face, and head, as well as in the extremities” (Adams et al, 1983).

Mercury-exposed children especially show a marked difficulty with speech (Pierce et al, 1972; Snyder, 1972; Kark et al, 1971). Even children exposed prenatally to “safe” levels of methylmercury performed less well on standardized language tests than did unexposed controls (Grandjean et al, 1998). Iraqi babies exposed prenatally either failed to develop language or presented with severe language deficits in childhood. They exhibited “exaggerated reaction” to sudden noise and some had reduced hearing (Amin-Zaki, 1974 and 1979). Iraqi children who were postnatally poisoned from bread containing either methyl or ethylmercury developed articulation problems, from slow, slurred word production to the inability to generate meaningful speech. Most had impaired hearing and a few became deaf (Amin-Zaki, 1978). In acrodynia, symptoms of sufferers (vs. controls) include noise sensitivity and hearing problems (Farnesworth, 1997).

Adults also exhibit these same Hg-induced impairments. There is slurred or explosive speech (Dales, 1972), as well as difficulty in picking out one voice from a group (Joselow et al, 1972). Poisoned Iraqi adults developed articulation problems (Amin-Zaki, 1974). A 25 year old man with elemental mercury poisoning had reduced hearing at all frequencies (Kark et al, 1971). Thimerosal injected into a 44 year old man initially led to difficulty verbalizing, even though his abilities in written expression were uncompromised; he then progressed to slow and slurred speech, although he could still comprehend verbal language; and he finally lost speech altogether (Lowell et al, 1996). In Mad Hatter’s disease, there were word retrieval and articulation difficulties (O’Carroll et al, 1995). A scientist who recently died from dimethylmercury poisoning demonstrated an inability to understand speech despite having good hearing sensitivity for pure tones (Musiek and Hanlon, 1999). Workers exposed to mercury vapor showed decreased verbal intelligence relative to performance IQ (Piikivi et al, 1984; Vroom and Greer, 1972).

Table III: Summary of Speech, Language

& Hearing Deficits in Autism & Mercury Poisoning

Mercury Poisoning


Complete loss of speech in adults or children; failure to develop speech in infants

Delayed language onset; failure to develop speech

Dysarthria; speech difficulties from intention tremor; slow and slurred speech

Dysarthria; dyspraxia and oral-motor planning difficulties; unintelligible speech

Aphasia, the inability to use or understand words, inability to comprehend speech although ability to hear sound is intact

Speech comprehension deficits, although ability to hear sound is intact

Difficulties verbalizing; word retrieval problems

Echolalia; pronoun reversals, word meaning and pragmatic errors; limited speech production

Auditory disturbance; difficulties differentiating voices in a crowd

Difficulties following conversational speech with background noise

Sound sensitivity

Sound sensitivity

Hearing loss; deafness in very high doses

Mild to profound hearing loss

Poor performance on standardized language tests

Poor performance on verbal IQ tests
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