Section I general Pathology 2 3




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Section I - General Pathology




2


3

Chapter 1 - Cellular Adaptations, Cell Injury, and Cell Death


  • Chapter 1 - Cellular Adaptations, Cell Injury, and Cell Death

        • Introduction to Pathology

          • Etiology or Cause.

          • Pathogenesis.

          • Morphologic Changes.

          • Functional Derangements and Clinical Manifestations.

        • Overview: Cellular Responses to Stress and Noxious Stimuli

        • Cellular Adaptations of Growth and Differentiation

          • HYPERPLASIA

            • Physiologic Hyperplasia

            • Mechanisms of Hyperplasia.

            • Pathologic Hyperplasia

          • HYPERTROPHY

            • Mechanisms of Hypertrophy.

          • ATROPHY

            • Mechanisms of Atrophy.

          • METAPLASIA

            • Mechanisms of Metaplasia.

        • Overview of Cell Injury and Cell Death

        • Causes of Cell Injury

            • Oxygen Deprivation.

            • Physical Agents.

            • Chemical Agents and Drugs.

            • Infectious Agents.

            • Immunologic Reactions.

            • Genetic Derangements.

            • Nutritional Imbalances.

        • Mechanisms of Cell Injury

          • DEPLETION OF ATP

          • MITOCHONDRIAL DAMAGE

          • INFLUX OF INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM AND LOSS OF CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS

          • ACCUMULATION OF OXYGEN-DERIVED FREE RADICALS (OXIDATIVE STRESS)

          • DEFECTS IN MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY

        • Reversible and Irreversible Cell Injury

        • Morphology of Cell Injury and Necrosis

            • Reversible Injury

            • Morphology.

            • Necrosis

            • Morphology.

        • Examples of Cell Injury and Necrosis

          • ISCHEMIC AND HYPOXIC INJURY

          • Types of Ischemic Injury.

          • Mechanisms of Ischemic Cell Injury.

          • ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY

          • CHEMICAL INJURY

        • Apoptosis

          • CAUSES OF APOPTOSIS

            • Apoptosis in Physiologic Situations

            • Apoptosis in Pathologic Conditions

            • Morphology.

          • BIOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF APOPTOSIS

            • Protein Cleavage.

            • DNA Breakdown.

            • Phagocytic Recognition.

          • MECHANISMS OF APOPTOSIS

            • The extrinsic (Death Receptor-Initiated) Pathway.

            • The Intrinsic (Mitochondrial) Pathway.

            • The Execution Phase.

            • Removal of Dead Cells.

          • EXAMPLES OF APOPTOSIS

            • Apoptosis After Growth Factor Deprivation.

            • DNA Damage-Mediated Apoptosis.

            • Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor Family of Receptors.

            • Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Apoptosis.

        • Subcellular Responses to Injury

          • LYSOSOMAL CATABOLISM

          • INDUCTION (HYPERTROPHY) OF SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

          • MITOCHONDRIAL ALTERATIONS

          • CYTOSKELETAL ABNORMALITIES

        • Intracellular Accumulations

          • LIPIDS

            • Steatosis (Fatty Change)

            • Morphology.

            • Liver.

            • Heart.

            • Cholesterol and Cholesterol Esters

          • PROTEINS

          • HYALINE CHANGE

          • GLYCOGEN

          • PIGMENTS

            • Exogenous Pigments.

            • Endogenous Pigments.

            • Morphology.

        • Pathologic Calcification

          • DYSTROPHIC CALCIFICATION

            • Morphology.

            • Pathogenesis.

          • METASTATIC CALCIFICATION

        • Cellular Aging

          • Structural and Biochemical Changes with Cellular Aging.

          • Replicative Senescence.

          • Genes That Influence the Aging Process.

          • Accumulation of Metabolic and Genetic Damage.
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