А. В. Федоров Медиаобразование




НазваниеА. В. Федоров Медиаобразование
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Valery Gura:

Undoubtedly, it is very useful to study the foreign practice; however one cannot borrow any model of media education directly. We have our own history of film education, journalism, which reflects Russian mentality, among other things, is based on Russian art imagery. I think we need to undertake a deeper study of the ideas of outstanding countrymen who provided the philosophical and methodological foundation for media education, such as M.Bakhtin, B.Bibler, Y.Lotman, etc.

Nikolai Hilko:

Yes, certainly. In particular, the experience of the British Film Institute, Center for Media Literacy in the U.S.A., experience of Prof.A.G.Martin (Spain), etc. The collaboration could take place through exchange programs, workshops, joint media projects, festivals.

Katia Hristova:

I think that the British program Media Smart could be successfully used in the Bulgarian environment.

Jenny Johnson:

Yes, any developed country.

David Klooster:

I believe we can ALWAYS learn valuable lessons from the experiences and approaches of other countries and other cultures.  I would look to Europe, to Japan and Korea, and to important Latin American countries like Argentina and Brazil for valuable approaches to Media Education.

Victoria Kolesnichenko:

Of course studying foreign experience can promote the further development of ME in Russia. Thus the acquaintance with promising directions and effective practices of leading countries is needed by Russian media educators. I believe that Canadian media education model is worth studying where ME has an official status and is taught in all grades of secondary schools in all the provinces. Especially interesting is the unique experience of CHUM Television, encouraging the development of media literacy of children and youth.

Sergei Korkonosenko:

Questions of the kind should always be answered in the affirmative. Any foreign experience is worthy careful study and perhaps, application. However the poor technical equipment of Russian schools can hinder the process. On a large scale it is hard to transfer the total computerization of education institutions that takes place in Scandinavian countries for instance. But we can go back to the forgotten traditions and methods of editorial offices of mass media, especially local, that earlier served as centers for media literacy, although the term itself was not invented back then.

Alexander Korochensky:

Critical study of foreign experience is useful because it helps escape some dead end directions of media education theory and practice, and study successful practices. However the transfer of such experience should be done thoughtfully taking into account differences of contexts. I would not like to distinguish one particular country, but practices preparing the audience for communication with market driven mass media, with all their intrinsic specificity, are of great interest.

Susanne Krucsay:

Other experiences can always help; I am for selecting those bits of the countries I know which seem most suitable.

Robert Kubey:

Yes, it can help.  My visits previously to England, Scotland, Canada, and
Israel taught me a lot.

Geoff Lealand:

Initially, the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada (esp. Ontario) provided inspiration and models.  In more recent years, there has been more confidence in developing local (New Zealand) models of teaching/assessment, and resources eg we now tend to have less to do with Australian Teachers of Media (ATOM), than in previous years. I would argue that New Zealand media teaching is now in a position to provide models for other countries!

Elena Murukina:

The study of any experience, including foreign, is always important and necessary. For example, we incorporate the experience of British media educators (six key concepts of ME). But in my opinion, we need to study and apply the Russian experiences because they correspond to the peculiarities of Russian way of thinking.

Anastasia Novikova:

Undoubtedly, studying foreign experience is important in any field. Media education in Australia, Canada, Great Britain is a legitimate part of the school curricula, - the experience of media educators in these countries is certainly inspiring.

Konstantin Ognev:

For the two thirds of the XX century education for film professionals around the world took a pattern by our country, and in the first place, by the tradition of VGIK. Approximately since the middle 1960s with the development of television, video industry, screen technologies and World Wide Web, the priorities in screen culture have changed, and as a result, priorities of media education changed as well. Taking into account the considerable gap between the technical equipment of education system in countries with a strong cinematography tradition (and even with those, who have never had a conspicuous place on the map of cinema world) and Russia, certainly, the experience of foreign countries has to be studied and used. However there is one thing that the VGIK tradition still strongly believes in- the unity of theory and practice: from the first days at the university our students are guided by the laws of production. It has a special meaning today, when screen technologies intervene into the sphere of everyday life, when trade skill dominates over the professionalism, and Art is replaced by its surrogate.

Zurab Oshxneli:

Foreign experience may have positive effect on our country’s new government. But unfortunately, Russian experience might be unacceptable from Georgian-Russian’s relations point of view. Of course, we may take the experience from the little, but developed country as ours like Israel, Denmark, Sweden, or from a similar country, where it is very important to develop media education.

Trygve Panhoff:

Norway has had some media research inspired from England, e.g. David
Buckingham. As research stays on the university level, it is rarely
directly useful in school education, teachers however who are especially
interested may be inspired by other countries. This often takes place on
a personal level (attendance at international seminars, etc.).

Stal Penzin:

Foreign experience cannot add anything to the part of media education that deals with film, simply because Russian film educators are interested in a film in the first place as the work of art, able to humanize the life on the planet. In the West they believe that one cannot impose any opinions or tastes (including the good taste) on students. And I am not going this way.

Valery Prozorov:

French projects present a great interest for me, e.g. Active Young TVviewer, Introduction to Audiovisual Culture, etc.

Faith Rogow:

Yes and no.  There have been research models and theoretical frameworks developed in places like Great Britain, Canada, Brazil, and South Africa that will be helpful to anyone doing media education. 

However, their application to the U.S. will be limited in two ways.  First, most countries have a centralized education system.  In contrast, education policy in the U.S. is determined state-by-state.  So strategies aimed at top-down implementation coming from the federal government will not work in the U.S. 

In addition, most current media education initiatives have been constructed within a particular subject area framework, usually Language Arts.  The movement in the United States is to integrate media education as an approach to teaching that is used in every subject and at every grade level.  So media education would become part of math and health and science and social studies instruction, not just Language Arts and not as a special add-on course.

Elena Yastrebtseva:

Any experience helps register the situation and move forward, developing new directions for research and integration. The European experience of media education in the XX century - France, England, Belgium, etc. was interesting.

Conclusion. Russian and foreign experts show on the whole the consensus of opinion: the dialogue of cultures in media education is important and foreign experience should be studied, though its direct application on an alien national ground is of course problematic. Only the consistent adherent of the aesthetic/art and ethical concept of media education S.N.Penzin is skeptical about it (although the spectrum of foreign models of ME is very broad and of course includes the aesthetical approach as well)…

Question 4. Can modern media criticism become the ally of movement of media education? If yes, how?

Cary Bazalgette:

If this means critical theory as developed in the academy, yes: it can help to refine and re-think curricular content, though a process of debate and dialogue is needed. For example, the BFI has developed a different approach to teaching genre after looking at new critical theory in this area. If however you mean press criticism, then no, probably not: the quality of this is very low in the UK.

Elena Bondarenko:

To my mind modern media criticism is already an ally of media education. Media criticism is in a way a loudspeaker of the reflection process of media, simultaneously self-analysis and reflection about the most significant problems in the sphere of media culture and information exchange. However media criticism exists today as a quite independent and autonomous phenomenon. If we make its materials a field for analysis and interpretation in ME, then we get an ally of ME. If we recall the history of ME, we’ll find plenty examples of how an information or aesthetical “enemy” was transformed into an “ally” by using a publication, film, advertisement, etc. as a material for study.

Richard Cornell:

Yes, it can and it should be! It is time we convince the communications conglomerates to emulate what the families of Bill Gates and Warren Buffet are doing – focusing their considerable financial resources on critical areas of need around the world.

Where too, are the sheiks, princes, and presidents from oil-rich nations who are demanding (and getting) obscenely high profits from the sale of their oil and gas products? To what extent are they reinvesting those funds on behalf of their own people, many of whom continue to exist in impoverished conditions?

It seems we are putting media education in front of more dire needs – we do need to get our priorities straight, feeding, clothing, housing, and medicating those in need before we devote time to media analysis. (This is my personal opinion.)

Harald Gapski:

Media critics is an essential and integral part of media education. Unfortunately it is an under represented dimension of media education, in particular when it comes to digital media.

Valery Gura:

Undoubtedly media criticism is one of the pilots in the world of media for the media consumers. However its influence on masses is minor. It seems that in order to widen the sphere of its impact one should promote it on TV and Internet. In my opinion, the main consumer of media criticism now is the media literate reader or viewer.

Nikolai Hilko:

Yes, it can. Contacts of ME and media criticism may relate to the development of creative thinking, overcoming the aesthetical distance of the biased traditional thinking.

Katia Hristova:

No.

Jenny Johnson:

Yes, by  analysing  the criticisms.

David Klooster:

I am not completely sure what the question means. If you mean reviews and criticism of the media by experts, then certainly I would hope that this practical criticism would become part of media education. Media education should be founded on theoretical as well as practical bases. The most important goal of media education should be to help citizens become critical consumers of the media, able to understand how the media try to manipulate viewers and listeners and readers, able to identify biases of creators of programs, and able to resist passively accepting everything they are told.

Victoria Kolesnichenko:

The union of media criticism and ME is quite legitimate, especially at the current stage. Unfortunately, the educational potential of media criticism is not used to the full extent. As media criticism is aimed to help the audience to differentiate information flow (often of dubious contents), it can teach to understand and evaluate it adequately and in the result, help become a literate consumer of mass media.

Sergei Korkonosenko:

Media criticism is in fact blending with ME, in particular in continuous exploration of media culture by the audiences. Therefore educational programs should be accompanied by the creation of print, audiovisual, web educational mass media, targeted at different age and social groups, starting with pre-school children. Today media criticism in Russia is working mainly insular for the elite (from the viewpoint of its accessibility to the masses), or for the informative TV-guides, press reviews, etc.

Alexander Korochensky:

Of course yes. The critical component is build-in in many modern theories of ME. Ideally media criticism can develop the cognitive potential of media audiences interacting with mass media, its rational critical attitude to the information products of media industry. But it needs the high quality of media criticism. Unfortunately Russian media criticism often suffers from commercial imperative, substituting the critical analysis, interpretation and evaluation of media events with their commercial promotion and entertainment of the audience under the guise of criticism.

Susanne Krucsay:

If media criticism is balanced and fair, it can be an ally.

Robert Kubey:

Yes.

Geoff Lealand:

In can, as long as it does not dominate (eg 'inoculation' imperatives).  Students do need to know how the media works AGAINST their interests, but also where it can work FOR their interests.  We also need to account for considerations such as 'spectacle' and 'pleasure'. Media literacy is as much about challenging 'common sense' notion of the media (such as moral panics), as understanding processes.  In nearly case, media teaching is a political activity but it also should allow for diversity and difference.

Anastasia Novikova:

Yes, quality media criticism.

Konstantin Ognev:

Resuming my speculations above, I’d mark the rise of responsibility of media criticism under modern conditions. Although often we encounter not the analysis, but a bare fact description, based on the desire of audience to look behind the scenes of the world of art.

Zurab Oshxneli:

Media criticism might not become the ally of movement of media education, because their functions are much dissociated.

Trygve Panhoff:

Modern media critique has its own fora, like MedieNorge and
Nordicom, with their own publications. Articles are broadly read by
media teachers.

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