А. В. Федоров Медиаобразование




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Elena Yastrebtseva:

There are achievements undoubtedly, and they are written about. As for the problems: in Russian media education related to secondary school the prevailing priority is given to the non-productive activity of students. We also lack system projects (programs) and research (including psychological), dealing with the development of methods and forms of work with children aimed at independent thinking and their “protection” from massive negative information.

Conclusion. The close reading of the answers to the first question shows that leading Russian media educators evaluate the current condition of media education in Russia differently. Some of them are rather optimistic (V.Gura, V.Kolesnichenko, A.Korochensky, A.Novikova, V.Prosorov), referring to certain facts and tendencies, acknowledge the situation of the movement’s rise. The others (S.Penzin, N.Hilko) complain about the lack of the administrative support. Other experts (E.Bondarenko, E.Muryukina) focus of the stabilization of the media education process. Two experts provide the perspective of education for future media professionals, in journalism (S.Korkonosenko) and film (K.Ognev).

Russian experts to a large extent agree that media education movement is facing considerable challenges; general public (including many teachers) on the whole is not aware of the aims of media education, integrated or extracurricular media education in schools is still the result of the initiatives of individual enthusiasts, and teachers often interpret ME as simply use of audiovisual technical aids, ignoring creative activities, aimed at the development of critical thinking, and media production by students as well.

Foreign experts, acknowledging certain achievements of ME in their countries, accentuate problems, similar to the Russian context: lack of the teacher trainings (we should bear in mind though that media educators from Canada, Australia and Hungary didn’t take part in the questionnaire, while it’s in these countries that ME is the required component of school program from the 1st till 12th grade), lack of the financing, etc. Two foreign experts - from Bulgaria and Georgia remark with a sense of bitterness that ME movement is still a very new domain for their countries.

Question 2. Have any new tendencies in media education appeared in your country in the 21st century?

Frank Baker:

The good news is that elements of media literacy are in the standards. There are several regional conferences and other initiatives designed to fill the void in teacher preparation and classroom materials. Some national textbooks have begun to include it, but it is not widespread yet.

Cary Bazalgette:

There is a growing amount of media education practice emerging in the 3-14 age range, located within Literacy teaching, and based on moving image media, led by BFI resources for this sector. There are also plans under way to develop a more outcomes-led, less prescriptive curriculum, which will set schools free to develop and manage their teaching strategies in more adventurous ways, and which is likely to enable much more media teaching to go on.

The 2003 Communications Act set up a new regulatory body for the electronic media industries, giving it a responsibility to foster media literacy. This has been good for profile, but also a problem because it has encouraged a very simplistic notion of media education – as protectionist, or exclusively concerned with technological access and know-how.

A new Diploma in Creative and Media is planned as an option for students in the 14-19 age range from 2008. This will offer a very broad range of learning in relation to a number of media forms, accredited at three levels, and with a strong practical/creative element. It is a potentially exciting development, although there is the danger that it will be seen as having lower status than A Level.

Elena Bondarenko:

XXI century is marked by the emergence of new forms of a dialogue with mass media - the degree of interactivity rose. Among other things, the web journalism is developing. We see a new stage in the development of media criticism. The differentiation of educational institutions leads to the new level of forming the media complex. Problems to face relate not only to pupils’ development on the media material but also to new approaches to shaping the educational environment.

Richard Cornell:

Aside from increased media criticism, the evolvement of social networking software is radically changing the communications landscape across America. Blogs, wikkis, ipods, instant messaging, and the ever-ubiquitous cell phone has descended upon the populace, and people of all ages, genders, and socio-economic level are turning rapidly to these resources, many of which are without cost to the user. Telephony has morphed into a PC-to-PC phenomenom, also at little or no user cost, and the conglomerate communications companies, AT&T, Verison, Bell South, etc. are reeling with the loss of what was formerly a monopolized communications environment.

Users now commonly employ instant messaging with video added to communicate with family, friends, and colleagues across the world, on a daily basis, and at no charge other than subscription to a network provider.

More and more households are subscribing to broadband given the increasing number of large files that feature streaming video, Power Point presentations with audio, and other similar programs that benefit from larger band width.

The number of American households now having at least one computer is rapidly increasing. With the cost of fuel escalating, more Americans are seeking cost-effective ways of managing their time, budgets, and travel expenses; thus more are staying home.

All of this in the face of workweeks that often exceeds 50-60 hours by many American workers.

Harald Gapski:

Media education acknowledges and stresses the important role of the organisational setting. The usage of Media implies the change of learning and communication processes. Introducing new media in a social system implies organisational development. Media education in 21st century is closely linked to digital literacy.

Valery Gura:

The main tendency of ME in the XXI century in our country to my mind is the intensive study of the experience of countries leading in this field, such as Canada, Australia, Great Britain, etc.

Nikolai Hilko:

The current tendencies are: striving for a higher status of ME in Russia; need for the constant renewal of approaches to media education activity; widening of media maintenance and need for its arrangement.

Katia Hristova:

In the beginning of the new century Bulgarian society started to use the term media literacy.

Jenny Johnson:

Increasing utilization.

Sergei Korkonosenko:

The best efforts from the viewpoint of persistency and professionalism, are made by the Russian Association of Film and Media Education, including the issuing of the journal “Media Education”. It’s too early to speak of tendencies, but media education becomes a topic in academic literature and methodological discussions more and more often.

Alexander Korochensky:

It’s in the new century that media education is gaining the scale of public, professional and academic movement. This is the main tendency.

Susanne Krucsay:

New technologies are changing the traditional conception of the world, their potential is regarded either in an uncritical euphemistic way or condemned altogether. Critical elements do not find their way into a more differentiated attitude.

Geoff Lealand:

Official recognition; the emergence of new, enthusiastic teachers; continuous desire for such course from students; the critical role of NAME, in promoting the subject; the arrival of new media forms (eg mobile technology), and the need for teachers to keep up with these.

Anastasia Novikova:

As for Russia, we evidence the tendency, characteristic for example to GB, Canada, the U.S. or Germany in the mid-late 90s, - and that is the shift of emphasis onto computer literacy and media education on the material of Internet.

Konstantin Ognev:

The main tendency is the modification of basic educational programs, due to the acceleration of the sci-tech progress and the appearance of new screen technologies. Thus for example, the department of the second professional education in VGIK has been training directors of montage as part of the contract with AVID. Along the directing and art department in VGIK now there is the department of multimedia, the economics department was reorganized and today it trains producers-to-be. By the way it was due to the VGIK efforts and not production studios or Federal agency for culture and cinematography, that this profession got the official status in our country. It is not always easy to align the requirements of educational standards with the requirements of production, based on new technologies. Sometimes this process elongates for years, that’s why I don’t want to speak of other VGIK projects yet.

Zurab Oshxneli:

The Media Educational Centre of the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia was made upon the model of Israel’s educational media, but now according to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia it was abolished and was renamed as The College of Media, Advertising and TV Arts. Of course, the college has no finances and technical and intellectual opportunities to produce educational video products. But now, the condition has worsened. There is only one channel in our country which has clearly expressed educational function and it is the Public Broadcast.

Trygve Panhoff:

Convergence has led to broader implication of computers and
multi-media programmes. Equipment is cheaper, even cell phones can be
used. Among schools and freetime activities producing programs, digital
equipment is becoming the usual tools.

Stal Penzin:

It’s easier for me to speak of the tendencies of media education by the example of Voronezh region. In the XXI century it became obvious that the peculiarity of film education, as an important component of ME, is conditioned by the dual nature of cinematography, on the one hand, belonging to mass media, and on the other hand, - to art. Voronezh media educators try to get across this idea to their students. The main tendency of Russian ME today is the introduction of mandatory media education courses in some universities. For example, Voronezh State Academy of Arts, offered the course “History of Cinema” (2 semesters) in 2004-2006. At the department of cultural studies of Voronezh State University the course “Film and Today” has been taught since 2000, and the Philology department requires taking the course in history of theatre and film.

Valery Prozorov:

An extremely important and partially realized initiative is the pre-service training of school teachers. Although the public opinion is not awake to a degree to insist on real and wide integration of special media education courses in school programs.

Elena Yastrebtseva:

Acceptance by the education community and popularization of the term “media education”.

Conclusion. In their answers to the second question Russian experts mentioned not only the creation of Internet sites, opening of the new pedagogical specialization “Media Education” and the issue of the academic journal, but also the intensive study of the foreign experience, publicity around the term, etc. Alexander Korochensky sounds most optimistic, believing that today media education is becoming truly nation-wide public and professional movement. Foreign experts pay more attention to the activation of integration of ME into curricula (C.Bazalgette, G.Lealand), to the opportunities broadened by the spread of digital media (H.Gapski, R.Cornell, S.Krucsay, G.Lealand, T.Panhoff).

Question 3. Could evidence from foreign experience help the development of media education in your country? If yes, which country’s experiences would be useful? And how might it help?

Frank Baker:

I look at some of the material already developed by Canada, Great Britain and Australia as excellent starting points, especially in their curriculum and support.

Cary Bazalgette:

The main help would be to be able to refer to any other country where significant policy decisions had been made to include media education in national curricula and/or to support it financially in some substantial way. It is also useful to hear about specific structures or processes which have been put in place to support media education nationally, and about research into learning outcomes.

Elena Bondarenko:

Media education initially existed as the open information environment. Therefore any foreign experience may be valuable and useful. Thus, theory and practice of organization and work of the young television channel in Bangladesh is quite adaptable to the situation in Russian provincial towns. Problems of the educational television of BBC are the same that are encountered by Russian producers of educational film/TV programs. Film/TV/video creativity is going through the new stage of development; new technology determines new forms of practical film education and media journalism. Thus media education just cannot- and should not! - exist without exchange of experience.

Richard Cornell:

Definitely yes! The sad fact is that, should you ask an American about equity of access or themes such as UNESCO’s efforts to provide “Information for All,” I suspect 90% of the populace would give you a blank look. America is turning insular, despite that its military is reaching across much of the world.

The recent conflagration related to what to do with 12 million illegal immigrants has polarized the nation into those in favor of deportation vs. those who would grant amnesty and bring these people into the fold of the nation.

As the approaching mid-term election gets closer, the rhetoric becomes more shrill and America’s bi-polar political machine cranks out (spews?) innumerable video, print, audio barrages about how good this candidate is as opposed to how bad their rival for office is. Indeed, these are media rich (impoverished?) times as the political thermometer heats up.

At least when we see politicians fighting in their legislative chambers in other countries, we know the message is clear, albeit tinged with anger. Maybe we need some of that kind of political honesty to get us back on track!

Norway has a particularly intriguing system of media access to its schools that could well be emulated in nations around the world. Some universities in Taiwan are using cell phones as integral elements of instruction. Ukraine and Russia are seeking collaborative ways of bridging pedagogy with technology skills. Australia’s distance learning schemes are bridging far-flung outback communities and urban centers. All of these efforts plus countless others are worthy of emulation or at least consideration by American educators.

Harald Gapski:

That depends on the media format. One cannot directly transfer educational success stories from one country to another due to the complexity and the differences of the educational systems and cultural embeddings. But there are examples, for example Film Education in France or Pedagogical ICT license (epict) which are localised in different countries.

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