Snapshot: Preface to visualizing the future




НазваниеSnapshot: Preface to visualizing the future
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1980s


1980

  • Vol Libre - Loren Carpenter of Boeing

  • Apollo Computer founded - introduces the 68000 based workstation

  • Turner Whitted of Bell Labs publishes ray tracing

  • First NCGA conference - Arlington, Virginia - Steven Levine, President

  • Donkey Kong introduced by Nintendo (Mario named in US release)

  • IBM licenses DOS from Microsoft

  • Apple Computer IPO - 4.6M shares @ $22

  • Aurora Systems founded by Richard Shoup

  • SIGGRAPH Core standard reorganized as ANSC X3H3.1 (PHIGS)

  • EUROGRAPHICS (The European Association for Computer Graphics) formed; first conference at Geneva

  • Disney contracts Abel, III, MAGI and DE for computer graphics for the movie Tron

  • MIT Media Lab founded by Nicholas Negroponte

  • Pacific Data Images founded by Carl Rosendahl

  • Computer hard disk drive - Seagate

  • Hanna-Barbera, largest producer of animation in the U.S.,begins implementation of computer automation of animation process

  • Sony Walkman

  • Quantel introduces Paintbox


1981

  • Sony Betacam

  • Tom DeFanti expands GRASS to Bally Z-50 machine (ZGRASS) - University Illinois - Chicago Circle

  • IBM introduces the first IBM PC (16 bit 8088 chip)

  • DEC introduces VT100

  • IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications published by IEEE Computer Society and NCGA

  • Ampex ADO® system introduced; garners an Emmy award in 1983

  • Digital Productions formed by Whitney and Demos

  • Cranston/Csuri Productions founded by Chuck Csuri, Robert Kanuth and Jim Kristoff.

  • R/Greenberg opens CGI division (Chris Woods)

  • MITI Fifth Generation Computer Project announced by Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry

  • REYES renderer written at LucasFilm

  • Penguin Software (now Polarware) introduces the Complete Graphics System

  • Looker includes the virtual human character Cindy (Susan Dey) - 1st filkm with shaded graphics(III)

  • Adam Powers, the Juggler produced by III

  • Carla’s Island - Nelson Max


1982

  • The Last Starfighter (Digital Productions) begins production

  • Tron released

  • The Geometry Engine (Clark)

  • Jim Clark founds Silicon Graphics Inc.

  • Sun Microsystems founded (sun := Stanford University Network)

  • Alain Fournier, Don Fussell, Loren Carpenter, Computer Rendering of Stochastic Models

  • Skeleton Animation System (SAS) developed at CGRG at Ohio State (Dave Zeltzer)

  • Sony still frame video camera (Mavica)

  • ACM begins publication of TOG (Transactions on Graphics)

  • Tom Brighham develops morphing (NYIT)

  • Adobe founded by John Warnock

  • Toyo Links established in Tokyo

  • Quantel Mirage

  • Symbolics Graphics Division founded

  • EPCOT Center opens

  • Atari develops the data glove.

  • Where the Wild Things Are test (MAGI) - digital compositing used to combine CG backgrounds and traditional animation

  • AutoDesk founded; AutoCAD released

  • ILM computer graphics division develops “Genesis effect” for Star Trek II - The Wrath of Khan


1983

  • Particle systems (Reeves - Lucasfilm)

  • SGI IRIS 1000 graphics workstation

  • Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) introduced by Tiller (Note: this date is somewhat misleading, since the concept built on the work of Vesprille (1975), Riesenfeld (1973), Knapp (1979), Coons (1968) and Forrest (1972))

  • Road to Point Reyes - Lucasfilm

  • The Last Starfighter released

  • Jim Blinn receives the first (1983) ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Ivan Sutherland receives the first (1983) ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • Steve Dompier’s “Micro Illustrator”

  • UNIX System V

  • Utah Raster Toolkit introduced (Spencer Thomas)

  • Autodesk introduces first PC-based CAD software

  • Alias founded in Toronto by Stephen Bingham, Nigel McGrath, Susan McKenna and David Springer

  • Mip-mapping introduced for efficient texture mapping (Williams - NYIT)

  • Sony and Philips introduce 1st CD player


1984

  • Robert Able & Associates produces the 1st computer generated 30 second commercial used for Super Bowl (Brilliance)

  • Wavefront Technologies is the first commercially available 3D software package (founded by Mark Sylvester, Larry Barels and Bill Kovacs )

  • Thomson Digital Image (TDI) founded

  • Jim Clark receives the 1984 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • International Resource Development report predicts the extinction of the keyboard in the next decade

  • A-buffer (or alpha-buffer) introduced by Carpenter of Lucasfilm

  • Distributed ray tracing introduced by Lucasfilm

  • Cook shading model (Lucasfilm)

  • 14.5 minute computer generated IMAX film (The Magic Egg) shown at SIGGRAPH 84 - 18 teams; 20 segments

  • Universal Studios opens CG department

  • First Macintosh computer is sold; introduced with Clio award winning commercial 1984 during Super Bowl

  • McDonnel Douglas introduces the Polhemus 3Space digitizer and body Tracker

  • The Cornell Box invented by Cohen

  • Radiosity born - Cornell University

  • John Lasseter joins Lucasfilm

  • Motorola 68020

  • Digital Productions (Whitney and Demos) get Academy Technical Achievement Award for CGI simulation of motion picture photography

  • Lucasfilms introduces motion blur effects

  • Porter and Duff compositing algorithm (Lucasfilm)

  • The Adventures of Andre and Wally B. (Lucasfilm)


1985

  • Commodore launches the new Amiga

  • Loren Carpenter receives the 1985 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Pierre Bezier receives the 1985 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • Sogitec founded (Xavier Nicolas)

  • Max Headroom - computer-mediated live action figure

  • Judson Rosebush Co. started

  • Abel Image Research takes Robert Abel & Associates to shaded graphics business

  • Tony de Peltrie airs

  • Stereo TV

  • Biosensor (Toyo Links)

  • Cray 2

  • GKS standard

  • Quantel Harry is first non-linear editor

  • X10R1 format

  • CGW predicts 90s graphics workstation

  • Targa 16 board (AT&T) goes to market

  • Pixar Image Computer goes to market

  • NeXT Incorporated founded by Steve Jobs and five former Apple senior managers

  • Perlin’s noise functions introduced (Ref: Perlin, Ken. An Image Synthesizer. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH 85 Proceedings) 19(3) July 1985, p. 287-296.)

  • CD-ROMs High Sierra (ISO9660) standard introduced

  • PostScript (Adobe - John Warnock)

  • PODA creature animation system developed by Girard and Maciejewski at Ohio State

  • Boss Films founded by Richard Edlund

  • MIT Media Lab moves to new home

  • Young Sherlock Holmes stained glass knight (Lucasfilm), 2010 (Boss Films)and Looker (DP)


1986

  • The Great Mouse Detective was the first animated film to be aided by CG.

  • Pixar purchased from Lucasfilm by Steve Jobs

  • X-Window System (MIT Project Athena)

  • Trancept Systems founded by Nick England and Mary Whitton - graphics board for Sun

  • CGI group starts at Industrial Light and Magic (Doug Kay and George Joblove)

  • Softimage founded by Daniel Langlois in Montreal

  • Sun Microsystems goes public

  • mental images founded in Berlin

  • Computer Associates acquires ISSCO

  • Microsoft goes public (IPO raises $61M; share prices go from $21 to $28)

  • Apple IIgs introduced

  • Silicon Graphics Incorporated IPO

  • SGI IRIS 3000 (MIPS processor)

  • Turner Whitted receives the 1986 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Waldo project introduces motion capture (Digital Productions)

  • Kajiya’s Rendering Equation

  • Omnibus assumes Robert Able & Associates and Digital Productions in hostile takeovers by John Pennie and investors

  • Whitney/Demos Productions founded

  • Intel introduces 82786 graphics coprocessor chip; Texas Instruments introduces TMS34010 Graphics System Processor

  • NSFNet

  • Luxo Jr. nominated for Oscar (first CGI film to be nominated - Pixar)

  • TIFF (Aldus)

  • Scitex founded for prepress


1987

  • GIF format (CompuServe), JPEG format (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

  • Willow (Lucasfilm) popularizes morphing

  • Max Headroom debuts

  • LucasArts formed

  • Adobe Illustrator

  • CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) standard

  • Side Effects Software established

  • VGA (Video Graphivs Array) invented by IBM

  • Windows 2.0, MS/OS 2, Excel

  • Sun 4 SPARC workstation

  • Reynolds’ flocking behavior algorithm (Symbolics)

  • Stanley and Stella in: Breaking the Ice

  • Rob Cook receives the 1987 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Don Greenberg receives the 1987 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • Advanced Computing Center for the Arts and Design (ACCAD) founded at Ohio State (formerly CGRG)

  • Omnibus closes, eliminating DP and Abel

  • Cranston/Csuri Productions closes

  • Marching Cubes algorithm (Lorensen and Cline - GE)

  • Metrolight Studios, RezN8 Productions, Kleiser/Walczak Construction Co., DeGraf/Wahrman founded


1988

  • PICT format (Apple)

  • Apple sues Microsoft for copyright infringement for GUI

  • GKS, PHIGS standards

  • Prime Computer acquires Computervision

  • Solid Texturing introduced (Perlin Noise Functions) (Ref: K. Perlin. An image synthesizer. Computer Graphics, 19(3):287--296, 1985)

  • Al Barr receives the 1988 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Internet Worm infects servers all over the world

  • Gary Demos founds DemoGraFX

  • Open Software Foundation (OSF)

  • NeXT Cube - For $6500, it features: 25-MHz 68030 processor and 68882 math coprocessor, 8 MB RAM, 17-inch monochrome monitor, 256 MB read/write magneto-optical drive, and object-oriented NeXTSTEP operating system.

  • JCGL purchased by NAMCO

  • US Patent awarded to Pixar for RenderMan

  • Who Framed Roger Rabbit mixes live action and animation

  • Willow (Lucasfilm) uses morphing in a feature film

  • D-2 composite video format introduced by Ampex

  • Disney and Pixar develop CAPS (Computer Animation Paint System) (academy technical award in 1992)

  • PIXAR wins Academy award for Tin Toy


1989

  • John Warnock receives the 1989 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • David Evans receives the 1989 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • 8MM videotape introduced by Sony

  • Adobe Photoshop

  • PHIGS+

  • OSF Motif V1.0 released

  • Intel 80486

  • Mental ray renderer released (integrated with Wavefront (1992), Softimage (1993), Maya (2002)) - awarded AMPAS Technical Achievment Award in 2002

  • HP buys Apollo

  • Computervision acquires Calma

  • ILM creates the Abyss

  • PIXAR starts marketing RenderMan


1990s


1990

  • Microsoft ships Windows 3.0

  • NewTek Video Toaster

  • First edition of Graphics Gems published by Academic Press (Andrew Glassner, editor)

  • US Patent awarded to Pixar for point sampling

  • Richard Shoup and Alvy Ray Smith receive the 1990 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • 3D Studio (AutoDesk)

  • Windows 3.0

  • IBM RS6000 workstation

  • John Wiley & Sons begins publishing The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation


1991

  • World Wide Web (CERN)

  • Jim Kajiya receives the 1991 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Andy van Dam receives the 1991 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • Disney and PIXAR agree to create 3 films, including the first computer animated full-length film Toy Story

  • ILM produces Terminator 2

  • The Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences Special Achievement Award for Visual Effects for Total Recall (Metrolight Studios)

  • Beauty and the Beast (Disney)

  • Symbolics Graphics Division sold to Nichimen Graphics

  • Motorola 68040

  • Kodak PhotoCD

  • JPEG/MPEG

  • SunSoft - software subsidiary of Sun Microsystems

  • SGI Indigo workstation

  • Disney (Randy Cartwright, David Coons, Lem Davis, Tom Hahn, Jim Houston, Mark Kimball, Dylan Kohler, Peter Nye, Mike Shaantzis, David Wolf) get Academy Scientific and Engineering Award for CAPS production system.

  • Ray Feeney, Richard Keeney and Richard Lundell get Academy Scientific and Engineering Award for the Solitair Film Recorder .


1992

  • QuickTime introduced (Apple)

  • Henry Fuchs receives the 1992 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Softimage goes public

  • SGI acquires MIPS

  • OpenGL (SGI) released

  • University of Illinois debuts CAVE virtual reality technology at SIGGRAPH 92

  • Lawnmower Man (Effects by Angel Studios and Xaos)

  • US Patent awarded to Pixar for Non-Affine Image Warping

  • VIFX uses flock animation with Prism software to create large groups of animals

  • Tom Brigham and Doug Smythe and ILM get Academy Technical Achievement Award for morphing technique (MORF)

  • Loren Carpenter, Rob Cook, Ed Catmull, Tom Porter, Pat Hanrahan, Tony Apodaca and Darwyn Peachey get the Academy Scientific and Engineering Award for Renderman

  • Novell buys UNIX from AT&T - $150M (transfers UNIX trademark to X/Open standards organization in 1993)


1993

  • February (premiere) issue of DV magazine advises “[to be able to do digital video, get] the most souped up system you can get your hands on. A fast processor (68040 on Amiga or Mac, 80486 on PC) and lots of RAM (8-64 MB) are in order. So is a large hard drive (200 MB - 1 GB) if you want to take on serious production.”

  • Disk array and compression codecs allow for nonlinear editing and full motion video

  • Academy Scientific and Engineering Award is given to Les Dittart, Mark Leather, Doug Smythe and George Joblove for the development of the Digital Motion Picture Retouching System (rig removal and dirt cleanup)

  • GPS system

  • Adobe Acrobat

  • Pat Hanrahan receives the 1993 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Ed Catmull receives the 1993 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • Jurassic Park - ILM and Steven Spielberg

  • Wavefront buys TDI

  • Wired Magazine launched

  • Windows NT

  • Babylon 5 uses Amiga and Macintosh generated CGI

  • Mosaic browser (NCSA)

  • Xaos Tools Pandemonium image processor for the SGI

  • Doom released

  • Myst released (Cyan) - in 1998, it became the top selling game of all time

  • Digital Domain founded by James Cameron, Stan Winston, and Scott Ross



1994

  • SGI and Nintendo team up for Nintendo 64 product

  • ILM earns Oscar for special effects for Jurassic Park

  • Microsoft acquires Softimage - announces Windows 95

  • Iomaga Zip drive

  • Linux 1.0 released

  • Reboot (CG cartoon) uses 3D characters (Mainframe Entertainment)

  • Direct Broadcast Satellite service

  • SGI founder Jim Clark resigns, forms Mosaic Communications

  • Netscape browser

  • VRML introduced (Mark Pesce)

  • HDTV standard for transmission adopted in US

  • The AMPAS Academy Award of Merit goes to Peter and Paul Vlahos for Ultimatte electronic blue screen compositing.

  • Academy Scientific and Engineering Awards go to Gary Demos and Dan Cameron of III, David Difrancesco and Gary Starkweather of Pixar, and Scott Squires of ILM for pioneering work in film scanning; Lincoln Hu and Mike Mackenzie of ILM and Glenn Kennel and Mike Davis of Kodak for development work on a linear array CCD film input scanning system; and Ray Feeney, Will McCown and Bill Bishop of RFX and Les Dittert of PDI for their development work on an area array CCD film input scanning system

  • Academy Technical Achievement Awards go to Mike Boudry of the Computer Film Company for pioneering work in film input scanning; and David and Lloyd Addleman for their inventions in digital image compositing.

  • US Patent awarded to Pixar for creating, manipulating and displaying images

  • Facetracker used by SimmGraphics to animate facial expressions for Super Mario

  • Ken Torrance receives the 1994 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award


1995

  • Toy Story (Pixar)

  • DreamWorks SKG founded (Steven Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen)

  • DreamWorks SKG and Microsoft form DreamWorks Interactive

  • Internet Explorer 2.0

  • amazon.com established

  • Academy Scientific and Engineering Award goes to Alvy Ray Smith, Ed Catmull, Tom Porter and Tom Duff (Pixar) for pioneering inventions in digital compositing.

  • Academy Technical Achievement Awards go to Gary Demos, David Ruhoff, Dan Cameron and Michelle Feraud for creation of the Digital Productions digital film compositing system; the Computer Film Company for the CFC Digital Film Compositor; and Doug Smythe, Lincoln Hu,, Doug Kay and ILM for the ILM digital film compositing system.

  • US Patent awarded to Pixar for image volume data

  • John Lasseter of Pixar gets Academy Award for development and application of techniques used in Toy Story

  • Kurt Akeley (SGI) receives the 1995 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Jose Encarnacao receives the 1995 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • Wavefront and Alias merge

  • Pixar goes public with 6.9M share offering

  • Netscape IPO ($58.25/share)

  • Sony Playstation introduced

  • Sun introduces Java

  • Internet 2 unveiled

  • MP3 standard format developed

  • MSNBC debuts


1996

  • John Whitney passes away (1922-1996)

  • Quake hits game market

  • Marc Levoy receives the 1996 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Academy Scientific and Engineering Awards go to Jim Hourihan for particle systems in Dynamation; Brian Knep, Zoran Kacic-Alesic and Tom Williams of ILM for the Viewpaint 3D Paint system; and Bill Reeves for the original development and concept of particle systems.

  • Academy Technical Achievement Awards go to Jim Kajiya of Cal Tech and Tim Kay for pioneering work in the creation of CGI hair and fur; Nestor Burtnyk and Marceli Wein of the National Research Center of Canada for computer assisted key framing for animation; Garth Dickie for shape-driven warping and morphing in the Elastic Reality Special Effects System; Jeff Yost, Christian Rouet, David Benson and Florian Kainz for the development of a system to create and control hair and fur in CGI; Brian Knep, Craig Hayes, Rick Sayre and Tom Williams of ILM for the creation and development of the direct input device; and Ken Perlin for the development of the Perlin Noise technique.

  • Colossal Pictures files Chapter 11 bankruptcy

  • Yahoo! IPO ($43/share)

  • eBay launched

  • SGI buys Cray Research - $764M

  • SGI introduces O2 workstation

  • Disney purchases DreamQuest Images; Dreamworks buys interest in PDI

  • PalmPilot introduced

  • Windows 95 ships


1997

  • VIFX joins with Blue Sky

  • Bryce 3D

  • Riven

  • DVD technology unveiled

  • SGI Octane

  • IBM Deep Blue wins at chess

  • Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz receives the 1997 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • James Foley receives the 1997 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • Academy Scientific and Engineering Awards go to Bill Kovacs and Roy Hall for the engineering efforts that result in the Wavefront Advanced Visualizer software; Richard Shoup, Alvy Ray Smith and Tom Porter for the development of digital paint systems; John Gibson, Rob Kreiger, Milan Novacek, Glen Ozymok, and Dave Springer for the development of geometric modeling in Alias PowerAnimator; Craig Reynolds for pioneering contributions to 3D computer animation; Eben Ostby, Bill Reeves, Sam Leffler and Tom Duff for the Pixar Marionette animation system; and Dominique Boisvert, Rejean Gagne, Daniel Langlois, and Richard Lapierriere for the Actor component of the Softimage animation system.

  • Academy Technical Achievement Awards go to Jim Keating, Michael Wahrman and Richard Hollander for the Wavefront Advanced Visualizer software development; Greg Hermanovic, Kim Davidson, Mark Elendt and Paul Breslin for the development of PRISMS software; and Richard Chuang, Glenn Entis and Carl Rosendahl for the PDI animation system.

  • Pixar interactive division dissolved

  • Microsoft sued by Justice Dep’t

  • Apple Computer acquires NexT


1998

  • Titanic becomes the largest grossing motion picture in US history

  • Alias Maya released

  • Quicktime 3.0 released

  • Google launched

  • Boss Films closes

  • Riven released

  • Sun gets back into graphics with the Darwin Ultra series of workstations

  • MPEG-4 standard announced

  • XML standard

  • CGI cartoon Voltron produced in US

  • SGI and Microsoft form partnership to develop APIs; SGI will develop NT-based PCs

  • Geri’s Game (Pixar) - awarded the Academy Award for Animated Short

  • Colossal Pictures emerges from Chapter 11 bankruptcy

  • Avid purchases SoftImage from Microsoft

  • The SIGGRAPH Conference celebrates its 25th Anniversary in Orlando

  • Jim Blinn delivers the SIGGRAPH 98 Keynote address

  • Michael Cohen (Microsoft) receives the 1998 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Maxine Brown receives the first SIGGRAPH Outstanding Service Award

  • Academy Technical Achievement Awards go to Doug Roble (Digital Domain) and Thad Beier (Hammerhead) for Tracking Technology; Nick Foster (PDI) for water simulation systems; David Difrancesco, Bala Manian and Tom Noggle for laser film recording and Cary Philips for the ILM Caricature animation system

  • Academy Scientific and Engineering Awards go to Gary Tregaski for the primary design and Dominique Boisvert, Philipe Panzini and Andre Leblanc for the development of the Flame and Inferno software; Roy Ference, Steve Schmidt, Richard Federico, Rockwell Yarid and Mike McCrackan for the design and development of the Kodak Lightning laser recorder.


1999

  • The graphics world loses David Evans at age 74

  • Bunny (Chris Wedge - Blue Sky) - awarded the Academy Award for Animated Short

  • Star wars Episode One - The Phantom Menace uses 66 digital characters composited with live action

  • VIFX and Rhythm & Hues merge

  • The graphics world loses Pierre Bezier

  • Silicon Graphics Incorporated changes its name to SGI

  • Fred Brooks receives the Turing Award

  • NewTek ports Toaster to NT

  • Melissa computer virus

  • SIGGRAPH celebrates its 30th Anniversary as an organization at SIGGRAPH 99 in Los Angeles

  • Tony DeRose (Pixar) receives the 1999 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

  • Jim Blinn receives the 1999 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

  • SGI cuts Cray, NT production and High end graphic design

  • Side Effects Houdini ported to Linux

  • Napster created

  • Toy Story 2 produced by Pixar

  • Stuart Little produced by Sony Pictures Imageworks

  • Fantasia 2000 produced by Disney

  • Disney’s DreamQuest and Feature Animation join to form The Secret Lab (TSL)

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