15. London is a city with the cleanest air




Название15. London is a city with the cleanest air
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Проект по английскому языку ученицы класса МБОУ Щелковского лицея7 Чарыевой Айны, руководитель: учитель английского языка Поживилко Ольга Григорьевна.

Content

1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………….…..…..3

2. Air pollution………………………………………………………………………………………………..….4

3. Acid rain………………………………………………………………………………………………………...5

4. Water pollution…………………………………………………………………………………………..….6

5. Greenhouse effect………………………………………………………………………………………….7

6. Global warming…………………………………………………………………………………….……....8

7. Deforestation………………………………………………………………………………………….…..…9

8. Animals in danger………………………………………………………………………………………....10

9. The red book……………………………………………………………………………..……………..…..11

10. Rubbish………………………………………………………………………………………..………..……12

11. Nuclear waste……………………………………………………………………………..……………...13

12. Nuclear energy……………………………………………………………………………………..….….15

13. Radiation……………………………………………………………………………………..………….…..16

14. Ecology of London………………………………………………………………………………………..18

15. London is a city with the cleanest air…………………………………………………….………19

16. “Safe” taxes……………………………………………………………………………………….…..….…19

17. “Talking” boxes……………………………………………………………………………………...…….20

18. Ecology of my native town………………………………………………………………….…………21

29. Ecology at home……………………………………………………………………………………..…....22

20.My research…………………………………………….……………………………………….…………….23

21. What should we do to protect nature and save our planet clean……………….….26

22. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………..………………27

23. Используемая литература…………………………………………………………………………….28


Introduction



Ecology is a science, which studies the relationship between all forms of life on our planet and our environment. This word came from the Greek «oikos» which means «home». All living things are related to their environment. The Earth is our common home and we must take care of it.

Since ancient times Nature has provided Man with everything he needed: food to eat, water to drink, wood for building and fuel for heating and cooking. For hundreds of years Man used Nature’s sources and it seemed to people that the resources of Nature had no end. With the industrial revolution our negative influence on Nature began to increase. Big smoky cities with thousands of people, polluting plants and factories can be found nowadays all over the world.

Unfortunately, the idea of thinking about our planet and about the consequences of our activity appeared not so long time ago as it could be. Nowadays scientists from the different parts of the world try to solve ecological problems, but it isn’t enough to do our planet clean. We must protect our home all together, without any exceptions.

This project is devoted to different ecological catastrophes and to environmental protection. It summarizes the results of my survey into such global problems like «greenhouse effect». The aim of my project: to show environmental problems, to explain how they change our lives and try to find possible solutions, to discuss what can we do to protect nature and save our planet, to compare ecology of Moscow and London. I suppose that this theme is very actual nowadays and I hope that this information will appeal not only to my mind.

Today the Nature World is in great danger. That’s why there are so many environmental problems such as:



Air pollution



Air pollution is one of the main problems all over the world. Nobody and nothing on the earth could live without air. Millions of chimneys, buses, cars, plants produce harmful substances into the atmosphere. It is difficult to breath in poisoned air. Some of harmful gases that pour into the air are invisible. Dirt, smoke and gases may be carried away by the wind or settle over as a blanket of smog that’s why many cities suffer from smog. It also destroys the ozone layer. Normally the ozone layer in the atmosphere protects us from ultraviolet radiation but if there are holes in the ozone layer this radiation can get to the earth. The dangerous rays may cause different diseases such as skin cancer, weakens the immune system. Human activity has been increasing the concentration of such gases like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapor in the atmosphere. Scientists expect to see a doubling of carbon dioxide over pre-industrial levels around the year 2065.Every year the atmosphere is polluted by about one thousand (1000) tons of industrial dust. Among industries especially toxic wastes are made by enterprises of colour metallurgy, chemical, petrochemical, black metallurgy, woodworking, pulp paper industry etc. Big cities suffer from smog. «Leaders» of wastes of harmful substances in an atmosphere in Russia during three last years are Krasnoyarsk region, the Tyumen, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Kemerovo area and it is necessary to attribute this areas to a zone of the ecological catastrophe. The most contaminated regions are economic centers of Russian Federation and the most populated. Now 2/3 population of Russia continues to live in conditions of dangerous air contamination.

Acid rain



One of the most alarming forms of air pollution is acid rains. This happens when factories send gases and chemicals into the air. There are they mix and the mixture is carried for hundreds of miles by the wind. And finely it falls back to the Earth. When it falls in lakes, it changes them. The lakes become more acidic. In many lakes the fish are dying. Fishermen are worried because every year there are fewer fish and some lakes have no fish at all. Scientists are beginning to get worried too. What is killing fish? The problem is acid rain. In some large areas trees are dying. Not just on tee here and there, but whole forests. At first scientists couldn’t understand why. There were no bugs or diseases in these trees. The weather was not dry. But now they think that the rain was the cause. There are a lot of monuments and memorials all over the World which are destroying from acid rain. For example: when the Americans decided to clean up the Statue of Liberty in 1986 they make a hole in her nose and take away the acid rain that collected inside.

Water pollution



Rivers, lakes, seas, oceans cover more than 70% of our planet. There is no oceans or seas which is not use as a dump. Many seas are used for dumping industrial waste. Big ships spill a lot of oil into the oceans. For example Britain alone dumps 250000 tons of industrial waste straight into the North Sea. Many rivers and lakes are poisoned too. It happens so because factories and plants which produce a lot of waste, pour it into the water. So they poison the water. This poisons kill fish, reptiles and sea animals. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them. There is not enough oxygen in the water. In such places all the birds leave their habitats and many plants die. If people drink this water they can die too. For example Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake on the Earth. It is 1741 meters deep. The lake is very important for our life and it is very beautiful but now it is in great danger, because of the factories which are near it. At some places the water in the lake is so dirty that it can kill animals and plants in Baikal and near it.


Greenhouse effect



The greenhouse effect is unquestionably real; it is the essential for life on the Earth. The greenhouse effect works like this: sunlight gives us heat. Some of the heat warms the atmosphere, and some of the heat goes back into space. But in the last few years people have produce a lot of carbon dioxide this gas in the atmosphere works like glass in a greenhouse it lets heat get in but it doesn’t let much heat get out. Sunlight gives us heat, some of the heat warms the atmosphere and some of them must go back into space. But they can’t do it because of carbon dioxide layer, so they have to go back to the Earth. That’s why nowadays the air surrounding the earth has become much warmer. So, the climate in different parts of the world changes a little from year to year. These changes can be dangerous for our fragile planet which needs protection. Scientists apologize that the increasing of the concentration of greenhouse gases and chemicals in the atmosphere lead to the global warming. Global warming is a changing of the climate on the Earth that made life on the Earth possible. Why do we call global warming an environmental problem? And finally climate changes may cause extinction of many species of birds, animals and plants. Even now a lot of species of animals, birds, fish and plants have either disappeared completely or on the verge. Solutions to global warming - clean energy, energy efficiency and new environmentally sound technologies - already exist. The latest report from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) says that hundreds of technologies are already available, at very low cost, to reduce climate damaging emissions and that government policies need to remove the barriers to these technologies.

Global warming



Unfortunately nowadays the Earth is warmer than it was 100 ago. Some scientists think that the world is becoming hotter. If you compeer Moscow’s winter and summer temperatures at the beginning of the century and it’s end you will see that the climate has really changed. The icecaps are starting to melt because of high temperatures and the see levels are rising. This means that there will e floods in a lot of towns and cities. The temperature will be too hot to grow crops, so food will be more expensive and there will be less food in poor countries. In the forests some plants and trees can be so dry that they catch on fire. What causes of global warming? They causes global warming: Electrical nets, heating meal in the microwave, using a washing machine, using a hair dryer, using an air conditioner, watching TV, playing computer games, listening to CDs, using sprays.

Deforestation



Rainforests and forests are very important for our life. Rainforests are habitats for many animals. The huge forests help to control world’s weather. The rainforests can help winds and can help it to bring clouds. There are many illnesses which we still cannot cure. Because we still don’t have good medicines. It maybe that the medicines we need will be discovered in rainforests, in wild plants. If we destroy these places, we will never find the cure. But in the last few years, people have cut down and burnt big areas rainforests and forests. This means there are fewer trees, and of course, more carbon dioxide. The world had over nine million sk. Km of forests. This is a lot of trees and also a lot of different species of trees. But they are disappearing fast. Every day we use paper and cardboard, both made of wood. We use different kinds of wood in furniture and in other ways: to build farms, factories, houses and roads on the land. Every year over 100000 sk. km of forests are clear for different uses. It is hard to believe that every day over 200,000 acres of rainforest are burned on our planet. That means that over 150 acres are lost every minute. There are some reasons why does the tropical rainforest so important for people from all over the world:

The tropical rainforest is natural recycle, provider and protector for our planet.

The tropical rainforest supports the ecosystem in the world.

The tropical rainforest provides us with oxygen we breathe.

The tropical rainforest is the richest biological incubator on the Earth. It supports millions of plant, animal and insect species – a virtual library of chemical invention. Maybe the new drugs are still awaiting discovery – drugs for AIDS, cancer, diabetes and arthritis. Many secrets and untold treasures await discovery with the medicinal plants used by shamans, healers and indigenous people of the Rainforest Tribes. So alluring are the mysteries of indigenous medical knowledge that over one hundred pharmaceutical companies and even the US government are currently funding projects studying indigenous plant knowledge and the specific plants used by native shamans and healers. If we go on like this, by the time we are as old as our grandparents are now all forests on earth can be destroyed.

Animals in danger



There is no only plants in danger so are animals. The World had over a lot of animals which can live without dangerous. But today the natural world is disappearing as never before, hundreds of animal species are in danger of becoming extinct. For example: Dodo. We have never seen a Dodo. Our friends, parents and grandparents never saw Dodo. The last of this large birds that couldn’t fly died many years ago. Now it is extinct. We even say “as dead as dodo”, which means “finished”. And nowadays there are many animals, that are disappearing fast such as: tigers, elephants and leopards. Tigers. Most of the world’s tigers are found in India. They are protected in national parks. However every year hundreds of them are killed. People kill them and they are disappearing fast. The result is very sad there are few Indian tigers left on the Earth now. Many of them are old, sick animals and now they have to hide from people in deep dark forests. Elephants. Elephants are wonderful animals, they can help people. In the 19th century Africa was full of elephants but now we can see them only in African’s parks. Hunters kill thousand of them for meat and for there trucks. Today, many elephants in Africa are dying because they don’t have enough food to eat and space to live in. Leopards. Leopards live in many part of the World, from Siberia to Africa. They have a beautiful skin with large black spots. They live about 15 years and eat small mammals such as young zebras, monkeys, and antelopes. They sleep for about 12 hours a day. Leopards are very solitary animals. They spend most of their time alone in trees, where they wait until a small animal passes. They jump on the animal and then drag it up into the tree, where they eat it. But why are animals in danger? People kill animals, because they consider them dangerous. They kill animals for their fur to make clothes and trunks to make ornaments. They kill animals to save their domestic pets. And now you can find their names in the Red Book.

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