# 1 Type of teaching: Lectures and Tutorials Lessons per week: L – 3 hours; t – 3 hours Number of credits: 7

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DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Mathematics I Code: BМЕС01 Semester: 1 Type of teaching: Lectures and Tutorials Lessons per week: L – 3 hours; T – 3 hours Number of credits: 7

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the students specialty Mechanical Engineering BEng programme of the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: At the end of the course the students are expected to be able to apply the Mathematics in solving of engineering problems.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Complex numbers; Polynomials; Inverse Trigonometric functions: Conics, the parabola, the ellipse, the hyperbola; Plane curves and parametric equations; Vectors: dot product, cross product, vectors in space; Functions and their graphs; Limits and continuity; Differentiation and using derivatives; Some applications of derivatives.

PREREQUISITES: Elementary Mathematics.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures and Tutorials.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Exam.

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 1, Part 1, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2006; 2. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 1, Part 2, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2007; 3. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 1, Part 3, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2009; 4. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 2, Part 1, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2008.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Physics 1 Code: BMЕC02 Semester: 1 Type of teaching: Lectures and laboratory work Lessons per week: L – 2 hours; LW – 2 hour Number of credits: 6

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the students specialty Mechanical Engineering BEng programme of the Mechanical Engineering Faculty.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: At the end of the course the students are expected to have basic knowledge on notions and laws of classical physics and to be able to apply their knowledge in analysis and solving of engineering problems and interpretation of results.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Introduction; Kinematics; Newton's laws; Application of Newton's laws; Circular motion, Angular momentum and torque; Work and energy; Systems of particles; Motion of rigid body; Ideal gas; First and second principle of thermodynamics; Electrostatics.

PREREQUISITES: Physics on standard secondary level, Elements of calculus, analytical geometry and vector calculus.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures, using slides, and laboratory work.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Homework (20%), laboratories (20%), final exam (60%).

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Nitsolov, S., Physics 1 Lecture Notes.

2. Knight, R. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: a Strategic Approach, 2/E, Pearson Addison Wesley. 2008.

3. Serway R.A., Jewett J.W., Physics for scientists and engineers 7/ E, Thomson, 2004

4. Tipler, P. A., Mosca G., Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6/E, Freeman, 2008.

5. Young, H., R. Freeman, Sears and Zemansky’s University Physics with Modern Physics, 12/E, Pearson/Addison Wesley (2008)

6. Crowell, B., Simple Nature (An Introduction to Physics for Engineering and Physical Science Students), 2009, http://www.lightandmatter.com/simple.pdf.

7. Fitzpatrick, R., Classical Mechanics, http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/301/301.html

8. Fitzpatrick, R., Electromagnetism and Optics, http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/302l/302l.html

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course : Materials Science Code: BMEC03 Semester: 1 Type of teaching: Lectures and laboratory work Lessons per week: L – 2 hours; LW – 2 hours Number of credits: 6

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for students IN specialty “Mechtronic Sistems”at MF,” Degree of bachelor “

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: To give knowledge about: Relationships of “chemical content–structures -properties” of the materials;

Competition and future trends for applications of traditional and advanced materials. Structure changes and predicting of performance behaviour; Optimized selection of the best material for defined application;Euro Standards for materials.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Atomic-crystal structure of materials: Atomic bonding, crystal lattices parameters, coordination number, vacancies and dislocations; Equilibrium solidification; -Metastable and Stable Iron-Carbon Phase Diagrams; Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys; Phase and structure transformations: Continuous Cooling diagram Transformation(CCT) and Temperature Time Transformation (TTT) Phase Diagrams; Structure and properties changes. Mechanical properties: Tensile and Bending Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, Elongation, Hardness, Toughness, Fatigue, Creep, Brittle and Ductile Fracture; Prediction of mechanical properties ; Optimizing of materials selection procedures; Euro Norm Materials Standards.

Structures, properties and applications of Polymers; Ceramic materials; Metal, ceramics amd polimer matrix composites.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures using slides; Laboratory work- laboratory manual, work in team, protocols preparation and defence.

PREREQUISITES: Physics, Chemistry.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Two control tests in two-hours give average assessments (75%) plus laboratories (25%)

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. William D.Callister,Jr.: Materials Science and Engineering,John Wiley& Sons,Inc., 2001.

2. Donald R. Askeland :The Science and Engineering of Materials, Chapman and Hall,1990.

3. Willam I.Smith : Principles of Materials Science and Engineering,Mc.Crow-Hill Publishing Compony,1990.

4. Sidney H.Avner,Introduction to Physical Metallurgy, Mc.Crow-Hill Inc.1974

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Informatics I Code: BMEC04 Semester: 1 Type of teaching: Lectures and laboratory work Lessons per week: L – 2 hours; LW – 2 hour Number of credits: 5

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the students specialty

Mechanical Engineering

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: At the end of the course the students are expected to have theoretical knowledge of: computer architecture, organization of operation of computer, computer arithmetic.

To be able to use program application of Microsoft Office Package: Word and Excel( first level) in engineering application .

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE:

PREREQUISITES:

Basic knowledge of computing.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures, using slides, case studies, laboratory and course work, work in teams, protocols and course work description preparation and defence.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Two one-hour assessments at mid and end of semester (62%), laboratories (18%), course work - two off assignments (20%)

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Comer, D. Computer Networks and Internets with Internet Applications, Prentice Hall, 2001

2. Date, C. An Introduction to Database Systems, Addison-Wesley, 1995

3. Hutchinson, S., S. Sawyer. Computers and Information Systems, Irwin Inc., 1994

4. Muller, R., Database Design for Smarties. Using UML for Data Modeling, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1999.

5. Spiegel, M. Theory and Problems of Statistics, McGrow Hill, 1991

6. Zorkoczy, P. Information Technology. An Introduction, Pitman, 1991

7. Preece, J. (ed.). A Guide to Usability. Addison-Wesley, 1993

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Engineering graphics with CAD I Code: BMEC05 Semester: 1 Type of teaching: Lectures (L) and laboratory work (LW) Lessons per week: L – 2 hours; LW – 2 hours Number of credits: 6

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory course for the students speciality Mechanical engineering (in English language), educational degree “Bachelor” of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in the Technical University of Sofia.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: To develop spatial thinking and technical culture of the students through the conceptual apparatus of applied geometry and documentation of design of machine objects and create skills for implementing the basic approaches to geometric modelling of simple details and creating their technical drawings in a CAD environment.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Design process – essence and structure of design process, standardization, documentation, drawing types; Basic information about Applied CAD-systems, creating technical drawings with AutoCAD; Basic method for design. Projection, types of projection - parallel and perspective projection, axonometric projection; Orthographic projection, first-angle projection; Projection of point, lines and planes using the method of Monge; True length of line and true size of figure, auxiliary projection plane; Projection of surfaces and solids; Intersection of solid and plane, intersection of solids; Unfolding, constructing the unfolding of expandable surfaces and non expandable surfaces; Types of views, sections and cross sections; Conventional treatment of objects; Detail drawing; Dimensioning in detail drawings – dimension types, basic principles of dimensioning.

PREREQUISITES: Basic knowledge on using computers is necessary.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures delivered by using traditional educative and technical means and multimedia, laboratories using computers.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Continuous assessment grade, defined from the grade of the test (60%), course work (30%) and laboratory work (10%).

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Sandalski Br., P. Goranov, G. Dinev, I. Nikolova, Fundamentals of Design and CAD, S., Softtrade, 2007 (bul). 2. Leparov, M., M. Vicheva, M. Georgiev, Fundamentals of engineering design, S., Softtrade, 2009 (bul). 3. Tudjarov, B., E. Todorova, D. Peneva, M. Yancheva, Guidance for classes and coursework in fundamentals of design and CAD, S., Softtrade, 2008 (bul). 4. Bertoline G., E. Wiebe, Fundamentals of Graphics Communication, McGraw-Hill, 2005. 5. Ostrowsky O., Engineering drawing with CAD applications, Great Britain, 1989. 6. Earle J., Engineering Design Graphics, Addison-Wesley Publ. Company, 1990. 7. Finkelstein E., AutoCAD 2009 and AutoCAD LT 2009 Bible, Wiley Publishing, 2008. 8. Otto, K., K. Wood, Product Design. Techniques in Reverse Engineering and New Product Development – Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001. 9. Pahl G., W. Beitz. Engineering Design. A Systematic Approach, Springer - Verlag Berlin, 2001. 10. Standards BDS, BDS EN, BDS IEC, BDS ISO for technical drawings and documents.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course: Foreign Language Code: BMEC06, BMEC13, BMEC20, BMEC26 Semester: 1, 2, 3, 4 Method of Teaching: Seminars and workshops Academic Hours per week: 2 Number of credits: 0

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for full-time students of “Mechatronics systems” in English of the Faculty of Machine Engineering at TU- Sofia required for obtaining Bachelor’s Degree.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: to enable students in using scientific literature and specialized texts, as well as to enhance their communicative competence adopting culturally appropriate modes of behaviour relevant to the concrete situation and apply effective compensatory strategies in overcoming communicative problems. The additional practice of micro and macro language skills are targeted at preparing students for successful participation in international scientific conferences and symposia, graduate and post-graduate exchange programmes sponsored by the EU or bilateral agreements with partner universities.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: Foreign language education builds up communicative abilities and competence allowing students to socialize and function effectively in real-life professional situations. They develop the four language skills / Listening, Reading, Speaking and Writing/ aiming to facilitate their adequate auditory and visual comprehension of information, offered in a foreign language, as well as their active ability to respond in keep with the stylistics and norms of multicultural communication. The correlation general to specialized language is 1:2. The modern equipment and facilities of the Department of Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics allows the use of up-to-date audio-visual and technical equipment such as: language labs, VDU, cassette recorders, OHP-s, and computers.

PREREQUISITES: basic knowledge of the language and elementary rules of grammar and basic lexical items and their use, taught at secondary schools and vocational schools.

TEACHING METHODS: The selection and structuring of syllabus content is carried out by way of an integrated theoretical-practical communicative approach, taking into consideration the functional needs of students to use the language competently in cross-cultural and professional medium. Various interactive methods of classroom management are applied, such as discussions, presentations, case studies, role, theme projects, computer tests in grammar and lexicology on different proficiency levels, as well as translation of specialized scientific texts. The modular principle of foreign language teaching allows for a synthesis of a learner-centered seminar work in a given sphere with individual forms of study and self-study.

METHODS OF ASSESSMENT: written tests during the semester, the final exams are administered in the form of standard EU recognized exit tests on several proficiency levels to estimate the achieved progress and quality of acquired knowledge. Some specialties request that part of the final assessment includes translation of an abstract from a scientific book in a subject-specific field from a foreign language into Bulgarian. The final grade is made on the basis of two written tests for the period of training throughout the semester (an overall of 80%) and active participation in seminars and workshops and individual presentations (an overall of 20%).

LANGUAGES OF INSTRUCTION: English.

RECOMMENDED TEACHING MATERIALS: A number of course materials and textbooks developed under European projects and in collaboration with the British Council.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Mathematics II Code: BМЕС08 Semester: 2 Type of teaching: Lectures and Tutorials Lessons per week: L – 3 hours; T – 3 hours Number of credits: 7

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the students specialty Mechanical Engineering BEng programme of the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: At the end of the course the students are expected to be able to apply the Mathematics in solving of engineering problems.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Integration; Applications of definite integrals: volumes by slicing and rotation about an axis, volumes by cylindrical shells, lengths of plane curves, areas of surfaces of revolution; Integrals and transcendental functions; Techniques of integration; Equations and Mathematical modeling: first order differential equations; Linear second order differential equations; Functions of several variables.

PREREQUISITES: Elementary Mathematics, Mathematics I.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures and Tutorials.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Exam.

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 1, Part 1, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2006; 2. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 1, Part 2, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2007; 3. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 1, Part 3, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2009; 4. Donevska S., B. Donevsky. Calculus and Analytic Geometry 2, Part 1, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, 2008.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Physics 2 Code: BMЕC09 Semester: 2 Type of teaching: Lectures, laboratory works, tutorials Lessons per week: L – 2 hours; LW – 1 hour; T – 2 hours Number of credits: 6

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the student specialty Mechanical Engineering BEng programme of the Mechanical Engineering Faculty.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: At the end of the course the students are expected to have basic knowledge on oscillations, waves, quantum and atomic physics and to be able to apply their knowledge in analysis and solving of engineering problems.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Electric Current; Magnetic Interaction; Electromagnetic Induction; Oscillations; Waves; Geometrical Optics; Wave Optics, Electric Structure of Matter; Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with Matter; Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics; Fundamentals of Atomic Physics.

PREREQUISITES: Physics 1, Calculus 1, Elements of differential equations and vector calculus.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures, using slides, laboratory work and tutorials.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Homework (20%), laboratories (20%), final exam (60%).

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Nitsolov, S., Physics 2 Lecture Notes.

2. Knight, R. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: a Strategic Approach, 2/E, Pearson Addison Wesley. 2008.

3. Serway R.A., Jewett J.W., Physics for scientists and engineers 7/E, Thomson, 2004

4. Tipler, P. A., Mosca G., Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6/E, Freeman, 2008.

5. Young, H., R. Freeman, Sears and Zemansky’s University Physics with Modern Physics, 12/E, Pearson/Addison Wesley (2008)

6. Crowell, B., Simple Nature (An Introduction to Physics for Engineering and Physical Science Students), 2009, http://www.lightandmatter.com/simple.pdf.

7. Fitzpatrick, R., Electromagnetism and Optics, http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/302l/302l.html

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Informatics II(Computing) Code: BMEC10 Semester: 2 Type of teaching: Lectures and laboratory work Lessons per week: L – 2 hours; LW – 2 hour Number of credits: 5

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the students specialty

Mechanical Engineering

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE:

To be able to apply programs for engineering tasks as: Excel (second level), database with Access. .

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE:

Application of mathematical methods with Excel

Introduction of data base, models in data base, relation model.

Application of Access

PREREQUISITES:

Basic knowledge of computing.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures, using slides, case studies, laboratory and course work, work in teams, protocols and course work description preparation and defence.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Two one-hour assessments at mid and end of semester (62%), laboratories (18%), course work - two off assignments (20%)

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Comer, D. Computer Networks and Internets with Internet Applications, Prentice Hall, 2001

2. Date, C. An Introduction to Database Systems, Addison-Wesley, 1995

3. Hutchinson, S., S. Sawyer. Computers and Information Systems, Irwin Inc., 1994

4. Muller, R., Database Design for Smarties. Using UML for Data Modeling, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1999.

5. Spiegel, M. Theory and Problems of Statistics, McGrow Hill, 1991

6. Zorkoczy, P. Information Technology. An Introduction, Pitman, 1991

7. Preece, J. (ed.). A Guide to Usability. Addison-Wesley, 1993

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Mechanics Code: BMEC11 Semester: 2 Type of teaching: Lectures and Seminar work Lessons per week: L – 3 hours; SW – 2 hour Number of credits: 7

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the students specialty Machinebuilding, BEng programme of the Machinebuilding Faculty.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: At the end of the course the students to know and to be able to apply in their practice the main axioms, laws and methods of the Mechanics, as well as to form an engineering way in the process of design of devices, apparatuses and machines.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Introduction to Mechanics. Main conceptions. Divisions of Mechanics. Introduction to Statics. Statics of a particle. Reduction and equilibrium of a concurrent system of forces. Moment of a force with respect to a point and to an axis. Theory of Couples. Reduction and equilibrium of an arbitrary spatial system of forces. Reduction and equilibrium of an arbitrary system of parallel forces. Center of gravity. Equilibrium in case of friction. Kinematics of a particle. Kinematics of a rigid body. Plane motion of a rigid body. Kinematics of the relative motion of a particle. Dynamics of a particle. Work and power of forces. Vibrations of a particle. Dynamics of a relative motion of a particle. Geometry of masses. Dynamics of mechanical systems and of an ideal rigid body. Kinetic energy of a mechanical system and of an ideal rigid body. Kyonig’s theorem for the kinetic energy. Theorem of changing of the kinetic energy. Dynamics of the simple motions of a rigid body. Kinetostatics.

PREREQUISITES: Common knowledge of Physics, Mathematics and computer literacy.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures, seminar works and self-preparing.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: Written test of three problems – each of them covering the material of the main subdivisions of the Classical Mechanics.

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Buchvarov, S., Mechanics I – Statics, TU-Sofia, Sofia, 2007.

2. Kralov, I., Mechanics. Part I – Statics & Konematics, TU-Sofia, Sofia, 2010.

3. Kralov, I., S. Tchitakov, Seminar courses for solving problems in Mechanics II – Dynamics, TU-Sofia, Sofia, 2008.

4. Kralov, I., S. Tchitakov, Seminar courses for solving problems in Mechanics I – Statics & Kinematics, TU-Sofia, Sofia, 2010.

5. www.mechanics-bg.com.

6. Johanson, Beer, Vector Mechanics for Engineers, part I and II, McGrawHill, USA, 1995.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE

 Name of the course Fundamentals of design and CAD II Code: BMEHS12 Semester: 2 Type of teaching: Lectures (L) and laboratory work (LW) Lessons per week: L – 2 hours; LW – 2 hours Number of credits: 7

COURSE STATUS IN THE CURRICULUM: Compulsory for the students specialty Mechatronic systems (in English language), educational degree “Bachelor” of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in the Technical University of Sofia.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE: To help the students to acquire knowledge and skills to design and develop documentation of electrical circuits, parts, assembly units and electrical joints of technical objects in the field of mechatronic systems; to know the meaning and application of tolerances and fits to ensure fundamental aspects of quality of machines and equipment; to know and apply the basic approaches to building a computer model of the design object and to develop technical documentation in a CAD environment.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: The main topics concern: Basic design methods - parallel and perspective projection, axonometric projection; Orthographic projection, first-angle projection; Projection of point, lines and planes using the method of Monge; True length of line and true size of figure, auxiliary projection plane; Projection of surfaces and solids; Intersection of solid and plane, intersection of solids; Unfolding, constructing the unfolding of expandable surfaces and non expandable surfaces; Design and representation of machine joints and transmissions; Fits - types, standard fits and systems of formation; Design and documentation of assembly units. Content and requirements for implementation of the design drawing and specification; Use of CAD systems for 3D modeling and automated execution of set design documentation – characteristics and features of SolidWorks and Inventor.

PREREQUISITES: Basic knowledge on Fundamentals of design and CAD I is necessary.

TEACHING METHODS: Lectures delivered by using traditional educative and technical means and multimedia, laboratories using computers.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT: A two hours assessment at the end of semester (total 70%), course work (30%).

INSTRUCTION LANGUAGE: English

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Leparov, M., M. Vicheva, M. Georgiev, Fundamentals of engineering design, S., Softtrade, 2009 (bul). 2. Sandalski Br., P. Goranov, G. Dinev, I. Nikolova, Fundamentals of Design and CAD, S., Softtrade, 2007 (bul). 3. Николова, И., М. Вичева, М. Янчева, В. Пенчев, Ръководство за упражнения и курсова работа по основи на конструирането и CAD – II част, С., СОФТРЕЙД, 2008. 4. Bertoline G., E. Wiebe, Fundamentals of Graphics Communication, McGraw-Hill, 2005. 5. Earle J., Engineering Design Graphics, Addison-Wesley Publ. Company, 1990. 6. Finkelstein E., AutoCAD 2009 and AutoCAD LT 2009 Bible, Wiley Publishing, 2008. 7. Lombard M., SolidWorks 2007 Bible, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2007. 8. Otto K., K. Wood, Product Design. Techniques in Reverse Engineering and New Product Development – Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001. 9. Pahl G., W. Beitz. Engineering Design. A Systematic Approach, Springer- Verlag Berlin, 2001. 10.Стандарти БДС, БДС EN, БДС IEC, БДС ISO за технически чертежи и документи.

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