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MAXIMIZE YOUR MUSCLE GROWTH


By Fitness and Training Expert

Rosie Chee, BExSpSc


SMASHWORDS EDITION


* * * * * * *


PUBLISHED BY

Yung Wah Publications on Smashwords


Maximize Your Muscle Growth

Macronutrient for Optimal Muscle Growth Copyright © 2010 by Rosie Chee

Training for Muscle Growth: Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Training and Lifting Weights to Maximize Mass Copyright © 2009 by Rosie Chee

The 5 Basic Staple Supplements: The Only Supplements that are Essential to your Regime Copyright © 2010 by Rosie Chee

Smashwords Edition Copyright © 2011 by Rosie Chee


All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of Maximize Your Muscle Growth may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form whatsoever, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any informational storage or retrieval system, without acknowledgment and reference to the author, copyright owner and the above publisher of this eBook.


Smashwords Edition License Notes

Thank you for downloading this free eBook. You are welcome to share it with your friends. This eBook may be reproduced, copied and distributed for non-commercial purposes, provided that the book remains in its complete original form. If any information contained in this eBook is used as reference for articles and other purposes, the author must be acknowledged and referenced within the text and in the Reference List for that work. If you enjoyed this eBook, please return to Smashwords.com to read other work by this author. Thank you for your support.

Disclaimer

Cover Image by Greg Kalenowski

Author Image by Dan Ray

Formatted for Smashwords by Rosie Chee


MAXIMIZE YOUR MUSCLE GROWTH


Contents


Macronutrient Composition for Optimal Muscle Growth

Introduction

Energy

Carbohydrates

Protein

Fat

Conclusion


Training for Muscle Growth: Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Training and Lifting Weights to Maximize Mass

Introduction

Muscle Fibres and Types - Slow Oxidative Fibres, Fast Oxidative Fibres, Fast Glycolytic Fibres

Physiology of Muscle Growth

Training Parameters - Type of Exercise, Training Splits, Resistance Training Exercises, Mode of Weights, Intensity and Volume, Exercise Velocity, Progressive Overload

Training Programme - Adaptation of the 10x3 Training Programme

Conclusion


The 5 Basic Staple Supplements: The Only Supplements that are Essential to your Regime

Introduction

Creatine

Multivitamin

Good Fats

Protein Powder

Branched Chain Amino Acids

Conclusion


Reference List


Macronutrient Composition for Optimal Muscle Growth


Introduction

Muscle growth requires the manipulation of many factors, the most important being nutrition. Regardless of how many hours one dedicates to training, without the proper nutrition, they are not going to get the gains they desire. As with training principles, within the scope of nutrition there are a set of ‘rules’ and guidelines recommended for optimal muscle growth.

This article is going to briefly discuss the required energy intake and macronutrient composition of that energy for optimal muscle growth.


Energy

In order to gain muscle mass, one must be in a positive energy balance. To ensure that the weight gain acquired from the resistance training undertaken results in muscle accretion, it is recommended to increase energy intake by ~15% from maintenance (Lambert, Frank & Evans, 2004).

Energy is synthesized from the macronutrients carbohydrate, protein, and fat.


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates can be classified into two groups: 1. Simple Carbohydrates - which provide ‘fast’ energy, as they have a high glycemic index and are digested rapidly; and 2. Complex Carbohydrates - which take longer to digest than simple carbohydrates because they consist of mostly glucose molecules strung together to form polysaccharides, those many glucose molecules linked together in highly branched chains make up glycogen (Wardlaw & Hampl, 2007).

Glycogen is the primary fuel utilized during anaerobic, high intensity training (McKardle, Katch & Katch, 2007); therefore adequate carbohydrate intake is necessary to provide energy for resistance training (Lambert, et al., 2004).

Muscle damage occurring as a result of resistance training increases the daily carbohydrate intake for optimal muscle glycogen synthesis (Costill, et al., 1990). If not enough carbohydrate is consumed, then the body will create the energy that it needs from other sources, starting with protein, as it is more easily catabolised than fat. Carbohydrate intake also causes an insulin release, which is protein sparing and can thus promote protein synthesis (Garrett & Grisham, 2010; Nygren & Nair, 2003).

According to studies done, 5-6g/kg/day of carbohydrate are required for optimal muscle glycogen levels in those looking to gain muscle (Burke, 2006; Lambert, et al., 2004), and it is recommended that carbohydrates make up 55-60% of daily total energy intake (Lambert, et al., 2004).


Protein

Protein makes up the major component of the body, second only to water in the tissues of the body. The building blocks of protein are called amino acids. Dietary protein is usually the source of amino acids for the body, especially of the essential amino acids, which the body cannot synthesize sufficiently to maintain physiological processes by itself (Wardlaw & Hampl, 2007).

The body’s nitrogen balance is improved as a result of resistance training; therefore resistance training increases the daily protein intake requirement (Rennie & Tipton, 2000) through the additional need for amino acids to support muscle accretion (Tarnopolsky, 2006). Adequate protein must be available for amino acids to provide protein synthesis (i.e. muscle growth), since muscle is primarily protein and water (Lambert, et al., 2004). There is a level of g/day at which dietary protein becomes optimal for muscle growth; however, above this there are no further anabolic effects, with excess protein ingested being oxidized through other metabolic pathways (Lambert, et al., 2004; Tarnopolsky, 2006; Tarnopolsky, et al., 1992).

The use of anabolic compounds protein requirements has been shown to decrease the protein required for positive nitrogen balance (Phillips, Tipton, Ferrando & Wolfe, 1999), most likely due to an increase in the reutilization of amino acids from the protein degradation for protein synthesis as a consequence of anabolic administration (Ferrando, et al., 1998).

According to studies done (Rennie & Tipton, 2000) the general population require only 0.8g/kg/day of protein. Bodybuilders and those trying to gain muscle mass require higher amounts, ranging from 1.0-1.2g/kg/day for those who do their resistance training in a steady-state, and as much as 1.5-1.7 g/kg/day for those who train in the early morning or in a fasted state (Consolazio, Johnson, Nelson, Dramise & Skala, 1975; Rennie & Tipton, 2000; Tarnopolsky, 2006; Tarnopolsky, et al., 1992; Tarnopolsky, MacDougall & Atkinson, 1988; Torun, Scrimshaw & Young, 1977).

It is recommended that protein make up 25-30% of daily total energy intake, with a 25% intake allowing for adequate carbohydrate and fat intake to allow for energy for training and to maintain circulating testosterone levels, respectively (Lambert, et al., 2004).


Fat

Used in many of the body’s mechanisms for survival, one of the primary functions of fats in the body is to synthesize hormones. Testosterone is one of the primary hormones involved in the process of building muscle (Wardlaw & Hampl, 2007).

There is little known on how fat intake affects muscle accretion (Lambert, et al., 2004). There is however evidence to suggest that relative to a high carbohydrate diet, a high daily fat intake impairs high intensity exercise performance (Tarnopolsky, et al., 1988). However, studies done by Dorgan, et al. (1996) indicate that low dietary intakes of fat are not optimal for muscle growth, as they have been shown to decrease total testosterone (Berrino, et al., 2001; Dorgan, et al., 1996).

It is recommended that fat make up 15-20% of daily total energy intake (Lambert, et al., 2004), with a minimum of 15% and an upper limit of 30% of daily total energy (Greenhaff, Gleeson & Maughan, 1987; Torun, et al., 1977), based on a composition with daily energy intake split with 55-60% coming from carbohydrate and a moderate protein consumption of 25% (Lambert, et al., 2004).


Conclusion

Next to resistance training, nutrition is the most important factor in the achievement of gaining muscle mass. For muscle accretion to occur, one must have a net positive energy balance of ~15% above maintenance, a moderate to high carbohydrate intake (55-60% total daily energy) to fuel resistance sessions, optimal protein intake (25-30% total daily energy) to ensure protein synthesis, and an adequate fat intake (15-20% total daily energy) to prevent testosterone levels falling.


Training for Muscle Growth: Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Training and Lifting Weights to Maximize Mass


Introduction

So you want to gain muscle. There are many different programmes and methods of training out there that are going to accomplish muscle growth. Add to that the fact that each individual is unique and that what may work for one in acquiring muscle mass may not work for another. There are, however, general standards and principles that most ‘mass gaining’ training programmes are based upon; and whilst many use traditional methods of training for hypertrophy, there are other ways to achieve the same, if not better, results. This article will discuss the different types of muscle fibres, the physiology of muscle growth, training parameters that work best for hypertrophy, and provide a sample programme for muscle building.


Muscle Fibres and Types

Slow Oxidative Fibres

Slow oxidative fibres are commonly referred to as Type I muscle fibres. These muscle fibres are recruited first during activity, contracting slowly due to slow Myosin ATPase activity. Although Type I fibres have a high Myoglobin content, they contain low glycogen levels, using aerobic glycolysis for Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) (i.e. energy) synthesis. A high oxidative capacity, due to the many capillaries and mitochondria that they contain, allows them to have a very slow rate of fatigue, therefore making them best suited for endurance activities such as distance running (Marieb, 2004).

Fast Oxidative Fibres

Fast oxidative fibres, also called Type IIa muscle fibres, are recruited second during exercise. Like Type I fibres Type IIa fibres have high Myoglobin content and many capillaries and mitochondria. However, instead of low glycogen stores their glycogen content is moderate, causing them to be moderately fatigue resistant. Alongside this, they have fast contractile speeds and Myosin ATPase activity, therefore making them best suited for activities that use both the anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic glycolysis energy systems, such as sprinting (Marieb, 2004).

Fast Glycolytic Fibres

Fast glycolytic fibres, the Type IIb muscle fibres, do not use oxygen for fuel, and are recruited third during activity. Type IIb fibres have few capillaries and mitochondria and low Myoglobin content. Although Type IIb fibres depend entirely on glycogen for fuel, despite having high glycogen stores, they fatigue quickly. This coupled with their powerful contractile ability and fast Myosin ATPase activity make them best suited for short-term intense or powerful movements, such as used in resistance training (Marieb, 2004).


Physiology of Muscle Growth

When muscles are used they adapt and change. Changes are dependent on the type of activity and muscle fibre types used, the load exerted on the muscle, and the velocity and duration of the contraction (Marieb, 2004).

Muscle growth, also referred to as muscle hypertrophy, is an example of muscular adaptations and changes.

Muscle hypertrophy occurs primarily through chronic anaerobic, high-intensity resistance activity, like that which happens during resistance training lifting weights (Brown, McCartney & Sale, 1990; Cureton, Collins, Hill, & McElhannon, 1988; Marieb, 2004; McCall, Byrnes, Dickenson, Pattany, & Fleck, 1996).

Resistance training causes neural adaptations, which result in changes in muscular endurance and muscular strength, and eventually, the size of the muscles (Fleck & Kraemer, 2004).

Resistance training causes an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of all muscle fibre types (Brown, et al., 1990; Cureton, et al., 1988; Holm, et al., 1991; McCall, et al., 1996; Widrick, Stelzer, Shoepe & Garner, 2002), without an increase in muscle fibre numbers (McCall, et al., 1996).

Age and sex have been shown to influence the degree to which hypertrophy occurs in an individual (Martel, et al., 2005).


Training Parameters

Type of Exercise

Anaerobic, high-intensity resistance training (Brown, et al., 1990; Cureton, et al., 1988; Marieb, 2004; McCall, et al., 1996) is the best exercise stimulus for muscle growth.

Training Splits

Depending on the training status of trainee will determine their training splits. For example, a beginner or novice to resistance training would be best served with 2-3 resistance training sessions a week, working the FULL body each session, as working the full body produces more anabolic hormone than just doing the upper or lower body alone (Heyward, 2006). Although the more muscle fibres activated during a session the better hypertrophy occurs, for the experienced or veteran trainee 3-6 day body-part splits would be recommended, as they need something more than 2-3 sessions a week or just full-body to stimulate further muscle growth, and can better adapt their training sessions for higher muscle recruitment and focus on a specific muscle or muscle groups.

Resistance Training Exercises

Exercises that build muscle the best are compound, multijoint exercises, as they recruit more of the body to perform the exercise (Heyward, 2006) and thus recruit and activate more muscle fibres (Charlebois, 2007). The best compound exercises for hypertrophy are the squat and the deadlift, as they use pretty much EVERY muscle in your body (Baechle, Earle & Wathen, 2000). Other compound exercises that are good to include are the power clean, bench press, shoulder press, pull-ups, and dips.

Mode of Weights

Those wanting to gain muscle mass use a variety of both free weights and machine to achieve hypertrophy. Although it does not matter HOW the load is placed on the muscle for muscle growth, research has shown that free weights such as barbells and dumbbells are superior to machine weights in muscle recruitment and activation, as they require more muscles to be used for any given exercise (McCaw & Friday, 1994).

Intensity and Volume

For those wanting to improve their muscular endurance alongside muscle gains, it is traditionally recommended to use very low to moderate intensity (50-75% 1RM) with a very moderate volume (3-6 sets of 10-20 reps, with 8-12 reps being the hypertrophy range) (Charlebois, 2007; Wathen, Baechle & Earle, 2000). However, muscle growth is best achieved using heavy load resistance training of at least 70% 1RM (Holm, et al., 2008); and for those wanting to gains muscular strength as well as muscle mass, then high intensity (at least 70% 1RM), high volume (whether they be low or high rep, as long as they are high VOLUME) training programmes work extremely effectively to achieve this (Charlebois, 2007; Holm, et al., 2008).

Exercise Velocity

Although both fast and low velocity resistance training increases muscle CSA of all muscle fibre types, fast velocity training induces greater development of the muscle, especially in Type IIa and Type IIb muscle fibres (Shepstone, et al., 2005).

Progressive Overload

Progressive overload must continually occur in order to induce adaptations and changes resulting in muscular hypertrophy. Progressive overload can be achieved through several methods, including increasing the intensity of exercise or resistance/weight used whilst staying with the same set and rep range, increasing the volume by increasing the number of sets and/or reps at the same or higher weight, changing tempo and training velocity, rest periods, etc. (Fleck & Kraemer, 2004).

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