List of electives for b. Tech. Biotechnology




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BT1008 BIOPHYSICS 3 0 0 100



AIM

The develop the skills of the students in the area of Biophysics and is a prerequisite for PG studies in biotechnology.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the student would have learnt about Molecular structure of biological systems, Cell permeability and conformation of proteins and Nucleic acids. This course facilitates the students to take specialization in computation Biology.


UNIT I MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS 9

Intramolecular bonds – covalent – ionic and hydrogen bonds – biological structures -general features – water structure – hydration – interficial phenomena and membranes – self assembly and molecular strucutre of membranes.


UNIT II CONFORMATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS 9

Primary strucutre – the bases – sugars and the phosphodiester bonds- double helical structure – the a, b and z forms – properties of circular DNA– topolgy – polymorphism and flexibility of DNA – strucutre of ribonucleic acids – hydration of nucleic acids.


UNIT III CONFORMATION OF PROTEINS 9

Conformation of the peptide bond – secondary structures – ramachandran plots – use of potential functions – tertiary structure – folding – hydration of proteins – hydropathy index.


UNIT IV CELLULAR PERMEABILITY AND ION – TRANSPORT 9

Ionic conductivity – transport across ion channels – mechanism - ion pumps- proton transfer – nerve conduction – techniques of studying ion transport and models.


UNIT V ENERGETICS & DYNAMICS OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS 9

Concepts in thermodynamics – force and motion – entropy and stability – analyses of fluxes – diffusion potential – basic properties of fluids and biomaterials – laminar and turbulent flows.

TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

1. Biophysics; R. Glaser, Springer Verlag, 2000.

2. Biophysics: Molecules In Motion; R. Duane. Academic Press, 1999.


BT1009 CANCER BIOLOGY 3 0 0 100


AIM

To develop skills of the students in the area of Cancer Biology.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the student would have learnt about pathogenesis of cancer, identifications of cancer through tools developed by biotechnology research & molecules synthesized for cancer therapy. This will be very beneficial for the student to take up projects in Cancer Biology.


UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS OF CANCER BIOLOGY 9

Regulation of cell cycle, mutations that cause changes in signal molecules, effects on receptor, signal switches, tumour suppressor genes, modulation of cell cycle in cancer, different forms of cancers, diet and cancer. Cancer screening and early detection, Detection using biochemical assays, tumor markers, molecular tools for early diagnosis of cancer.


UNIT II PRINCIPLES OF CARCINOGENESIS 12

Theory of carcinogenesis, Chemical carcinogenesis, metabolism of carcinogenesis, principles of physical carcinogenesis, x-ray radiation-mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis.


UNIT III PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY OF CANCER 9

Signal targets and cancer, activation of kinases; Oncogenes, identification of oncogenes, retroviruses and oncogenes, detection of oncogenes. Oncogenes/proto oncogene activity. Growth factors related to transformation. Telomerases.


UNIT IV PRINCIPLES OF CANCER METASTASIS 9

Clinical significances of invasion, heterogeneity of metastatic phenotype, metastatic cascade, basement membrane disruption, three step theory of invasion, proteinases and tumour cell invasion.


UNIT V NEW MOLECULES FOR CANCER THERAPY 6

Different forms of therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, detection of cancers, prediction of aggressiveness of cancer, advances in cancer detection. Use of signal targets towards therapy of cancer; Gene therapy.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

1. Maly B.W.J, “Virology A Practical Approach”, IRLl Press, Oxford, 1987.

2. Dunmock N.J And Primrose S.B., “Introduction to Modern Virology”, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1988.


REFERENCE

1. “An Introduction Top Cellular And Molecular Biology of Cancer”, j Oxford Medical Publications, 1991.

BT1010 BIOPHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 3 0 0 100


AIM

The develop skills of the students in the area of Biopharmaceutical Technology. This course is effective for PG studies in Biotechnology.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the students would have learnt about Drug manufacture, Drug action and Drug metabolism and production of Biopharmaceuticals. This will facilitate the students to take up projects work in this area of Biotechnology.
UNIT I INTRODUCTION 7

Pharmaceutical industry & development of drugs; types of therapeutic agents and their uses; economics and regulatory aspects.


UNIT II DRUG ACTION, METABOLISM AND PHARMACOKINETICS 9

Mechanism of drug action; physico-chemical principles of drug metabolism; radioactivity; pharmaco kinetics.


UNIT III MANUFACTURE OF DRUGS, PROCESS AND APPLICATIONS 7

Types of reaction process and special requirements for bulk drug manufacture.


UNIT IV PRINCIPLES OF DRUG MANUFACTURE 15

Compressed tablets; dry and wet granulation; slugging or direct compression; tablet presses; coating of tablets; capsule preparation; oval liquids – vegetable drugs – topical applications; preservation of drugs; analytical methods and other tests used in drug manufacture; packing techniques; quality management; gmp.

UNIT V BIOPHARMACEUTICALS 7

Various categories of therapeutics like vitamins, laxatives, analgesics, contraceptives, antibiotics, hormones and biologicals.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS


  1. Gareth Thomas. Medicinal Chemistry. An introduction. John Wiley. 2000.

  2. Katzung B.G. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Prentice Hall of Intl. 1995.


BT1011 IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY 3 0 0 100


AIM

To develop the skills of the students in the area of Immunotechnology pre-requisite for PG studies in biotechnology & related fields.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the student would have learnt various techniques like developing diagnostic tests, characterization of lymphocytes, purification of antigens, Antibody Engineering etc. This knowledge will beneficial for Industrial applications.

UNIT I ANTIGENS 3

Types of antigens, their structure, preparation of antigens for raising antibodies, handling of animals, adjuvants and their mode of action.


UNIT II ANTIBODIES & IMMUNODIAGNOSIS 9

Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies – their production and characterization, western blot analysis, immuno electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, purification and synthesis of antigens, ELISA-principle and applications, radio immuno assay (RIA) principles and applications, non isotopic methods of detection of antigens-enhanced chem. iluminescence assay.


UNIT III ASSEMENT O CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY 12

Identification o lymphocytes and their subsets in blood. T cell activation parameters, estimation of cytokines, macrophages activation, macrophage activation, macrophage microbicidal assays, in-vitro experimentation-application of the above technology to understand the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.


UNIT IV IMMUNOPATHOLOGY 6

Preparation of storage of tissues, identification of various cell types and antigens in tissues, isolation and characterization of cell types from inflammatory sites and infected tissues, functional studies on isolated cels, immuno cytochemistry – immuno fluoresecence, immuno enzymatic and immuno ferrtin techniques, immuno electron microscopy.


UNIT V MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY 9

Preparation of vaccines, application of recombinant DNA technology for the study of the immune system, production of antidiotypic antibodies, catalytic antibodies, application of PCR technology to produce antibodies and other immunological reagents, immuno therapy with genetically engineered antibodies.


UNIT VI CURRENT TOPICS IN IMMUNOLOGY 6

Trends in Immunology of infectious diseases and tumours, topics as identified from time to time.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

  1. Talwar G.P., and Gupta S.K., “A hand book of practical and clinical immunology”, Vol. 1 & 2, CBS Publications, 1992.

  2. Weir D.M., Practical Immunology, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1990.



REFERENCE

  1. Austin J.M. and Wood K.J., Principle of cellular and molecular immunology, Oxford university press, Oxford, 1993.


BT1012 BIOLOGICAL SPECTROSCOPY 3 0 0 100


AIM

To develop the skills of the students in the area of Biological spectroscopy. Prerequisite for PG studies in Biotechnology.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course, the student would have learnt about various kinds spectroscopic techniques to study biological system. This course is very effective in the area of Drug Design.


UNIT I OPTICAL ROTATORY DISPERSION 5

Polarized light – optical rotation – circular dichroism – circular dichroism of nucleic acids and proteins.


UNIT II NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE 10

Chemical shifts – spin – spin coupling – relaxation mechanisms – nuclear overhauser effect – multidimensional nmr spectroscopy – detemination of macromolecular structure by NMR – magnetic resonance imaging.


UNIT III MASS SPECTROMETRY 10

Ion sources sample introduction – mass analyzers and ion detectors – biomolecule mass sepctrometry – peptide and protein analysis – carbohydrates and small molecules – specific applications.


UNIT IV X-RAY DIFFRACTION 10

Scattering by x- rays – diffraction by a crystal – measuring diffraction pattern – bragg reflection – unit cell – phase problem – anomalous diffraction – detemination of crystal structure – electron and neutron diffraction.


UNIT V SPECIAL TOPICS AND APPLICATIONS 10

Electron microscopy – transmission and scanning electron microscopy – scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy – combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening methods.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

1. Campbell I.D and Dwek R.A., “Biological Spectroscopy”, Benjamin Cummins and Company, 1986.

2. Atkins P.W., “Physical Chemistry”, Oxford IV Edition, 1990.


BT1013 MOLECULAR MODELING & DRUG DESIGN 3 0 0 100

AIM

To develop skills of students in the area of Molecular modeling. Prerequisite for courses on Drug Design.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the course the student would have learnt Classical & Statistical mechanics, and Quantum mechanics and its applications.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL MECHANICS 9

Newtons laws of motion – time intervals- algorithms


UNIT II INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL MECHANICS 9

Boltzman's Equation – Ensembles – Distribution law for non interacting molecules – Statistical mechanics of fluids.


UNIT III QUANTUM MECHANICS 9

Photoelectric effect – De Broglies hypothesis – Uncertainty principle – Schrodingers time independent equation – particle in a one -dimensional box.


UNIT IV GROMOS, GROMACS, AMBER & DOCK 9


Energy minization, application of Fourier transformer – force fields – principal components analysis – RMSD calculation – applications – dynamics of a molecule – concepts of parallezing work.


UNIT V GAUSSIAN 98 9


Methods – Basic sets – Model chemiststrix – inputs – outputs – uses.


TOTAL : 45

TEXT BOOKS

1. Statistical Mechanics; D. McQuarrie, Narosa, 1999.

2. Quantum Mechanics; D. McQuarrie, Narosa, 1999.


REFERENCE

1. GROMOS Handbook.


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