Foreword by Ken Livingstone, Mayor of London

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10 and PM2.5 when fitted with designated inlet heads. Monitors such as TEOM or beta-attenuation analysers (with heated inlets) need to be corrected by a factor of 1.3, when comparing results with the AQS objectives, as these are based on a gravimetric standard.

2 Gravimetric monitoring

This monitoring method is considered to be the most accurate and produces concentrations equivalent to the EU reference samplers, which are used to set EU limit values. Such systems have designated inlet heads to measure different particulate fractions and a typical measurement is taken over 24 hours. The measurement system is time-consuming as filters need to be individually weighed and accurate filter weighing and conditioning facilities are required. This method cannot be used as a trigger system as it does not produce instantaneous readings.

3 Remote optical/long path analysers

These are relatively low-cost automatic analysers that have been developed specifically for portable or personal exposure applications. These tend to be battery or mains powered and use the light scattering principle to measure PM10 and other particulate fractions.

4 Hand-held monitors

Although these types of monitors are not as accurate as automatic monitors and cannot be used for long term studies, they are ideal for walk-over surveys of construction sites as they provide real time or instantaneous dust readings (every second). Such monitors can be set up to measure different particle sizes and can be used to assess short term peaks and breaches of set limits.

In techniques 3 and 4, a factor is used to convert the measured number of particles in each size range to an overall mass concentration - which may not be accurate without a gravimetric filter backup.

In addition to the individual monitors, other site infrastructure is often required. This particularly refers to automatic monitors and can include equipment housing, air-cooling or heating systems, electrical systems, telephone lines or modems and air sample inlet systems.

Automatic monitoring equipment should have had some independent verification of performance, such as the Environment Agency’s MCERTS scheme. Further information on siting requirements and equipment suppliers is available on the National Air Quality Information Archive at

5 Dust assessment

Approaches to measure the amount of dust deposited on a surface tend to focus on either determining the soiling of a surface by a change in its properties or determining the quantity of dust deposited by weight. These techniques are often used to determine nuisance and may be requested by a local authority in cases of complaint from sensitive receptors. Accepted methodologies include:

Deposit gauges - These are simple but accurate methods to measure nuisance dust. Dust is collected onto a horizontally mounted capture container or, in the case of a Directional Dust Gauge, into four vertical tubes aligned in different directions. The dust collected can also be analysed to determine its composition.

Deposited dust guidelines for urban areas
(based on monthly mean dustfall)30

Table 2 Examples of dust guideline levels

British standard gauge (mg/m2/d) Dry Frisbee gauge equiv (mg/m2/d)

Complaints possible Complaints likely Complaints possible Complaints likely
(90th percentile) (95th percentile)

150 190 200 260

Soiling Rate Measurement: This is used to determine changes in the soiling rates of surface over a period of time. One method is the Sticky Pad system, which measures the soiling on a white adhesive surface over a known period. This provides a measurement of the deposition (as percentage Effective Area Coverage per day) using a reflectometer. Alternatively, glass slides can be used which are exposed for a week before returning to the laboratory to measure the change in the gloss of the surface. Results are measured in soiling units (su) per week, whereby 20 su/week reflects a dusty activity.

Soiling rates

1 Sticky pads

Possible complaints: 0.5 per cent Effective Area Coverage (EAC)/day (34 g/m3)

Serious complaints: 5 per cent EAC/day (280 g/m3)31

2 Glass slides

A level of 20-25 su/week, averaged over 4 weeks appears to be the boundary between acceptable and unacceptable dust levels32

Appendix 6: Local Authority Pollution Prevention and Control

The tables below outline relevant best available techniques (BAT) according to Defra’s Process Guidance Notes.

Mobile Crushing Plant

Sources of dust Control technique

Loading and unloading of Containment
materials Suppression
Reduce drop heights (through variable height conveyors or chutes)

Double handling transfer points Site and process design

Stockpiles Wind design management through fencing, bunding etc

Crushing, grinding, screening Containment
Dust arrestment

Conveyors and transfer Containment (wind boards)
Appropriate siting away from receptors

Blending and packing Containment
Reduce drop height
Dust arrestment (bag or cartridge filters)

External operations Appropriate siting
Wind design management

Vehicles Wheel and under body washing

Taken from Process Guidance Note 3/16 (04)

Concrete batching activities

Sources of dust Control technique

Loading and unloading of materials Containment
• transfer of aggregate to bins Suppression (ring spray bars)
• transfer of dry batch to mixer Reduce drop heights (through variable height conveyors or chutes)
• transfer of dry batch to lorry Dust arrestment (loading area) using bag or cartridge filters

Double handling transfer points Site and process design

Delivery from road tanker to silo Various techniques

Silos Dust arrestment (bag or cartridge filters)

Aggregate stockpiles Wind design management through fencing, bunding etc
Suppression (water and/or suppressants, well positioned spray guns and sufficient coverage by sprays)

Conveyors and transfer Containment (wind boards)
Reduce drop heights Appropriate siting away from receptors

Blending and packing Containment
Designated areas
Reduce drop height
Dust arrestment (bag or cartridge filters)

External operations Appropriate siting
Wind design management

Vehicles Wheel and under body washing
Exhausts that do not point vertically down

Taken from Process Guidance Note 3/1 (04)

Appendix 7: Developments Referable to the Mayor

Borough councils in Greater London must refer to the Mayor any planning applications received after 3 July 2000, which meet one or more of the following criteria33.

New Housing

Any development comprising or including over 500 units (houses or flats); or comprising or including houses or flats and occupying more than 10 hectares. (But all ‘departure’ cases of 150 units or more will be referable, see below.)

Other New Uses

(eg retail, industry, offices, mixed uses)

• 30,000 sq.m. in the City of London.

• 20,000 sq.m. in the rest of central London.

• 15,000 sq.m. outside central London

New Tall Buildings

• 25m adjacent to the River Thames.

• 75m anywhere else in the City of London.

• 30m elsewhere.

Existing Tall Buildings

• Increase of 15m, if then above the appropriate threshold for new
tall buildings.


• 10 hectares (sand and gravel extraction sites).


• with capacity for more than 50,000 tonnes per annum (treating, storing, processing or disposing).


• Aircraft runway.

• Heliport (including floating or rooftop).

• Air passenger terminal at an airport.

• Existing air passenger terminal capacity increase of 500,000
passengers p.a.

• Railway station.

• Tramway, underground, surface or elevated railway, cable car.

• Bus or coach station.

• Storage or distribution (Use Class B8) occupying more than 4 hectares.

• River Thames crossing (over or under).

• Thames passenger pier.

Existing housing34

• Any development involving the loss of 200 units (houses or flats) (irrespective of any new units) or prejudices the use of more than
4 hectares of land used for housing.

Existing B1 Business, B2 General Industrial, B8 Storage or Distribution2

• Any development which prejudices the use of more than 4 hectares for any such use.

Playing Fields 2

• Any development which prejudices the use of more than 2 hectares.

Green Belt/MOL

• More than 1,000 sq.m. of any new building or change of use.

Departures from the relevant UDP

• 150 units (houses or flats).

• More than 2,500 sq.m. of retail (A1), financial and professional (A2), food and drink (A3), business (B1), general industrial (B2), storage and distribution (B8), hotels (C1), residential institutions (C2), non-residential institutions (D1), assembly and leisure (D2).


• More than 200 spaces (non-residential).

Article 10(3) direction

Any development subject to such a direction, or any development on a site subject to such a direction. (This includes safeguarded wharves and developments in a safeguarded strategic view; in the near future this will also include the safeguarded alignments for the East Thames river crossings).

2006 Review of the Mayor’s Powers

After wide consultation the Government has decided to grant increased powers to the Mayor on a number of key areas, including planning. The legislation granting these powers is expected to receive Royal Assent in summer 2007 and will enable the Mayor to:

• Direct changes to boroughs' programmes for the local development plans they produce.

• Have a stronger say on whether draft local development plans are in general conformity to his London Plan.

• Use his discretion to determine planning applications of
strategic importance.

Appendix 8: Contributors’ credits

The document was produced with the assistance of the APPLE working group, a sub-group of the London Air Quality Steering Group. Much of the guidance on mitigating dust emissions was based on existing BRE guidance and other guidance developed and used by individual London boroughs.

The APPLE working group is comprised from the following London
local authorities:

Bexley, Brent, Camden, Greenwich, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Wandsworth and Waltham Forest.


1 GLA 2006, Mayor’s Air Quality Strategy Progress Report to March 2006

2 Defra 2002, Air Quality for England, Wales and Northern Ireland

3 Defra 2005, Air Quality Expert Group: Particulate Matter in the United Kingdom

4 Comeap, Department of Health, 2004, Guidance on the Effects on Health of Indoor Air Pollutants

5 GLA 2005, London’s Economy Today, Issue 32

6 Department of Environment 1996, 3rd QUARG report, Airborne particulate matter in the UK

7 GLA 2004, The London Plan: Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London

8 BRE 2003, Control of dust from construction and demolition activities

9 BRE 2003, Controlling particles, vapour and noise pollution from construction sites - set of five Pollution Control Guides

10 Revised London Councils’ Air Quality and Planning Technical guidance (draft), 2005

11 Bell & McGillivray 2000, Environmental Law: 5th Edition

12 For further information on the Local Air Pollution Prevention and Control Regime and to get copies of the statutory guidance:

13 The term ‘construction activities’ used in this document includes all demolition, construction and associated activities on that site.

14 A report on the Demolition Protocol, ICE (Commissioned by London Remade and prepared by EnviroCentre Ltd)



17 The material collected during cleaning may be recycled. However approval for recycling certain material is needed from the Environment Agency.

18 GLA 2005, SPG on Sustainable Design and Construction

19 BSI 2000, Code of Practice for Demolition, BS6187, BSI, Chiswick.

20 HSE 2006, Asbestos: The analysts guide for sampling, analysis and clearance procedures, HSG248

21 HSE 2001, Surveying, sampling and assessment of asbestos-containing materials, MDHS100

22 Directive 2004/42/CE; On the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain paints and varnishes and vehicle refinishing products and amending Directive 1999/13/EC

23 CIRIA 2006, Control of water pollution from linear construction projects Technical Guidance, C648

24 CIRIA 2001, Control of Water Pollution from Construction Sites, Guidance for Consultants and Contractors, C532


26 M Amann et al 2005, Baseline Scenarios for the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Programme, Final Report. CAFE Scenario Analysis Report Nr. 1, European Commission, DG Environment, Brussels

27 PRECIS report of workshop on emissions from off-road vehicles, 2003

28 The Non-Road Mobile Machinery (Emissions of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants) (Amendment) Regulations 2005

29 HSE 2002, EH40. Occupational Exposure Limits

30 Vallack & Shillito 1998, Atmospheric Environment 32, p2737-2744

31 Beaman & Kingsbury 1981, Clean Air 11(2), p77-81

32 Moorcroft & Laxen 1990, Assessment of dust nuisance, Environmental Health News, p215-217

33 This list is a distillation of Parts I-IV of the Schedule to the Town &Country Planning (Mayor of London) Order 2000.

34 Land is to be treated as used for a particular use if it was last used for that use, or if it is allocated for that use in the UDP, including proposals for a UDP or proposals to alter or replace a UDP.
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