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1942 Bulgaria: August—6,500 Gypsies registered by the police on
one day. Croatia: May—The government and the Ustasha order the arrest
of all Gypsies and their deportation to the extermination camp in
Jasenovac. Germany: March—A special additional income tax is
levied on Gypsies. July—A decree of the army general staff again orders
that Gypsies not be taken for active military service. September—
Himmler and Justice Minister Otto Thierack agree to transfer any Gypsies
in prison to concentration camps. December—Himmler issues the
order to deport the Gypsies in Greater Germany to the concentration
camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Poland: January—All Sinti and Romanies
from the Lodz ghetto are transported and gassed at Chelmno.
April—Romanies are brought into the Warsaw ghetto and kept in the
prison in Gesia Street. May—All Gypsies in the Warsaw district to be
interned in Jewish ghettoes. July—Several hundred Polish Romanies
killed at Treblinka extermination camp. Romania: Spring and Summer
—Some 20,000 Romanies are deported to Transnistria. Serbia:
August—Harald Turner, head of the German military administration,
announces that “the Gypsy question has been fully solved.”
CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY • xxvii
1943 Poland: January—Gypsies from Warsaw ghetto transferred to
the extermination camp at Treblinka. February—First transports
of Sinti and Romanies from Germany are delivered to the new Gypsy
Section in Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. March—At
Auschwitz, the Schutzstaffel (Storm Troopers) (SS) gasses some 1,700
men, women, and children. May—A further 1,030 men, women, and
children gassed by the SS at Auschwitz. SS major Dr. Josef Mengele
transferred at his own request to Auschwitz. July—Himmler visits
the Gypsy Section in Auschwitz and orders the Gypsies killed. USSR:
November—Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories orders all
nomadic Gypsies in the territories are to be treated as Jews.
1944 Belgium: January—Atransport of 351 Romanies and Sinti from
Belgium dispatched to Auschwitz. Holland: May—A transport of 245
Romanies and Sinti sent to Auschwitz. Poland: 2 August—1,400 Gypsy
prisoners are sent from Auschwitz to Buchenwald concentration camp.
The remaining 2,900 Gypsies are killed in the gas chamber. Slovakia:
Autumn—Romanies join the fight of partisans in the National Uprising.
1945 27 January—At 3:00 P.M., the first Soviet soldiers reach the
main camp at Auschwitz and find one Romany among the survivors.
May—World War II ends in Europe. All surviving Gypsies freed from
camps. Bulgaria: Gypsy Organization for the Fight against Fascism
and Racism set up. Germany: Nuremburg Trials of Nazi leaders begin.
Crimes against Gypsies are included in the charges.
1946 France: Mateo Maximoff’s novel The Ursitory published.
Poland: Roma Ensemble founded.
1947 Bulgaria: Teatr Roma established in Sofia.
1951 Bulgaria: Teatr Roma in Sofia closed.
1952 France: The Pentecostal movement among Gypsies starts.
1953 Denmark: Gypsies readmitted to the country.
1958 Bulgaria: Nomadism banned. Czechoslovakia: Nomadism
banned. Hungary: National Gypsy organization established.
1960 England and Wales: Caravan Sites Act reduces provision of
caravan sites. France: Communaute Mondiale Gitane established.
xxviii • CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY
1962 German Federal Republic: Courts rule that Gypsies were
persecuted for racial reasons. Norway: Government Gypsy Committee
1963 Ireland: Report of the Commission on Itinerancy published.
Italy: Opera Nomadi education scheme set up. Yugoslavia: Gypsies
move to Shuto Orizari after Skopje earthquake.
1964 Ireland: Itinerant Action Group set up.
1965 France: Communaute Mondiale Gitane banned. Comite International
Tzigane set up. Italy: Pope Paul VI addresses some 2,000 Gypsies
1966 United Kingdom: Gypsy Council set up.
1967 Finland: National Gypsy Association established.
1968 England and Wales: Caravan Sites Act: Councils to build sites.
Holland: All districts must build caravan sites.
1969 Bulgaria: Segregated schools are set up for Gypsies. Europe:
Council of Europe Assembly passes a positive resolution on Gypsies.
Yugoslavia, Macedonia: Abdi Faik elected a member of Parliament.
1970 Norway: Report published on proposed work with the Gypsies.
United Kingdom: National Gypsy Education Council established.
1971 United Kingdom: First World Romany Congress held near London.
Advisory Committee on the Travelling People starts work in Scotland.
1972 Czechoslovakia: Sterilization program for Gypsies begins.
France: Band known as Los Reyes (later the Gypsy Kings) founded.
Sweden: Stockholm’s Finska Zigenarforening founded. United Kingdom:
Romany Guild founded.
1973 German Federal Republic: Three Gypsies shot by farmer in Pfaffenhofen.
Scandinavia: Nordiska Zigenarradet set up to link organizations.
Yugoslavia, Macedonia: Radio broadcasts in Romani start from
1975 Europe: Council of Europe Committee of Ministers adopts a
positive resolution on nomads. Hungary: The first issues of the magazine
Rom som [I Am a Romany] appear.
CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY • xxix
1977 Netherlands: Legalization of 500 “illegal” Gypsy immigrants.
United Kingdom: Cripps Report on Gypsies published. United Nations:
Subcommission passes resolution on protection of Gypsies.
1978 Switzerland: Second World Romany Congress held in Geneva.
1979 Hungary: National Gypsy Council formed. First national exhibition
of self-taught Gypsy artists held. Norway: ABC Romani primer
produced for mother-tongue teaching. Romania: St. John’s Gospel
published underground in Romani. United Nations: International Romani
Union recognized by the United Nations Economic and Social
1980 Yugoslavia: Romani grammar in Romani published in Skopje.
1981 Europe: Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe
resolution on helping nomads held. German Federal Republic: Third
World Romany Congress in Gottingen held. Poland: Pogrom instigated
in Oswiecim. Yugoslavia: Gypsies granted national status on an equal
footing with other minorities.
1982 France: New Francois Mitterrand government promises to help
1983 Europe: Council of Ministers passes a resolution on stateless
nomads. Italy: Gypsy caravans removed from Rome at the start of the
Annus Sanctus. United Kingdom: First national Pentecostal convention
held. Belfast Traveller Education Development Group established
in Northern Ireland. Yugoslavia, Kosovo: Romani teaching begins in
1984 Europe: European Parliament passes a resolution on aiding
Gypsies. India: Chandigarh Festival held.
1985 France: First International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art
held in Paris. Ireland: Report of the Travelling People Review Body
published. Sweden: Gypsy family attacked in Kumla with stones and a
1986 France: International Gypsy conference held in Paris. Spain:
Gypsy houses set on fire in Martos. Yugoslavia, Sarajevo: International
Romany seminar held.
xxx • CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY
1988 Hungary: Organization Phralipe founded.
1989 Europe: Council of the Europe resolution on promoting school
provision for Gypsy and Traveler children held. Germany: Government
initiates the deportation of several thousand foreign Gypsies from
the country. Gypsies demonstrate at the site of the concentration camp
at Neuengamme against the deportation of asylum seekers. Hungary:
Roma Parliament set up. Poland: First Romane Divesa Festival held.
Romania: Border guards shoot party of Gypsies. Spain: Gypsy houses
attacked in Andalusia.
1990 Poland: Permanent exhibition on Romanies opens in Tarnow.
Fourth World Romany Congress held near Warsaw; standard alphabet
for Romani adopted by the Congress. Journal Rrom p-o Drom [Romanies
on the Road] starts publication. Romania: Miners attack Romany
quarter in Bucharest. Yugoslavia: Egyptian Associations formed in
Kosovo and Macedonia.
1991 Czech Republic: Romani teaching starts at Prague University.
Italy: Ostia international conference held. Macedonia: Romanies have
equal rights in new republic. Poland: Pogrom instigated in Mlawa. Slovakia:
Government gives Romanies nationality status and equal rights.
Ukraine: Police attack settlement of Velikie Beryezni.
1992 Hungary: Arson attack occurs on Gypsies in Ketegyhaza.
Poland: Attack occurs on remaining Gypsies in Oswiecim. Slovakia:
Romathan Theater established in Kosˇice. Ukraine: Mob attacks Gypsy
houses in Tatarbunary. United Nations: Commission on Human Rights
passes resolution on protection of Gypsies. Gypsies recognized as an
1993 Bulgaria: A crowd of Bulgarians attacks the Gypsy quarter in
Malorad, killing one Romany man. Czech Republic: Tibor Danihel
drowns running away from skinhead gang. Seven Romanies deported
from Usti nad Labem to Slovakia. Europe: Congress of Local and Regional
Authorities of Europe Resolution on Gypsies held. Germany: First
International Conference on Romani Linguistics held in Hamburg. Hungary:
Gypsies recognized as a national minority. International Conference
held in Budapest. Macedonia: Romani language officially introduced in
CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY • xxxi
schools. Romania: Three Gypsies killed in pogrom in Hadareni. Slovakia:
Cyril Dunka beaten up by police after a parking incident. United
Kingdom: Scottish Gypsy/Traveller Association set up. United Nations:
Romany Union upgraded to Category II consultative status.
1994 France: Standing Conference of Romany Associations formed
in Strasbourg. Hungary: Organization for Security and Cooperation in
Europe meeting sets up Contact Point for Roma and Sinti Issues in Budapest,
based initially in Warsaw. Gypsies vote for their local Romany
councils. Poland: Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights
organizes Warsaw seminar on Romanies. Gypsy boy beaten up and
houses inhabited by Romanies attacked in Debica. Spain: European
Congress held in Seville. United Kingdom: Criminal Justice Act: Nomadism
1995 Austria: Four Roma killed by a bomb in Oberwart, Burgenland.
Bulgaria: One Gypsy dies following an arson attack on a block of flats
in Sofia. Angel Angelov shot by police in Nova Zagora. Czech Republic:
Tibor Berki killed by skinheads in Zdar nad Sazavou. Europe:
Council of Europe sets up specialist advice group on Romanies. Hungary:
Second International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art held.
International Romani Union organizes “Sarajevo” Peace Conference in
Budapest. Gypsies attacked and injured in Kalocsa. Poland: Gypsy
couple murdered in Pabianice. Grota Bridge settlement of Romanian
Gypsies in Warsaw dispersed by police. Residents deported across the
border to Ukraine. Slovakia: Mario Goral burned to death by skinheads
in Ziar nad Hronom. Turkey: Zehala Baysal dies in police custody in
1996 Albania: Fatmir Haxhiu dies of burns after a racist attack. Bulgaria:
Kuncho Anguelov and Kiril Perkov, deserters from the army, shot
and killed by military police. Three Romanies beaten by skinheads in
Samokov. Czech Republic: Romany children banned from swimming
pool in Kladno. Europe: European Court of Human Rights rejects the appeal
by Mrs. Buckland against the refusal of planning permission in England
for her caravan. First meeting of the Committee of Experts of the
Council of Europe held. France: Second meeting of the Standing Committee
of Gypsy Organizations in Strasbourg held. Greece: Police raid
camp in Attica. Police officer shoots Anastasios Mouratis in Boetia. Hunxxxii
• CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY
gary: European Roma Rights Center set up in Budapest. Ireland: National
Strategy on Traveller Accommodation proposed. Poland: Houses
occupied by Romanies attacked in Wiebodzice. Romania: Twenty-one
Romany houses burned down in Curtea de Arges. Mircea-Muresul Mosor
shot and killed by chief of police in Valcele. Serbia: Gypsies attacked in
Kraljevo. Slovakia: Eighteen-year-old Romany youth beaten to death by
skinheads in Poprad. Jozef Miklos dies when his house is set on fire in
Zalistie. Spain: Romany Union’s second “Sarajevo” Peace Conference,
in Gasteiz (Vittoria). Turkey: Five thousand evicted from Selamsiz quarter
of Istanbul. Ukraine: “Mrs. H” raped by police in Mukacevo. Two
brothers shot by police in Velikie Beryezni.
1997 Bulgaria: February—Killing of three Gypsies by police reported.
Police attack the Gypsy quarter in Pazardjik. November—
International conference on Gypsy children and their education held.
Czech Republic: February—Appeals court in Pilsen quashes acquittal
of inn owner Ivo Blahout on a charge of discrimination. March—
Four skinheads sentenced to prison in connection with the 1993 death
of Tibor Danihel. August—Several hundred Romanies fly to Canada to
seek asylum. Monument erected at Hodonin to concentration camp victims.