Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов дневного обучения всех специальностей




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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ТРАНСПОРТА»

Кафедра иностранных языков


Т. С. ЯРОШ, С. А. НАПРЕЕВА


ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИЯ

В СОВРЕМЕННОМ МИРЕ


Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку

для студентов дневного обучения всех специальностей


Гомель 2011

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ТРАНСПОРТА»

Кафедра иностранных языков


Т. С. ЯРОШ, С. А. НАПРЕЕВА


ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИЯ

В СОВРЕМЕННОМ МИРЕ


Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку

для студентов дневного обучения всех специальностей


Под редакцией Н. А. Гришанковой


Одобрено методической комиссией

гуманитарно-экономического факультета


Гомель 2011


U N I T 1


A COUNTRY ACROSS THE CHANNEL


T e x t 1


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The Land and the People


Vocabulary:


the United Kingdom – Объединённое Королевство

the Union Jack – государственный флаг

the Strait of Dover – Па-Де-Кале

the English Channel – Ла-Манш

to conquer – завоёвывать

to invade – оккупировать, вторгаться

to retain – удерживать

to rule – управлять

to favour – благоприятствовать

to prosper – процветать

to consume – потреблять

descendant – потомок

patron – покровитель

commerce – коммерция, торговля

crop – урожай

fodder grasses – кормовые травы

coal mines – угольные шахты

barley – ячмень

oats – овёс

living standards – уровень жизни

machinery – техника

densely populated – густо населённый

former – прежний, бывший

vital – жизненно важный

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of four formerly independent countries. They are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, the capital of Wales is Cardiff, the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast and the capital of England is London. The country is surrounded by seas on all sides and is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The British Isles consist of more than 5,000 small islands. The biggest of them is Great Britain. The geographical position favoured the development of the United Kingdom as a great sea country. It's famous for great geographical discoveries and glorious victories of the British fleet.

The country occupies an area of over 244,000 sq km. It is a densely populated country. The population is about 58 million people. About 80 per cent of the population live in town.

The scenery and the landscape of Great Britain are very diverse. There you can find flat valleys and high land, forests and lake areas. The highest mountain peaks are Ben Nevis in Scotland and Snowdon in Wales. The rivers in Great Britain are not long. The Thames is the most important waterway in the country, though the longest river is the Severn. The Mersy is another long river which once played an important role in British trade and commerce.

As for the climate of Great Britain it is moderate and mild due to the influence of the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. The summers are usually cooler than on the continent. There is a lot of rain in autumn and winter. The weather in Britain is very changeable and the English even say they have no climate but only weather which through centuries has become a favourite topic of conversation with the British.

English is not the only language which people use in the UK. English is the official language. But some people speak Gaelic in western Scotland, Welsh – in parts of northern and central Wales.

Foreigners usually call the British people «English», but the Scots, the Irish and the Welsh do not consider themselves to be English. The English are Anglo-Saxon in origin, but the Welsh, the Scots and the Irish are not. They are Celts; descendants of the ancient people who crossed over from Europe to the British Isles centuries before the Roman invasion. It was these people whom the Germanic Angles and Saxons conquered in the 5th ' and 6th centuries A.D.

The flag of the UK, known as the Union Jack, is made up of three crosses on a blue ground. The blue colour refers to the seas surrounding Britain. The upright red cross is the cross of St. George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.


The United Kingdom is a highly developed industrial state. Historically British industry started chiefly as heavy and textile industry. There are hardly any coal mines in Britain today, but textile industry is still prospering. The United Kingdom produces and exports iron and steel products, machinery and electronics. The biggest industrial centres are London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester.

The British say that they grow most of the food they consume, but of course some of the food like coffee, tea, fruit and wine is imported. The chief agricultural crops are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and fodder grasses.

The UK is a prosperous state with high living standards. But today Britain is no longer the leading industrial nation in the world, which it used to be in the 19th century. A pioneer of the Industrial Revolution, the former «world workshop» of the 19th century, Britain today retains a respectable place among the most advanced countries of the world. She is the fifth in terms of the size of the GDP (gross domestic product). Being a member of the European Union (EU), more than a half of all Britain’s trade is maintained with the other co-member states. The second place in Britain’s foreign trade is taken by the USA, the Commonwealth countries come third. Britain has an open economy, in which international trade plays a vital role in the life of the country.


1 Complete the sentences using the information from the text.

1 The main countries of the UK are …

2 From the European continent the British Isles are separated by …

3 The advantages of the geographical position of Great Britain favoured…

4 The UK is famous for …

5 Great Britain is a country of great diversity because…

6 The climate of Great Britain is generally mind and temperate because…

7 The official language of the UK is English but…

8 If is difficult to find a typical Briton because…

9 The flag of the United Kingdom is made up of…

10 Britain has made important advances in such industries as …

11 The biggest industrial centres are…

12 British agriculture is efficient because…

13 The UK is a prosperous state with …

14 A pioneer of the Industrial Revolution Britain today retains…

15 Britain has an open economy, in which…


2 Match the words with their definitions:


1) kingdom

  1. the buying, selling and distribution of goods.

2) capital


3) discovery

  1. the amount of grain, grass, vegeta-bles, fruit, etc. grown and gathered in one season

  2. a person who goes first or does something first

4) scenery

  1. a country ruled by a king or queen

5) commerce

  1. the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time

6) conquer

  1. overcome by force

7) patron

  1. one who is descended from another as ancestor

8) crop

  1. keep, preserve, continue to have

9) pioneer

  1. the chief city of a country

10) retain

  1. necessary to the existence of something, essential

11) vital

  1. getting knowledge of something for the first time

12) weather

  1. a person who encourages and helps another in his work

13) flag

m) a piece of cloth, usually oblong or square, used as a sign or symbol

14) descendant

  1. the general appearance of a district

15) former

o) belong to the past or to an earlier period


3 Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the text.

1 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consist of four … countries.

2 … is the capital of Northern Ireland.

3 The country is … by seas on all sides.

4 The biggest of the British Isles is …

5 Britain is famous for glorious victories of the …

6 The highest mountain peaks are … in Scotland and … in Wales.

7 The Thames is the most important … in the country.

8 The longest river is …

9 The climate of Great Britain is in fluenced by the warm waters of the …

10 The weather in Britain is very …

11 The Welsh , the Scots and the Irish are … in origin.

12 The upright red cross is the cross of … , the patron saint of …

13 The UK produces and exports … and … products.

14 The UK is the fifth in terms of the size of …

15 Britain is a member of the …

16 The third place in Britain’s foreign trade is taken by the …

17 International trade plays a … in the life of the UK.


4 Are the statements true or false? Correct the false statements.

1 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles.

2 Northern Ireland is situated in the southern part of Ireland.

3 The UK is twice lager than France or Spain.

4 London is situated on the Thames which is the busiest waterway in the country.

5 Scotland is the nearest part to the European continent.

6 English is the only language spoken in the UK.

7 The English are Celts in origin.

8 Britain is still one of the leading industrial and trading countries in the world.

9 The British grow wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and fodder grasses.

10 Rainfall is fairly well distributed throughout the year.

11 Living standards are rather high in Great Britain.

12 The flag of the UK is made up of stars and stripes.


5 Prepare for the discussion of the questions on the topic “Great Britain”

1 What is the official name of Britain?

2 Where is it situated?

3 What in your opinion are advantages and disadvantages of the geographical position of Britain?

4 What is the territory and the population of the UK?

5 What is the surface of the country?

6 Why is weather a frequent topic of conversation in Great Britain?

7 What is the official language of the UK?

8 Do all British people speak English?

9 Why is it annoying to many British people when foreigners say “England” and “English” when they mean “Britain” and “British”?

10 What is the flag of the UK?

11 Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country, isn’t it?

12 What industrial cities are there in Britain?

13 What branches of farming does the climate of the British Isles favour?

14 What is the present position of the UK in the contemporary world?

T e x t 2


The British Monarchy Today


The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch (a king or a queen) as its Head of State. The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament. The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely. Eve­rything today is done in the Queen's name. It is her govern­ment, her armed forces, her law courts and so on. She appoints all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister. Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision-making process.

Once the British Empire in­cluded a large number of countries all over the world ruled by Britain. The process of decoloni­sation began in 1947 with the independence of India, Pakistan and Ceylon. Now, apart from a few small islands, there is no longer an empire. But the British ruling classes tried not to lose influence over the former colonies of the British Empire. An association of former members of the British Empire and Britain was founded in 1949. It is called the Commonwealth1). It includes many countries such as Ireland, Burma, the Sudan, Canada, Australia, New Zea­land and others. The Queen of Great Britain is also the Head of the Commonwealth, and so the Queen of Canada. Australia, New Zealand…

The Queen is very rich as are other members of the royal family. In addition, the government pays for her expenses as Head of State, for a royal yacht, train and aircraft as well as for the upkeep of several palaces. The Queen's image appears on stamps, notes and coins.

Parliament consists of two chambers2) known as the House of Commons3) and the House of Lords4). Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament. In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three which has true power. It is here that new bills5) are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members are in favour of a bill it goes to the House of Lords to be debated and finally to the monarch to be signed. Only then it becomes Law. Although a bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Lords only has limited powers, and the monarch has not refused to sign one since the modern political system began over 200 years ago.


References:


1) the CommonwealthСодружество (политическое и экономическое объединение, центром которого является Великобритания. Включает 49 независимых государств. В Содружество входят также зависимые территории Великобритании, Австралии и Новой Зеландии);

2) chamber – палата парламента;

3) the House of Commons – палата общин (нижняя палата парламента; играет главную роль в осуществлении его законодательных функций);

4) the House of Lords – палата лордов (верхняя палата парламента; невыборное учреждение; обладает правом отлагательного вето в отношении законопроектов, принятых палатой общин);

5) bill – билль, законопроект.

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