Canada and the global challenge part II




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Course Syllabus

(please bring to each lecture)


POL 341H-F 2003

CANADA AND THE GLOBAL CHALLENGE - Part II

The Political Economy of the Post-National State


Lectures: Tuesday, 10 a.m.- noon in University College, Room A-101

Instructor: Professor Stephen Clarkson

Office: University College, A201

Office Hours: Tuesdays, 12 - 1 and 2.30 - 3.30 p.m.

Telephone: Office (416) 978-8120 (leave a message if I’m not in)

Home (416) 925-7596

Fax: Office (416) 971-2027

Web site: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/polsci

Teaching Assistant: Céline Mulhern c.mulhern@utoronto.ca


OBJECTIVES


At the end of November 1999 several hundred Canadians trekked to Seattle to join many thousands of Americans along with others from Europe and Asia to mount a dramatic protest against the World Trade Organization (WTO) which was holding its regular biennial ministerial meeting. The WTO’s birth in 1995 had marked a historic turning point in the development of global governance and the integration of the world economy. In the eyes of the WTO's opponents and proponents alike, the new trade organization would transform the world economy and the relations of its members. Critics, such as the Canadian protesters in Seattle, believed that the WTO would seriously undermine Canada's fragmented political system, its natural environment, and its already vulnerable culture. Advocates maintained not only that these dangers were negligible but that globalization was as irreversible as it was beneficial to humankind.

This course will tackle the theoretical issues and policy problems that are central in the continuing debate on trade liberalization. In doing this we will be looking at a specific case of a general phenomenon that is preoccupying policy-makers in all countries: the effects of the globalization of capital on national states and cultures. As "political economy," it assumes that Canada's global position cannot be studied only as a question of politics or of economics. It must be seen in both these perspectives but also in its cultural and societal dimensions. Our intellectual challenge in studying Canada's “global challenge” is to develop analytical frameworks that can give us a balanced and sophisticated understanding of the multi-dimensional dynamics of Canadian development.

The material in this course is prone to highly ideological treatment, for it touches one of Canada’s most sensitive nerves. Our objective will be, nevertheless, to deal fairly, factually, and rigorously with the assumptions, theories and arguments used in the debate between nationalists (who believe that Canada suffers from and should resist its economic, political and cultural domination by US-driven globalization) and globalists (who believe that Canada should embrace with optimism the forces of integration that it opposes in vain.)


Note: Students may not take this course and its companion, POL 318H-F, in the same year.

PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH


1. Lectures

Central to the course are the weekly lectures. They will discuss the basic theoretical issues raised by the literature about Canada's global position, give the historical background and analytical context, and examine the implications of globalization for Canada's economy, polity and culture. Regular attendance at lectures is expected.

Each student’s lecture notes may be submitted for appraisal at the Christmas exam for a possible bonus of up to 2 per cent.

Short readings are specified for each lecture in this syllabus. To get the most out of the lectures students should read these passages beforehand. For those participating in discussion groups, it is mandatory to read this material in advance.

Periodically, special guests will be invited to apply their expertise to the specific topic under discussion.


2. Tests

A final examination worth 35 per cent will be held in the UC East Hall. Test questions will be based on the weekly readings and the material covered during the lectures. The questions will be distributed at the last lecture and the exam will be held one week later.


3. Office Hours

I want to meet each member of the course during my office hours early in the term. Please drop by for a brief chat bringing a small photograph I can attach to your file.


4. Essays

Because "we write to learn," essay writing is the principal focus for your individual work.

In order to generate a common vocabulary for the course, every student will do a review contrasting two required books.

An outline for the self-defined major essay must then be submitted for approval.


5. Learning Options


Three options offer you a choice of learning experiences from which to choose.


Option A. All Written Work

This involves solo study. The book report, outline, and essay entirely determine the term mark:

book review (1,500 words or 6 pages) worth 15 percent;

essay outline (3 pages) worth 15 percent;

essay (3,500 words or 14 pages) worth 40 percent.


Option B. Two Essays plus Weekly Discussion Group

In addition to the written work of Option A this option involves participation in a weekly, student-run discussion group that allows time for debating the issues raised during the lectures, self-help in essay and test preparation, and getting to know a dozen or so fellow students. Once this option is chosen (and approved by me), regular attendance at tutorials is mandatory. Weekly reports are submitted to me evaluating each session and alerting me to problems that may need resolving. Participation accounts for 10 per cent, with the book review and essay worth 5 per cent less than in Option A.


Option C. Incorporate POL 341 in a year-long, faculty research project, POL 397Y

This involves doing the book review, attending the lectures, and writing the exam for POL 341 but doing the rest of the work as part of a research collective contributing to a book I am starting on NAFTA as a regime of continental governance. Each member of the group will take a specific issue within the area I am investigating. In the first term the paper will review the relevant literature and pose the research questions and methodological issues to be addressed in the second term’s work.

The group will meet regularly with me to discuss research problems. As climax of the research, you will spend one week at the end of the winter term in Washington interviewing officials in the Canadian and Mexican embassies and the US government to obtain first-hand information on the subject being researched.

A project outline worth 10 percent and the background paper worth 30 percent are due in the first term. The remaining 50 percent of the mark consists of the final 6,000 word, 24-page essay.


Prerequisite: Students electing this option must have reached an A- level in their previous essays and a GPA of 3.6.


Summary of Marking Coefficients for Options A, B, and C


OPTION A B C

First term book review 15 10 10

outline 15 15 10

essay 40 35 30

discussion group 10


Term work 70 70 50


Christmas test 30 30

Second term 50

Final mark 100 100 100


SCHEDULE and DEADLINES* for TERM WORK and EXAMINATION


Options A and B

Book review: September 30 returned with comments October 3

Outline:** October 21 returned with comments October 28

Essay: November 18 returned with comments December 2


(Do not submit work electronically. Keep a copy in case of loss. With the essay, submit your notes and rough work to forestall any question of plagiarism.)


Final exam: Questions distributed November 25

Test held December 2 in UC East Hall 10 to 11.55 a.m. .


Option C:


Book review: September 30 returned with comments October 3

Project outline: (+) October 21 returned with comments October 28

Background paper November 25 returned with comments December 2

Final research report April 6, 2004 (to be confirmed)


LATE Assignments are to be handed in to the front office at University College. Do not submit assignments to the departmental office.


* Penalties for lateness:

Book reviews: 5 percent per day.

Essays: 2 percent per day to a maximum of 25 per cent.


Extensions may be granted for incapacitating medical problems notified before the deadline and documented subsequently by a doctor but not for computer failure or other work commitments.


All assignments are due on the specified date by 10:10 a.m. when the ta will pick them up. The penalty clock for lateness will start at that time.


** See pages 9-10 for what is required in an outline.


LECTURE SCHEDULE and WEEKLY READINGS


Lecture 1 Introduction: Globalization ’n’ Us Sept. 9


A systematic explanation of my pedagogy -- options, essays, bibliographies, outlines, weightings, deadlines, penalties, tests and such other necessary evils as lecture topics and weekly readings -- will introduce you to the course’s ends and means.


Read: Nothing required: it’s your time for getting over any qualms before the storm.


PART I - GLOBALIZATION AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE


Lecture 2 Capitalism, Globalization, and Global Governance Sept. 16


If Canada has always been inserted in a capitalist world economy, what is so different about “globalization”? We need to understand the Keynesian system installed after World War II in order then to grasp the changes that have occurred as that regime broke down and transnational corporations pushed for greater economic rights around the world.


Read:

Cox, Robert W. "Global Restructuring: Making Sense of the Changing International Political Economy," in Richard Stubbs and Geoffrey Underhill, eds., Political Economy and the Changing Global Order. (London: MacMillan, 1994), pp. 45-59.


Helleiner, Eric. “From Bretton Woods to Global Finance: A World Turned Upside Down,” in Richard Stubbs and Geoffrey R.D. Underhill, eds., Political Economy and the Changing Global Order (London:MacMillan, 1994), 163-175.


Lecture 3 The World Trade Organization Sept. 23


The World Trade Organization has been hailed (and denounced) as a radically new kind of international institution. Will the WTO turn out to have been more empowering (or threatening) for Canada than the North American Free Trade Agreement?


Read:

Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002) chapter 5.


Hart, Michael. Fifty Years of Canadian Statecraft..., chapters 10-11.


Ostry, Sylvia. The Post-Cold War Trading System (Chicago University Press, 1997), 175-200.


PART II - GLOBAL GOVERNANCE FROM ABOVE and the CANADIAN STATE


Lecture 4 National Integrity, Cultural Sovereignty, and Economic Integration Sept.30


If a nation state cannot survive without its own culture and if government intervention has been necessary for Canada to create national cultural industries, can the country survive trade liberalization?


Read:

Carr, Graham. “Trade Liberalization and the Political Economy of Culture: An International Perspective on the FTA," Canadian-American Public Policy 6 (June 1991).


Lecture 5 Cultural Policy: (1) Publishing Oct. 7


The difficult history of indigenous publishing in a branch plant economy. What will happen to Canada's book and magazine industry under the combined impact of the WTO and NAFTA?


Read:

Audley, Paul. Vital Links, chs. 4 & 5.


Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002), chapter 20.


Magder, Ted. “Franchising the Candy Store: Split-Run Magazines and a New International Regime for Trade in Culture,” Canadian-American Public Policy 34 (April 1998).


Lecture 6 Cultural Policy: (2) Mass Media Oct. 14


What will be the impact of free trade on Toronto’s embryonic film industry and on Canada’s mixed, public-and-private broadcasting system?


Read:

"Culture and Cultural Industries." in Trade-Offs on Free Trade, ch. 11; contributions by Al Johnson, Rick Salutin


Schwanen, Daniel. “A Matter of Choice: Toward a More Creative Canadian Policy on Culture,” C.D. Howe Institute Commentary No. 91, April 1997, 36 pages.


Lecture 7 Global Capital Markets, Investment Rules, and Dispute Settlement Oct. 21


What is different about the global capital market and “government by Moody’s”? Why was such an uproar made by the Council of Canadians about the Multilateral Agreement on Investment? And has the WTO’s subsidy code given countries like Canada and Brasil a means to ensure the other competes fairly in international markets?


Read:

Howse, Robert. “Settling Trade Remedy Disputes: When the WTO Forum Is Better than the NAFTA,” C.D. Howe Institute Commentary 111 (June 1998).


Smythe, Elizabeth. "Multilateralism or Bilateralism in the Negotiation of Trade-Related Investment Measures?" Canadian-American Public Policy. 1995, 1-36.


PART III – POST-GLOBALISM FROM BELOW and CITIZENS MOVEMENTS


Lecture 8 Global Trade Norms versus the Environmental and Labour Movements Oct.28

The International Labour Organization has long sought to defend labour standards around the world by persuading governments to sign conventions safeguarding workers’ rights. Hundreds of multilateral environmental agreements have been signed by the world community of nations. But when economic rules come into conflict with labour or environmental values, the former generally prevail.


Read:

Helleiner, Eric. “New Voices in the Globalization Debate: Green Perspectives on the World Economy,” Richard Stubbs and Geoffrey R.D. Underhill, eds., Political Economy and the Changing Global Order (2nd ed., 2000), 60-9.


O’Brien, Robert. “The Agency of Labour in a Changing Global Order,” in Richard Stubbs and Geoffrey R.D. Underhill, eds., Political Economy and the Changing Global Order (2nd ed. 2000), 38-47.


Shrybman, Steven. The World Trade Organization: A Citizen’s Guide (Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1999), 59-72,79-92.


von Moltke, Konrad. Whither MEAs? The Role of International Environmental Management in the Trade and Environment Agenda (Winnipeg, International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2001), 1-35.


Lecture 9 The WTO’s GATS and TRIPS: Their Implications for Education and Health Nov. 4

The General Agreement on Trade in Services has been presented as an attempt by global education and health companies to privatize public services everywhere. The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights has also been seen as threatening public health by strengthening the global drug companies’ monopoly rights.


Read:

Cohen, Marjorie. “The World Trade Organization and Post-Secondary Education: Implications for the Public System,” Hawke Institute Working Paper No. 1, 11 pages ms.


Sinclair, Scott. How the World Trade Organization’s New “Services” Negotiations Threaten Democracy (Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2000), 17-118.


Kent, Christopher. “The Uruguay Round GATT TRIPS Agreement & Chapter 17 of the NAFTA: A New Era in International Patent Protection,” Canadian Intellectual Property Review (1994), 711-33.


Lecture 10 Glocalization: What does it mean for Toronto? Nov. 11


If we should “Think globally, act locally” what does acting in Toronto mean? We will look at the implications of Toronto as a “global city” – centre for financial services, film-production, and advanced technologies – in the context of trade liberalization.and democratic practice.


Read:

Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us, ch. 6.


Todd, Graham. “‘Going Global’ in the Semi-Periphery:World Cities as Political Projects. The Case of Toronto,” in Paul L. Knox and Peter J. Taylor, eds., World Cities in a World-System (Cambridge: Campbridge University Press, 1999), 192-212.


Williams, Gwndaf. “Institutional Capacity and Metropolitan Governance: the Greater Toronto Area,” Cities 16:3 (1999), 171-80.


Lecture 11 A Post-Modern Foreign and Military Policy for Canada? Nov.18

The coming of trade liberalization provoked rival prophecies of greater diplomatic autonomy and permanent foreign policy impotence. Does the post-Cold War era offer Canada a chance to play a distinctive role on the world stage, as free-traders argue, or does its economic integration mean that "an independent foreign policy" has become an empty phrase echoing ruefully from the Canadian past?


Read:

Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us, ch. 20.


Hillmer, Norman and Adam Chapnic, "The Axworthy Revolution", in Fen Osler Hampson, Norman Hillmer, and Maureen Appel Molot eds., The Axworthy Legacy: Canada Among Nations 2001 (Don Mills: Oxford, 2001), 65-89.


Copeland, Daryl. "The Axworthy Years: Canadian Foreign Policy in an Era of Diminished Capacity," in ibid., 152-73.


Stairs, Denis. "The Changing Office and the Changing Environment of the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Axworthy Era," ibid., 19-39.


Lecture 12 Conclusion: Canada as a “Post-National State”? Nov. 25


What, after all this, can we say about the extent to which the prospect facing the Canadian state is already determined? To what extent is its future in the hands of its next leaders?


Read:

Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us, ch. 20.


Final Examination Dec. 2


* * *


Readings for each lecture are in a xeroxed compendium available from Alico’s Copy Centre, 203-A College Street, 599-2342.


RECOMMENDED EDITED BOOKS


The following volumes have many useful chapters on specific problems which should prove of great help in your essay research. Consult their table of contents.


Cameron, Duncan, ed. The Free Trade Deal. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1988. [HF 1766 F73 1988 ROBA/VIC]


Cameron, Duncan and Mel Watkins, eds. Canada Under Free Trade. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1993. [ F 5047 C2939 1993 ROBA] *CaMel in the lecture readings.


Clement, Wallace, ed. Understanding Canada: Building on the New Canadian Political Economy. Montreal; Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, 1997. [HC 115 U52 1997 ROBA]


Crispo, John, ed. Free Trade: The Real Story. Canada: Gage Educational Publishing Co., 1988. [HF 1766 F74 1988 ROBA/TRIN]


Drache, Daniel and Meric S. Gertler, eds. The New Era of Global Competition: State Policy and Market Power. Montreal; Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, 1991. [HC 115 N393 1991 ROBA]


Globerman, Steven and Michael Walker, eds., Assessing NAFTA: A Trinational Analysis. Vancouver: Fraser, 1993. [HF 1766 A85 1993 ROBA] *Globe&Walk in the lecture readings.


Gold, Marc and David Leyton-Brown, eds. Trade-Offs on Free Trade. Toronto: Carswell, 1988. [HF 1766 T73 1988 TRIN/LAW]


Grinspun, Ricardo and Maxwell A. Cameron, eds. The Political Economy of North American Free Trade. New York: St. Martins Press, 1993. [HF 1746 P65 1993 ROBA] *GrinsCam in the lecture readings.


Ito, Takatoshi and Krueger, Anne, eds. Regionalism versus Multilateral Trade Arrangements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.


OECD. Regionalism and It’s Place in the Multilateral Trading System. Paris: OECD, 1996.

[ZZ...ED...20B-1996 R26 NONCIRC ROBA]


Randall, Stephen J., Herman Konrad and Sheldon Silverman, eds. North America Without Borders? Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1992. [HF 1766 N67 1992 UC/SIGS]


Randall, Stephen J. and Herman W. Konrad, eds. NAFTA in Transition. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1995. [HF 1746 N345 1995 ROBA/SIGS] *RanKon in the lecture readings.


Stubbs, R. and Geoffrey R. D. Underhill, eds. Political Economy and the Changing Global Order. London: Macmillan, 1994. [HF 1411 P591154 1994 ROBA] and 2nd edition, 2000.


*Please note that these publications will be referred to only by the last name of the first author and the year of publication in the essay topics, which follow.


ESSAYS and OUTLINES


Your book review and essay will be read carefully. Comments on language and logic will be noted in the margins. More general responses to the overall strengths and weaknesses of each essay will be written on a separate page, a copy of which will be kept as part of your file to help in the writing of references if needed in the future.


Essays will be judged by the following criteria:


1. Argument 25%

The originality and the power of the analysis you present; the extent that a theory from the political economy literature is tested or some interesting hypothesis of your own is proven; the coherence of the logic with which you develop your case.


Students’ most common problem comes from not finding a clear question to address and so not developing an effective thesis.


2. Information 25%

The mastery of the factual material that you present from your research in the literature, its relevance to your argument, its effectiveness in making your case, its accuracy and completeness.


Students’ most common problem comes from not knowing what material to consult and so not marshalling information that is relevant to demonstrating the thesis.


3. Structure 25%

The coherence of your paper's organization and its utility in helping develop your argument.


Students’ most common problem comes from not developing an organization of this material that serves the argument's development.


4. Writing and Editing 25%

The clarity with which you express your ideas and communicate your thinking, correct usage of English (or French) syntax and language, integrity of paragraphs, narrative continuity.


Editing includes the care with which you present the essay: correct spelling, proper presentation of (preferably) footnotes and bibliography.


Students’ most common problem comes from not writing a first draft early enough so that unclear points can be clarified, the introduction and conclusion reformulated, the argument perfected, and the text carefully edited for annoying typographical errors.


Everyone suffers from insufficient time to plan, research, think and write well. Remedy: start early.


OUTLINE


To help you address these problems more efficiently in the limited time you have available, you are asked to produce a three-page outline of your major paper at an early stage of its development. You should spend a couple of weeks doing some general research -- reading your own texts and looking through the books and articles from the course bibliography that appear most relevant to the subject that interests you. You should then produce an outline using the following format.


Page 1. A few paragraphs explaining what question you want to answer, what theory you hope to explore, and the general argument you want to develop.


Page 2. Your proposed point-form structure for the essay in the form of a mini-table of contents.


Page 3. A bibliography of the dozen or so main sources you expect to consult.


ASSIGNMENTS


1. Book Review 6 pages (1,500 words)


Analyse and compare the empirical and normative treatment of globalization by Michael Hart’s 50 Years of Canadian Tradecraft: Canada at the GATT 1947-1997 and Naomi Klein’s No Logo. Which one develops the more compelling argument and why?”


2. Essay: Suggested Topics 14 pages (3,500 words)


1. Assess the impact of the WTO on the Canadian state's capacity to resist or facilitate Americanization in one area of cultural activity (film, broadcasting, publishing, music, etc.)

  • Carr, Graham. “Trade Liberalization and the Political Economy of Culture: An International Perspective on the FTA,” Canadian-American Public Policy, no.6, June 1991.

  • Crean, Susan. “Reading Between the Lines,” in Cameron, 1988.

  • Lester, Malcolm. “Free Trade and Canadian Book Publishing,” in Gold, 1988.

  • Johnson, A.W. “Free Trade and Cultural Industries,” in Gold, 1988.

  • Magder, Ted. “Franchising the Candy Store: Split-Run Magazines and a New International Regime for Trade in Culture,” Canadian-American Public Policy, v.34, April 1998.

  • Schwanen, Daniel. “A Matter of Choice: Toward a More Creative Canadian Policy on Culture,” Commentary (C.D Howe Institute), no. 91, April 1997.

  • Silverman, Sheldon A. “Reflections on the Cultural Impact of a North American Free Trade

  • Agreement,” in Randall, 1992.

  • Thompson, John Herd. “Canada’s Quest for Cultural Sovereignty: Protection, Promotion and Popular Culture,” in Randall, 1992.



2. Evaluate the short- and long-term implications for Canada's political economy (including the impact on the federal and provincial governments' economic policy-making) of the provisions in the WTO and its dispute settlement decisions dealing with one of:


(a) services

  • Cohen, Marjorie. “The World Trade Organization and Post-Secondary Education: Implications for the Public System,” Hawke Institute Working Paper No. 1, 11 pages ms.

  • Myles, John. “Post-Industrialism and the Service Economy,” in Drache, 1991.

  • Saumier, André. “The Canada-U.S Free Trade Agreement and the Services Sector,” in Gold, 1988.

  • Smith, Murray G. “Services,” in Crispo, 1988.

  • Sinclair, Scott. [small new book] on GATS (Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Policy Alternatives, 2000).



(b) the environment

  • Schrybman, Steven. [new book]



(c) Another issue subject to approval


3. Now that the WTO has been created, does Canada need NAFTA?

Or/ Did Canada gain in the WTO what it had failed to achieve in CUFTA and NAFTA?

  • Drache, Daniel. “The Future of Trading Blocs,” in Cameron, 1993.

  • Hart, Michael. 50 Years of Canadian Tradecraft: Canada at the GATT 1947-1997.

  • Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raul. “NAFTA’s Next Steps,” in OECD, 1996.

  • Takatoshi, Ito and Krueger, Anne, eds. Regionalism versus Multilateral Trade Arrangements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

  • Mansfield, E.D and H.V Milner,eds. The Political Economy of Regionalism: New Directions in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

  • Ostry, Sylvia. The Post-Cold War Trading System: Who’s On First. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

  • Stone, Frank. “Relationship to the GATT,” in Crispo, 1988.



4. Analyze and assess the similarities between the arguments for and against the OECD’s

proposed Multilateral Agreement on Investment and the arguments about the investment effects of CUFTA and NAFTA.

  • Clarke, Tony and Maude Barlow. The Multilateral Agreement on Investment and the Threat to Canadian Sovereignty. Toronto: Stoddart, 1997.

  • Jackson, Andrew and Matthew Sanger, eds. Dismantling Democracy: The Multilateral Agreement on Investment and Its Impact. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1998.



5. Examine the role of a Canadian NGOs or ENGOs such as the Council of Canadians or

Greenpeace in helping construct a global civil society.

    • Ayres, Jeffrey M., Defying Conventional Wisdom: Political Movements and Popular Contention against North American Free Trade (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).

    • Many books by Maude Barlow, Tony Scot, Bruce Campbell

    • Helleiner, Eric, “New Voices in the Globalization Debate: Green Perspectives on the World Economy,” Richard Stubbs and Geoffrey R.D. Underhill, eds., Political Economy and the Changing Global Order (2nd ed., 2000), 60-9.

    • O’Brien, Robert, “The Agency of Labour in a Changing Global Order,” in Richard Stubbs and Geoffrey R.D. Underhill, eds., Political Economy and the Changing Global Order (2nd ed. 2000), 38-47.

    • Shrybman, Steven, The World Trade Organization: A Citizen’s Guide (Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1999), 59-72,79-92..


6. Was Canada’s success in promoting a human security agenda on issues such as the landmines treaty or the international criminal court the result of the role played by one man, Lloyd Axworthy, or has Canada a systemic comparative advantage in exercising such “soft power”?


  • Wolfgang Streeck, in Drache and Gertler, The New Era



7. How much room is there for local democracy in a global era? Do city politics matters more or less than they did pre-“globalization”?


  • Carrel, André (2001). Citizens’ Hall: Making Local Democracy Work. Toronto: Between the Lines.

  • Clarke, Susan and Gary Gaile (1997). “Local politics in a global era: thinking locally, acting globally,” Annals of the American Academy of political and Social Science 551 (May 1997): 28-43.

  • Clarkson, Stephen (2002). Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (especially Chapter 6, pages: 99-122).

  • Hambleton, Robin, Hank V. Savitch and Murray Stewart (eds). (2002). Globalism and Local Democracy: Challenge and Change in Europe and North America. Houndmills, U.K.: Palgrave.

  • Harvey, David (2000). “From Managerialism to entrepreneurialism: the transformation of urban governance in late capitalism,” in Miles, Malcolm et al. (eds.). The city cultures reader. London: Routledge: 50-59.

  • Peterson, Paul (1981). City Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Sancton, Andrew (2001). “Municipalities, Cities and Globalization: Implications for Canadian Federalism,” in Bakvis, Herman and Grace Skogstad (eds.). Canadian Federalism: Performance, Effectiveness and Legitimacy. Toronto: Oxford University Press, pp. 261-77.

  • Savitch, H. V. and Paul Kantor (2002). “Conclusion: Cities Need not be Leaves in the Wind,” in Cities in the International Marketplace: The Political Economy of Urban Development in North America and Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 346-59.

  • Shuman, Michael H. (1998). Going Local: Creating Self-Reliant Communities in a Global Age. New York: Free Press.

  • Sellers, Jeffrey M. (2002). Governing from Below: Urban Regimes and the Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Stren, Richard (2001). “Urban Governance and Politics in a Global Context: The Growing Importance of Localities,” in Yusuf, Shahid, Simon Evenett, and Weiping Wu (eds.). Facets of Globalization: International and Local Dimensions of Development. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, pp.. 147-170.

  • Williamson, Thad, David Imbroscio, and Gar Alperovitz (2002). Making a Place for Community: Local Democracy in a Global Era. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.



8. Did Canada's response to the Bush Doctrine prove that Ottawa has still retained considerable autonomy in its foreign policy capacity?


9. Another subject of your choice subject to our approval.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

To help you get going on your essay thinking I have listed a handful of introductory readings with each topic. They will not be enough to do a good essay. To help you find more references, a very large bibliography classified by the topic categories listed below is located on my web site whose address is indicated on the cover page of this syllabus. To facilitate your research, entries include the U of T library system call number.

The web site: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~clarkson/courses/pol341y_bib.html

Here is its table of contents.


Bibliography:

The Political Economy of North American Integration


General Information

1. Periodical Publications 1

2. Official Publication 5

3. Other Periodical Publications 6


Part I: Economics

1. Canada: Economic History and Theory 7

2. The United States: Economic History and Theory 8

3. Mexico: Economic History and Transition 9

4. Asia 9

5. Hegemony 11

a) Dependence and Imperialism 11

b) Hegemonic Decline 12

6. Economic Relations in North America 13

a) Canadian-American Economic Relations and the Tariff 13

b) Economic Treaty-Making and Trade Policy 15

7. North American Business Multinationalism 16

a) Transnational Corporations 16

b) Canadian Transnational Corporations 18

c) Foreign Investment in Canada, the United States, and Mexico 19

8. The Automobile Industry 22

a) The Auto Pact 22

b) The Canadian Automobile Industry and North American Integration 22

c) The Mexican Automobile Industry and North American Integration 23

9. Science and Technology 23

10. Primary Industries: Energy, Agriculture, and Natural Resources 25

11. The North and Native Peoples 28


Part II: Politics

1. Nationalism 29

2. Foreign and Defence Policies 31

3. Canadian-American Relations 38

4. Mexican-American Relations 40

5. Integration 41

a) North American Integration 41

b) Hemispheric Integration 44

c) European Integration 45

d) Global Integration 49

6. Globalization 56

7. International Political Economy 58


Part III: Society

1. Americanisation: Society and Values 63

2. Americanisation: Politics 65

3. Trade Unions and the Labour Market 65


Part IV: Culture

1. Cultural Policies 68

2. Education 70

3. Telecommunications and Media 71

4. The Film Industry 73


Part V: Free Trade

1. Free Trade Agreement Documents 74

2. Government Documents on Free Trade 74

3. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement 75

4. The North American Free Trade Agreement 79

5. Dispute Resolution 82

6. The Environment 85

a) North America 85

b) International Trade and Sustainability 87

7. Services, Telecommunications, and Intellectual Property .............. 88







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