Information Technology in a Global Society




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НазваниеInformation Technology in a Global Society
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International Baccalaureate


Information Technology in a Global Society


Portfolio Number One


The implications of humanoid robots as laborsaving devices are more ominous than most people realize

Mike Adams

Natural News Editor

08/22/2008


Area of Impact:

Business/Employment


02/13/2009


Myles Thomas

Curtis High School


News Item Extract:

Artificial Intelligence has become a major topic of research in society today. The manufacturing of robots with human like qualities seems to bring positive affects on human life. Such as they can clean your house, secure and watch your property and even do little errands that humans loathe nowadays. However, a major problem suggested about the idea of robots with Artificial Intelligence is that they will be in competition with human jobs and cause a major deduction in available jobs for unskilled workers and the general public. The Japanese have put lots of experimenting with robots and even agencies such as the NSA can benefit from Robots by using them for spying purposes.


The Implications of human robots as laborsaving devices are more ominous than most people realize, Mike Adams, Natural News [Aug 22, 2008]


Criterion A:

The idea of using Artificial Intelligence with robots is of importance to researchers in that field. According to researchers, the idea of super-human intelligence can be used to provide robots with unskilled human jobs such as flipping burgers and cleaning your house (Adams 2008). As well Artificial Intelligence can be used in factories and the workplace to minimize the mistakes made by humans in certain jobs such as filing papers or becoming a security guard. Many Social and Ethical issues arrive however, from the use of Artificial Intelligence. One major example is the issue of people being capable of programming robots to do dangerous activities such as murder or harm to another human (Bostrom 2008). As well due to the lack of reasoning in which humans have robots can make mistakes in extreme situations because they do not have the moral rights and wrongs for different situations perfectly (Bostrom 2008).


In addition, other social and ethical issue that must be addressed about Artificial Intelligence is the new competition they will bring to the workforce. If robots are created to be cashiers and work in stores and different companies this will cause the laying-off of millions of Americans in which work in these fields. This is a problem in which must be addressed because it will cause the issue of poverty to increase in many neighborhoods (Adams 2008). This is explained in the article by Mike Adams who explains in his news article the benefits of using Artificial Intelligence.


CRITERION A

0

1

2

3

4

0 = Level 1 is not achieved or the news item is in the same area of impact as a previous piece of work.

1 = The student identifies an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system.

2 = The student outlines an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system.

3 = The student describes an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system.

4 = The student explains an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system.


















Criterion B:

The issue of Artificial Intelligence can be dated back to the 1950s where researchers investigated the idea of “man vs. machine.” In addition, a man by the name of McCarthy invented a processing system such as LISt processing (LISP) in which is the first and until this day most used system when working on different Artificial Intelligence projects (Coppin 2004). Throughout its history companies such as IBM and Microsoft used Artificial Intelligence in their computer development and research ideas such as speech recognition (Coppin 2004).


Slowly the ideas of Artificial Intelligence have been incorporated in to many different IT projects such as the development of computers and portable devices using speech recognition. As well using AI in battlegrounds and war has been something that is being studied to avoid a major loss of life during intense warfare (Waltz 2008).


Overall from the 1950s to now not much advancement have been made to cause a major breakthrough for Artificial Intelligence technology (Coppin 2004). Though many different aspects of AI such as intercoms and telephones are nowadays having machines speaking to you and instructing you instead of human beings seems to be the norm in public places (Waltz 2008). As well a major issue researchers have always been trying to fix is the limitations of robots to avoid malfunctions that might cause death or accidents towards human beings (Coppin 2004). With researchers in top universities such as MIT and Stanford researching Artificial Intelligence the future looks brighter than the history of its development in society.


CRITERION B

0

1

2

3

4

5

0 = The student has not achieved level 1.

1 = The student has only stated the IT background. This type of response will be characterized by lists with no further development.

2 = The student provides a list with limited development. This may mean that only some of the major components are described or the description of the major components is superficial.

3 = The student provides a full description for all of the major components, but there may be omissions of some of the minor components. At this level students should be using appropriate IT terminology. The description does not have to be exhaustive. The determinant of the mark will be the breadth or depth of the description.

4 = The student has explained the operation of the major components of the IT system. The student must explain the concepts linked to the issue in the news item.

5 = The student has demonstrated evidence of the analysis of the IT background in the context of the issue rather than just explained it.





















Criterion C:

The impact that Artificial Intelligence will have on our society is enormous. For example, many large corporations and businesses will use robots to do sales associate jobs and cashiers. As well the need for custodians and janitors will decrease (Adams 2008). In addition, since now we will have the aid from robots mistakes made by human error will be diminished and people can have more time to do other activities since robots will take over laborious work (Adams 2008).


A second major impact will be in areas of war efforts and the military. Countries will start to develop armies made out of artificial intelligence members. As well robots can be trained to do different military tasks such as flying a plane or shooting on a battlefield during war (Waltz 2008).


As well many risks will accompany the impact of using Artificial Intelligence in robots. For example, hackers will be able to program them and cause harm to humans in programming robots. As well, this will cause humans in our society to become more lazy and reliant on machines (Adams 2008).


Although all these changes will cause drastic changes within our societies view on machines we will slowly become adapted to a society where humans will be able to have robots in their jobs and houses as personal secretaries for errands (Adams 2008).


CRITERION C

0

1

2

3

4

5

0 = Level 1 is not achieved

1 = The student outlines the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem.

2 = The student describes the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem.

3 = The student explains the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem.

4 = The student analysis (citing supporting research) the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem.

5 = The student evaluates (citing supporting research) the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem.




















Criterion D:


In the future there are many obstacles in which we must overcome to make the new technology of Artificial Intelligence to be efficient and useful. Firstly a method must be devised in which to make the robots or high- intelligence machines to not surpass the common sense and intelligence of humans. We must also make sure that in the end we have the upper-hand control on these machines. For example, we must make a built in emergency shut-down feature for the robots in situations that may get out of hand.


As well if we want to promote Artificial Intelligence to the public we must device a method in which to make the machines effective. For example, we can control the robots actions using a remote control. As well the machines must be programmed to not be harmful to humans and they must have total obedience to the humans in which control them. If these solutions are carried out we are one step closer to new advanced technology in which will change our society we live in today. We will have more machine labor safely carrying out work and put less stress on the general public.


CRITERION D

0

1

2

3

4

5

0 = If the problem has not been identified in criterion C or D.

1 = The student has only listed the “solution”; a single point with no further development.

2 = The student provides a single point to state the “solution” with limited description of it.

3 = The student provides a full description of the solution that covers the key aspects of it. The description does not have to be exhaustive. The determinant of the mark will be the breadth or depth of the description.

4 = The student will have explained how the “solution” has solved the problem but does not comment on its effectiveness in solving the problem.

5 = The student will have evaluated the “solution” and how it solves the problem, partially solves the problem, or raises further issues.





















Criterion E:

Bibliography


  1. Coppin , Ben . Artificial Intelligence Illuminated. 2. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2004




  1. Waltz, David. "Artificial Intelligence:ealizing the Ultimate Promises of Computing." Bringing Common Sense, Expert Knowledge, and Superhuman Reasoning to Computers. 1996. Oxford University. 15 Feb 2009 http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/ai.html.




  1. Bostrom , Nick. "Artificial Intelligence." Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence. 2000. 15 Feb 2009 .




  1. Adams , Mike . "The Implications of Humanoid Robots as laborsaving devices are more ominous than most people realize." Natural News 1(2008): 1.

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