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1942 Bulgaria: August—6,500 Gypsies registered by the police on

one day. Croatia: May—The government and the Ustasha order the arrest

of all Gypsies and their deportation to the extermination camp in

Jasenovac. Germany: March—A special additional income tax is

levied on Gypsies. July—A decree of the army general staff again orders

that Gypsies not be taken for active military service. September

Himmler and Justice Minister Otto Thierack agree to transfer any Gypsies

in prison to concentration camps. December—Himmler issues the

order to deport the Gypsies in Greater Germany to the concentration

camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Poland: January—All Sinti and Romanies

from the Lodz ghetto are transported and gassed at Chelmno.

April—Romanies are brought into the Warsaw ghetto and kept in the

prison in Gesia Street. May—All Gypsies in the Warsaw district to be

interned in Jewish ghettoes. July—Several hundred Polish Romanies

killed at Treblinka extermination camp. Romania: Spring and Summer

—Some 20,000 Romanies are deported to Transnistria. Serbia:

August—Harald Turner, head of the German military administration,

announces that “the Gypsy question has been fully solved.”

CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY • xxvii

1943 Poland: January—Gypsies from Warsaw ghetto transferred to

the extermination camp at Treblinka. February—First transports

of Sinti and Romanies from Germany are delivered to the new Gypsy

Section in Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. March—At

Auschwitz, the Schutzstaffel (Storm Troopers) (SS) gasses some 1,700

men, women, and children. May—A further 1,030 men, women, and

children gassed by the SS at Auschwitz. SS major Dr. Josef Mengele

transferred at his own request to Auschwitz. July—Himmler visits

the Gypsy Section in Auschwitz and orders the Gypsies killed. USSR:

November—Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories orders all

nomadic Gypsies in the territories are to be treated as Jews.

1944 Belgium: January—Atransport of 351 Romanies and Sinti from

Belgium dispatched to Auschwitz. Holland: May—A transport of 245

Romanies and Sinti sent to Auschwitz. Poland: 2 August—1,400 Gypsy

prisoners are sent from Auschwitz to Buchenwald concentration camp.

The remaining 2,900 Gypsies are killed in the gas chamber. Slovakia:

Autumn—Romanies join the fight of partisans in the National Uprising.

1945 27 January—At 3:00 P.M., the first Soviet soldiers reach the

main camp at Auschwitz and find one Romany among the survivors.

May—World War II ends in Europe. All surviving Gypsies freed from

camps. Bulgaria: Gypsy Organization for the Fight against Fascism

and Racism set up. Germany: Nuremburg Trials of Nazi leaders begin.

Crimes against Gypsies are included in the charges.

1946 France: Mateo Maximoff’s novel The Ursitory published.

Poland: Roma Ensemble founded.

1947 Bulgaria: Teatr Roma established in Sofia.

1951 Bulgaria: Teatr Roma in Sofia closed.

1952 France: The Pentecostal movement among Gypsies starts.

1953 Denmark: Gypsies readmitted to the country.

1958 Bulgaria: Nomadism banned. Czechoslovakia: Nomadism

banned. Hungary: National Gypsy organization established.

1960 England and Wales: Caravan Sites Act reduces provision of

caravan sites. France: Communaute Mondiale Gitane established.

xxviii • CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY

1962 German Federal Republic: Courts rule that Gypsies were

persecuted for racial reasons. Norway: Government Gypsy Committee

established.

1963 Ireland: Report of the Commission on Itinerancy published.

Italy: Opera Nomadi education scheme set up. Yugoslavia: Gypsies

move to Shuto Orizari after Skopje earthquake.

1964 Ireland: Itinerant Action Group set up.

1965 France: Communaute Mondiale Gitane banned. Comite International

Tzigane set up. Italy: Pope Paul VI addresses some 2,000 Gypsies

at Pomezia.

1966 United Kingdom: Gypsy Council set up.

1967 Finland: National Gypsy Association established.

1968 England and Wales: Caravan Sites Act: Councils to build sites.

Holland: All districts must build caravan sites.

1969 Bulgaria: Segregated schools are set up for Gypsies. Europe:

Council of Europe Assembly passes a positive resolution on Gypsies.

Yugoslavia, Macedonia: Abdi Faik elected a member of Parliament.

1970 Norway: Report published on proposed work with the Gypsies.

United Kingdom: National Gypsy Education Council established.

1971 United Kingdom: First World Romany Congress held near London.

Advisory Committee on the Travelling People starts work in Scotland.

1972 Czechoslovakia: Sterilization program for Gypsies begins.

France: Band known as Los Reyes (later the Gypsy Kings) founded.

Sweden: Stockholm’s Finska Zigenarforening founded. United Kingdom:

Romany Guild founded.

1973 German Federal Republic: Three Gypsies shot by farmer in Pfaffenhofen.

Scandinavia: Nordiska Zigenarradet set up to link organizations.

Yugoslavia, Macedonia: Radio broadcasts in Romani start from

Tetovo.

1975 Europe: Council of Europe Committee of Ministers adopts a

positive resolution on nomads. Hungary: The first issues of the magazine

Rom som [I Am a Romany] appear.

CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY • xxix

1977 Netherlands: Legalization of 500 “illegal” Gypsy immigrants.

United Kingdom: Cripps Report on Gypsies published. United Nations:

Subcommission passes resolution on protection of Gypsies.

1978 Switzerland: Second World Romany Congress held in Geneva.

1979 Hungary: National Gypsy Council formed. First national exhibition

of self-taught Gypsy artists held. Norway: ABC Romani primer

produced for mother-tongue teaching. Romania: St. John’s Gospel

published underground in Romani. United Nations: International Romani

Union recognized by the United Nations Economic and Social

Council.

1980 Yugoslavia: Romani grammar in Romani published in Skopje.

1981 Europe: Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe

resolution on helping nomads held. German Federal Republic: Third

World Romany Congress in Gottingen held. Poland: Pogrom instigated

in Oswiecim. Yugoslavia: Gypsies granted national status on an equal

footing with other minorities.

1982 France: New Francois Mitterrand government promises to help

nomads.

1983 Europe: Council of Ministers passes a resolution on stateless

nomads. Italy: Gypsy caravans removed from Rome at the start of the

Annus Sanctus. United Kingdom: First national Pentecostal convention

held. Belfast Traveller Education Development Group established

in Northern Ireland. Yugoslavia, Kosovo: Romani teaching begins in

one school.

1984 Europe: European Parliament passes a resolution on aiding

Gypsies. India: Chandigarh Festival held.

1985 France: First International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art

held in Paris. Ireland: Report of the Travelling People Review Body

published. Sweden: Gypsy family attacked in Kumla with stones and a

firebomb.

1986 France: International Gypsy conference held in Paris. Spain:

Gypsy houses set on fire in Martos. Yugoslavia, Sarajevo: International

Romany seminar held.

xxx • CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY

1988 Hungary: Organization Phralipe founded.

1989 Europe: Council of the Europe resolution on promoting school

provision for Gypsy and Traveler children held. Germany: Government

initiates the deportation of several thousand foreign Gypsies from

the country. Gypsies demonstrate at the site of the concentration camp

at Neuengamme against the deportation of asylum seekers. Hungary:

Roma Parliament set up. Poland: First Romane Divesa Festival held.

Romania: Border guards shoot party of Gypsies. Spain: Gypsy houses

attacked in Andalusia.

1990 Poland: Permanent exhibition on Romanies opens in Tarnow.

Fourth World Romany Congress held near Warsaw; standard alphabet

for Romani adopted by the Congress. Journal Rrom p-o Drom [Romanies

on the Road] starts publication. Romania: Miners attack Romany

quarter in Bucharest. Yugoslavia: Egyptian Associations formed in

Kosovo and Macedonia.

1991 Czech Republic: Romani teaching starts at Prague University.

Italy: Ostia international conference held. Macedonia: Romanies have

equal rights in new republic. Poland: Pogrom instigated in Mlawa. Slovakia:

Government gives Romanies nationality status and equal rights.

Ukraine: Police attack settlement of Velikie Beryezni.

1992 Hungary: Arson attack occurs on Gypsies in Ketegyhaza.

Poland: Attack occurs on remaining Gypsies in Oswiecim. Slovakia:

Romathan Theater established in Kosˇice. Ukraine: Mob attacks Gypsy

houses in Tatarbunary. United Nations: Commission on Human Rights

passes resolution on protection of Gypsies. Gypsies recognized as an

ethnic group.

1993 Bulgaria: A crowd of Bulgarians attacks the Gypsy quarter in

Malorad, killing one Romany man. Czech Republic: Tibor Danihel

drowns running away from skinhead gang. Seven Romanies deported

from Usti nad Labem to Slovakia. Europe: Congress of Local and Regional

Authorities of Europe Resolution on Gypsies held. Germany: First

International Conference on Romani Linguistics held in Hamburg. Hungary:

Gypsies recognized as a national minority. International Conference

held in Budapest. Macedonia: Romani language officially introduced in

CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY • xxxi

schools. Romania: Three Gypsies killed in pogrom in Hadareni. Slovakia:

Cyril Dunka beaten up by police after a parking incident. United

Kingdom: Scottish Gypsy/Traveller Association set up. United Nations:

Romany Union upgraded to Category II consultative status.

1994 France: Standing Conference of Romany Associations formed

in Strasbourg. Hungary: Organization for Security and Cooperation in

Europe meeting sets up Contact Point for Roma and Sinti Issues in Budapest,

based initially in Warsaw. Gypsies vote for their local Romany

councils. Poland: Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights

organizes Warsaw seminar on Romanies. Gypsy boy beaten up and

houses inhabited by Romanies attacked in Debica. Spain: European

Congress held in Seville. United Kingdom: Criminal Justice Act: Nomadism

criminalized.

1995 Austria: Four Roma killed by a bomb in Oberwart, Burgenland.

Bulgaria: One Gypsy dies following an arson attack on a block of flats

in Sofia. Angel Angelov shot by police in Nova Zagora. Czech Republic:

Tibor Berki killed by skinheads in Zdar nad Sazavou. Europe:

Council of Europe sets up specialist advice group on Romanies. Hungary:

Second International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art held.

International Romani Union organizes “Sarajevo” Peace Conference in

Budapest. Gypsies attacked and injured in Kalocsa. Poland: Gypsy

couple murdered in Pabianice. Grota Bridge settlement of Romanian

Gypsies in Warsaw dispersed by police. Residents deported across the

border to Ukraine. Slovakia: Mario Goral burned to death by skinheads

in Ziar nad Hronom. Turkey: Zehala Baysal dies in police custody in

Istanbul.

1996 Albania: Fatmir Haxhiu dies of burns after a racist attack. Bulgaria:

Kuncho Anguelov and Kiril Perkov, deserters from the army, shot

and killed by military police. Three Romanies beaten by skinheads in

Samokov. Czech Republic: Romany children banned from swimming

pool in Kladno. Europe: European Court of Human Rights rejects the appeal

by Mrs. Buckland against the refusal of planning permission in England

for her caravan. First meeting of the Committee of Experts of the

Council of Europe held. France: Second meeting of the Standing Committee

of Gypsy Organizations in Strasbourg held. Greece: Police raid

camp in Attica. Police officer shoots Anastasios Mouratis in Boetia. Hunxxxii

• CHRONOLOGY OF GYPSY HISTORY

gary: European Roma Rights Center set up in Budapest. Ireland: National

Strategy on Traveller Accommodation proposed. Poland: Houses

occupied by Romanies attacked in Wiebodzice. Romania: Twenty-one

Romany houses burned down in Curtea de Arges. Mircea-Muresul Mosor

shot and killed by chief of police in Valcele. Serbia: Gypsies attacked in

Kraljevo. Slovakia: Eighteen-year-old Romany youth beaten to death by

skinheads in Poprad. Jozef Miklos dies when his house is set on fire in

Zalistie. Spain: Romany Union’s second “Sarajevo” Peace Conference,

in Gasteiz (Vittoria). Turkey: Five thousand evicted from Selamsiz quarter

of Istanbul. Ukraine: “Mrs. H” raped by police in Mukacevo. Two

brothers shot by police in Velikie Beryezni.

1997 Bulgaria: February—Killing of three Gypsies by police reported.

Police attack the Gypsy quarter in Pazardjik. November

International conference on Gypsy children and their education held.

Czech Republic: February—Appeals court in Pilsen quashes acquittal

of inn owner Ivo Blahout on a charge of discrimination. March

Four skinheads sentenced to prison in connection with the 1993 death

of Tibor Danihel. August—Several hundred Romanies fly to Canada to

seek asylum. Monument erected at Hodonin to concentration camp victims.
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