List of electives for b. Tech. Biotechnology




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BT1014 MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS 3 0 0 100



AIM

To develop the skills of the students in the area of Molecular Pathogenesis.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the students would have learnt about Host Parasite interactions, Host defense mechanisms and molecular mechanisms involved in Pathogenesis of diseases caused by E.Coli and Vibrio. Cholerae.

UNIT I OVERVIEW 5


Historical perspective - discovery of microscope, Louis Pasteur’s contributions, Robert Koch’s postulates, early discoveries of microbial toxins, toxic assays, vaccines, antibiotics and birth of molecular genetics and modern molecular pathogenesis studies, Various pathogen types and modes of entry.

UNIT II HOST-DEFENSE AGAINST PATHOGENS AND PATHOGENIC STRATEGIES 8


Attributes & components of microbial pathogenesis, Host defense: skin, mucosa, cilia, secretions, physical movements, limitation of free iron, antimicrobial compounds, mechanism of killing by humoral and cellular defense mechanisms, complements, inflammation process, general disease symptoms, Pathogenic adaptations to overcome the above defenses.


UNIT III MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS (WITH SPECIFIC EXAMPLES) 16

Virulence, virulence factors, virulence-associated factors and virulence lifestyle factors, molecular genetics and gene regulation in virulence of pathogens, Vibrio Cholerae: Cholera toxin, co-regulated pili, filamentous phage, survival E.coli pathogens: Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC), labile & stable toxins, Entero- pathogenic E.coli (EPEC), type III secretion, cytoskeletal changes, intimate attachment; Enterohaemerrohogic E.coli (EHEC), mechanism of bloody diarrhoea and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC). Shigella: Entry, macrophage apoptosis, induction of macropinocytosis, uptake by epithelial cells, intracellular spread, inflammatory response, tissue damage Plasmodium: Life cycle, erythrocyte stages, transport mechanism and processes to support the rapidly growing schizont, parasitiparous vacuoles, and knob protein transport, Antimalarials based on transport processes. Influenza virus: Intracellular stages, Neuraminidase & Haemagglutinin in entry, M1 & M2 proteins in assembly and disassembly, action of amantidine.


UNIT IV EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS 8

Virulence assays: adherence, invasion, cytopathic, cytotoxic effects. Criteria & tests in identifying virulence factors, attenuated mutants, molecular characterization of virulence factors, signal transduction & host responses


UNIT V MODERN APPROACHES TO CONTROL PATHOGENS 8

Classical approaches based on serotyping. Modern diagnosis based on highly conserved virulence factors, immuno & DNA-based techniques. New therapeutic strategies based on recent findings on molecular pathogenesis of a variety of pathogens, Vaccines - DNA, subunit and cocktail vaccines.

TOTAL : 45


TEXT BOOKS

1. Iglewski B.H and Clark V.L “Molecular basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis”, Academic Press, 1990.

2. Peter Williams, Julian Ketley & George Salmond, “Methods in Microbiology: Bacterial Pathogenesis, Vol. 27”, Academic Press, 1998.


REFERENCES

1. Recent reviews in Infect. Immun., Mol. Microbiol, Biochem. J., EMBO etc.

2. Nester, Anderson, Roberts, Pearsall, Nester, “Microbiology: A Human Perspective”, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edition, 2001.

3. Eduardo A. Groisman, Principles of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Academic Press, 2001.


BT1015 METABOLIC ENGINEERING 3 0 0 100


AIM

To develop skills of the students in the area of Metabolic Engineering.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the student would have learnt about Biosynthesis of primary & secondary metabolites, Bioconversion etc and its relevance to Industrial applications.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION 15

Induction-jacob monod model, catabolite regulation, glucose effect, camp deficiency, feed back regulation, regulation in branched pathways, differential regulation by isoenzymes, concerted feed back regulation, cumulative feed back regulation, amnio acid regulation of rna synthesis, energy charge, regulation, amino acid regulation of rna synthesis, energy charge, regulation, premeability control passive diffusion, active transport group transportation.


UNIT II SYNTHESIS OF PRIMARY METABOLITES 7

Alteration of feed back regulation, limiting accumulation of end products, feedback, resistant mutants, alteration of permeability, metabolites.


UNIT III BIOSYNTHESIS OF SECONDARY METABOLITES 9

Precursor effects, prophophase, idiophase relationship, enzyme induction, feedback regulation, catabolite regulation by passing control of secondary metabolism, producers of secondary metabolites.


UNIT IV BIOCONVERSIONS 4

Advantages of bioconversions, specificity, yields, factors important to bioconversion, regulation of enzyme synthesis, mutation, permeability, co-metabolism, avoidance of product inhibition, mixed or seqencial bioconversions, conversion of insoluble substances.


UNIT V REGULATION OF ENZYME PRODUCTION 10

Strain selection, improving fermentation, recognising growth cycle peak, induction, feed back repression, catabolite repression, mutants resistant to repression, gene dosage.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

1. Wang D.I.C., Cooney C.L., Demain A.L., Dunnil.P., Humphery A.E., Lilly M.D.,
“Fermentation And Enzyme Technology”, John Wiley And Sons., 1980.

2. Stanbury P.F., And Whitaker A., “Principles Of Fermention Technology”, Pergamon Press, 1984.



REFERENCE

1. Zubay G., " Biochemistry ", Macmillan Publishers, 1989.


BT1016 GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS 3 0 0 100


AIM

To develop skills of students in the area of Genomics and Proteomics.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course the student would have gained knowledge in physical mapping techniques, overview of various genomes, techniques applied in Proteomics & Genomics and functional Genomics. This will be very useful in the area of vaccine design.


UNIT I OVERVIEW OF GENOMES OF BACTERIA, ARCHAE AND EUKARYOTA 9


Organisation of genes, coding non-coding chromosomes and high order structures, genomes relatedness.


UNIT II PHYSICAL MAPPING TECHNIQUES 9

Top down and bottom up approach; linking and jumping of clones; genome sequencing; placing small fragments on map; STS assembly; gap closure; pooling strategies; cytogenetic mapping techniques.


UNIT III FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS 9

Gene finding; annotation; ORF and functional prediction; Substractive DNA library screening; differential display and representational difference analysis; SAGE; TOGA.


UNIT IV PROTEOMICS TECHNIQUES 9

Protein level estimation; Edman protein microsequencing; protein cleavage; 2 D gel electrophoresis; metabolic labeling; detection of proteins on SDS gels; pattern analysis; Mass spectrometry- principles of MALDI-TOF; Tandem MS-MS; Peptide mass fingerprinting.


UNIT V PROTEIN PROFILING 9

Post translational modification; protein-protein interactions; glycoprotein analysis; phosphoprotein analysis.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

  1. Cantor and Smith, Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

  2. Pennington and Dunn, Proteomics, BIOS Scientific Publishers, 2001


REFERENCES

1. Liebler, Introduction to Proteomics, Humana Press, 2002

2. Hunt and Livesey, Functional Genomics, Oxford University press, 2000

3. Primrose and Twyman, principles of genome analysis and genomics, Blacwell Publishing Co., 2003.

BT1017 NEUROBIOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES 3 0 0 100



AIM

To develop the skills of students in the area of macrobiology and cognitive sciences.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the student would have learnt about the human nervous system, neurophysiology & nuurophaemacology. The student also gains knowledge in the mechanisms of neurological behaviour.


UNIT I NEUROANATOMY 9

What are central and peripheral nervous systems; Structure and function of neurons; types of neurons; Synapses; Glial cells; myelination; Blood Brain barrier; Neuronal differentiation; Characterization of neuronal cells; Meninges and Cerebrospinal fluid; Spinal Cord.


UNIT II NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 9

Resting and action potentials; Mechanism of action potential conduction; Voltage dependent channels; nodes of Ranvier; Chemical and electrical synaptic transmission; information representation and coding by neurons.


UNIT III NEUROPHARMACOLOGY 9

Synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters and their release; fast and slow neurotransmission; characteristics of neurites; hormones and their effect on neuronal function.


UNIT IV APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY 9

Basic mechanisms of sensations like touch, pain, smell and taste; neurological mechanisms of vision and audition; skeletal muscle contraction.


UNIT V BEHAVIOUR SCIENCE 9

Basic mechanisms associated with motivation; control of feeding, sleep, hearing and memory; Disorders associated with the nervous system.

TOTAL : 45


TEXT BOOK

1. Mathews G.G. Neurobiology, 2nd edition, Blackwell Science, UK, 2000.


BT1018 BIOPROCESS ECONOMICS AND PLANT DESIGN 3 0 0 100


AIM

To develop skills of the students in the area of Bioprocess Economics and Plant Design.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the student would have learnt about Business organizations, project design and development, Economics of plant Design and Quality control requirements.

UNIT I PROCESS ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS 10


Definition of Bio Process, Bio Process Economics, Importance of various M-inputs-Globalization concept-Competition by Dumping-It’s effect on Plant size-Status of India with adjoining ASEAN countries (Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia etc)-Project profile concept-details; Structure and Types of Organizations; Simple Management Principles.

UNIT II PROJECT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 10


Choosing a Project, Market Survey, Importance of Techno-Economic-Viability Studies, Sourcing of Processes, Process alternatives, Fixing most economic processes, Technology-Scanning, Plant Location Principles, Plant Lay out, Process Flow sheets, Preparation of Budgetory investment and production costs.

UNIT III COST ESTIMATION, PROFITABILITY AND ACCOUNTING 10


Capital investment, Concept of time-Value of money, Source Sink concept of Profitability, Capital Costs, Depreciation, Estimation of Capital costs, Manufacturing Costs, Working Capital; Profitablity Standards, Project profitability evaluation, Alternative investments and Replacements; Annual reports, Balance Sheets, Performance Analysis.

UNIT IV PROCESS OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES 6


Optimum design-Design Strategy, Economic-Balance, Different unit-Operations with Single and Multiple Variables.

UNIT V QUALITY AND QUALITY CONTROL 9


Current good manufacturing practices. Concepts of Quality Control in 20th century; Elements of quality control envisaged by ISI since 1947; Emergence of Statistical Process Control (SPC), Simple SPC concept details, Fundamental Concepts of ISO 9000 Quality System and the various requirements for ISO certification.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

  1. Peters M.S., Klaus D. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. McGraw-Hill International Edition, Chemical Engineering series, 1991.

  2. Senapathy R. Text Book of Principles of Management and Industrial Psychology. Lakshmi Publications, 2001.


REFERENCE

1. Rudd and Watson. Strategy for Process Engineering, Wiley Publications.1987.







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