Пособие по аналитическому чтению на английском языке




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Пособие по аналитическому чтению
на английском языке





Бернард Шоу


Дом, где
разбиваются сердца



Для студентов факультета лингвистики


Москва

Институт международного права и экономики имени А.С. Грибоедова

2007

УТВЕРЖДЕНО

кафедрой английского языка


С о с т а в и т е л ь – канд. филол. наук, доц. В. Б. Хромых


Пособие по аналитическому чтению на английском языке. Бернард Шоу «Дом, где разбиваются сердца». – М.: ИМПЭ им. А. С. Грибоедова, 2007. – 36 с.


Пособие предназначено для студентов-лингвистов, уровень владения английским языком которых может быть определен как пограничный между Upper-Inter­mediate и Advanced, и ставит целью расширение вокабуляра студентов-cтарше­курсников, а также развитие у них навыков неподготовленной монологической и диалогической речи. В силу мировоззренческих особенностей Бернарда Шоу (парадоксальность мышления, склонность к эпатажу) пьеса «Дом, где разбиваются сердца» представляется сложной даже для обсуждения в группах, где студенты обладают широким кругозором и развитыми навыками неподготовленной разговорной речи.

Задания на перевод с русского на английский язык нацелены на проверку глубины освоения студентами активной лексики, а также на развитие навыков письменной речи.

Подготовлено на кафедре английского языка.


© Хромых В. Б., 2007

Bernard Shaw


HEARTBREAK HOUSE: A FANTASIA IN THE RUSSIAN
MANNER ON ENGLISH THEMES



Act 1

1. Read a brief biography of Bernard Shaw. Underline the parts of the biography that might be relevant to the ideas and motives of the play “Heartbreak House”. Be ready to discuss Bernard Shaw’s biography in class.

G. Bernard Shaw (he hated the «George» and never used it, either personally or professionally) was born in 1856 in Dublin, in a lower-middle class family of Scottish-Protestant ancestry. His father was a failed corn-merchant, with a drinking problem and a squint (which Oscar Wilde's father, a leading Dublin surgeon, tried unsuccessfully to correct); his mother was a professional singer, the sole disciple of Vandeleur Lee, a voice teacher claiming to have a unique and original approach to singing.

When Shaw was just short of his sixteenth birthday, his mother left her husband and son and moved with Vandeleur Lee to London, where the two set up a household, along with Shaw's older sister Lucy (who later became a successful music hall singer). Shaw remained in Dublin with his father, completing his schooling (which he hated passionately), and working as a clerk for an estate office (which he hated just as much as school).

It may not be a accidental, then, that Shaw's plays, including Misalliance, are filled with problematic parent-child relationships: with children who are brought up in isolation from their parents; with foundlings, orphans, and adopted heirs; and with parents who wrongly presume that they are entitled to their children's obedience and affection.

In 1876, Shaw left Dublin and his father and moved to London, moving in with his mother's menage. There he lived off of his mother and sister while pursuing a career in journalism and writing. The first medium he tried as a creative writer was prose, completing five novels (the first one appropriately titled Immaturity) before any of them were published. He read voraciously, in public libraries and in the British Museum reading room. And he became involved in progressive politics. Standing on soapboxes, at Speaker's Corner in Hyde Park and at socialist rallies, he learned to overcome his stage fright and his stammer. And, to hold the attention of the crowd, he developed an energetic and aggressive speaking style that is evident in all of his writing.

With Beatrice and Sidney Webb, Shaw founded the Fabian Society, a socialist political organization dedicated to transforming Britain into a socialist state, not by revolution but by systematic progressive legislation, bolstered by persuasion and mass education. The Fabian society would later be instrumental in founding the London School of Economics and the Labour Party. Shaw lectured for the Fabian Society, and wrote pamphlets on the progressive arts, including The Perfect Wagnerite, an interpretation of Richard Wagner's Ring cycle, and The Quintessence of Ibsenism, based on a series of lectures about the progressive Norwegian playwright, Henric Ibsen. Meanwhile, as a journalist, Shaw worked as an art critic, then as a music critic (writing under the pseudonym «Corno di Bassetto»), and finally, from 1895 to 1898, as Theatre Critic for the Saturday Review, where his reviews appeared over the infamous initials «GBS.»

In 1891, at the invitation of J.T. Grein, a merchant, theatre critic, and director of a progressive private new-play society, The Independent Theatre, Shaw wrote his first play, Widower's Houses. For the next twelve years, he wrote close to a dozen plays, though he generally failed to persuade the managers of the London Theatres to produce them. A few were produced abroad; one (Arms and the Man) was produced under the auspices of an experimental management; one (Mrs. Warren's Profession) was censored by the Lord Chamberlain's Examiner of Plays (the civil servant who, from 1737 until 1967, was empowered with the prior censorship of all spoken drama in England); and several were presented in single performances by private societies.

In 1898, after a serious illness, Shaw resigned as theatre critic, and moved out of his mother's house (where he was still living) to marry Charlotte Payne-Townsend, an Irish woman of independent means. Their marriage (quite possibly sexually unconsummated) lasted until Charlotte's death in 1943.

In 1904, Harley Granville Barker, an actor, director and playwright twenty years younger than Shaw who had appeared in a private theatre society's production of Shaw's Candida, took over the management of the Court Theatre on Sloane Square in Chelsea (outside of the «Theatreland» of the fashionable West End) and set up it up as an experimental theatre specializing in new and progressive drama. Over the next three seasons, Barker produced ten plays by Shaw (with Barker officially listed as director, and with Shaw actually directing his own plays), and Shaw began writing new plays with Barker's management specifically in mind. Over the next ten years, all but one of Shaw's plays (Pygmalion in 1914) was produced either by Barker or by Barker's friends and colleagues in the other experimental theater managements around England. With royalties from his plays, Shaw, who had become financially independent on marrying, now became quite wealthy. Throughout the decade, he remained active in the Fabian Society, in city government (he served as vestryman for the London borough of St. Pancras), and on committees dedicated to ending dramatic censorship, and to establishing a subsidized National Theatre.

The outbreak of war in 1914 changed Shaw's life. For Shaw, the war represented the bankruptcy of the capitalist system, the last desperate gasps of the nineteenth-century empires, and a tragic waste of young lives, all under the guise of patriotism. He expressed his opinions in a series of newspaper articles under the title Common Sense About the War. These articles proved to be a disaster for Shaw's public stature: he was treated as an outcast in his adopted country, and there was even talk of his being tried for treason. His dramatic output ground to a halt, and he succeeded in writing only one major play during the war years, Heartbreak House, into which he projected his bitterness and despair about British politics and society.


(Cary M. Mazer, University of Pennsylvania)

2. Read the first half of the act (up to the author’s words “Boss Mangan comes in from the hall, followed by the Captain”). Highlight the active vocabulary and learn it:


Portion 1

Indian ink

To doze into a slumber

To startle sb

Enterprising

Wrathfully

Flustered

Precipitate (a)

Placidly (adv)

To gnaw bread and munch apples

Suffused (with emotion)

To dwell (on sb’s vices)

To persist in doing sth

Tempestuously (adv)

Conventionally (adv)

To be entitled to sth

Aghast

To launch out into business

Unfeeling

Particular (a)

But for

To take up business

Straightforward (a)

Sympathetic (a)

To let oneself go

To be taken in

To test sb’s nerve| to recover one’s nerve

To fondle sb

Benevolently (adv)


3. Answer the questions:

  1. Where is the scene set?

  2. What does the house look like?

  3. What do captain Shotover and Ellie Dunn speak about?

  4. What does lady Utterword look like?

  5. Why does lady Utterword say that the house is just the same?

  6. Why is Ariadne on the point of weeping and why does she have a great mind to go away?

  7. What does Hesione Hushabye look like?

  8. Why does Ellie say that she is proud of her father’s poverty?

  9. Describe Mazzini Dunn.

  10. How did Mazzini Dunn happen to owe Mr. Mangan so much money?

  11. Why is Ellie so fond of Othello?

  12. What is so peculiar about the Marcus Darnley story?

  13. Why do you think Ellie says that her heart is broken and adds that this heartbreak is not like what she thought it to be?

4. Look up an English-English dictionary to clarify their meaning of the italicized words and find 2-3 synonyms to each of them:

1. A row of lockers under the windows provides an unupholstered window-seat interrupted by twin glass doors, respectively halfway between the stern post and the sides.

2. The young lady lets her book drop, awakening herself, and startling the woman servant so that she all but lets the tray fall.

3. It seems very unfair to me. You see, my father was made bankrupt.

4. The King was furious: that was why he never had his military services properly recognized. But he does not care. He is a Socialist and despises rank.

5. Very few young women can resist Hector.

6. Ellie (rising in glad surprise) Oh! Hesione: this is Marcus Darnley.

Mrs. Hushabye (rising) What a lark! He is my husband.

7. Ellie: It was then that my father told me how nobly Mr. Mangan behaved. Of course, it was considered a great chance for me, as he is so rich. And – and – we drifted into a sort of understanding – I suppose I should call it an engagement … I’m bound in honour and gratitude. I will go through with it.


5. Comment on the grammar of the words in italics:

  1. And papa didn’t think me even worth mentioning!

  2. You do look a swell.

  3. You may have drifted into it; but you will bounce out of it, my pettikins, if I am to have anything to do with it.

  4. Your father does seem to be about the limit.


6. Translate the texts ( in your class notebooks) and use the active vocabulary of the story:

A) Вскоре после того, как Элли обнимает Гесиону и называет ее самым чутким в мире человеком, она узнает, что Маркус Дарнли на самом деле муж Гесионы. Элли в отчаянии. Она не винит в случившемся Гектора Хэшебай. Она винит во всем себя – за то, что позволила себя так одурачить. Гесиона пытается успокоить Элли: лишь немногие женщины могут противостоять обаянию и напору Гектора. Гесиона напоминает Элли о боссе Менгене. Элли вырывается из объятий Гесионы, на лице у нее написано отвращение.


B) Леди Этеруорд сердито замечает, что отчий дом совсем не изменился за 23 года: на лестнице валяются вещи, в доме никого нет, чтобы принять гостей, прислуга невыносимо распущена, нет установленного времени для еды, да и есть никто не хочет, потому что все грызут яблоки и едят бутерброды. Ариадна видит все тот же беспорядок в мыслях, чувствах и разговорах. В детстве Ариадна чувствовала себя несчастной в доме отца и не понимала почему. Уже став взрослой, она упрекала отца в том, что их с сестрой пичкали всякими мудреными идеями, интересными скорее для философов, чем для благопристойных людей. Она мечтала стать настоящей леди, и поэтому в 19 лет почти сбежала из дома, выйдя замуж за сэра Гастингса Этеруорда. Впоследствии ее муж был губернатором всех английских колоний по очереди. И Ариадна была счастлива, потому что она была хозяйкой правительственных резиденций. Вернувшись домой, она испытывает обиду и разочарование.


C) Гесиона не сразу узнает сестру. Ариадна возмущена – она хочет тотчас же уехать в гостиницу. Ее обидело то, что отец не счел нужным упомянуть о ее приезде. Она упрекает сестру в том, что та ее не любит: ведь если бы это было не так, то Гесиона ее сразу же бы узнала. Гесиона восклицает, что Эдди прекрасно выглядит – она стала гораздо красивее, чем была. Вместо того, чтобы обнять сестру, Гесиона толкает ее обратно в кресло и начинает тараторить о том, что гостья – Элли – собирается выйти замуж по расчету и что Эдди должна помочь ей отговорить Элли от этого брака. Ариадна выходит из себя и называет сестру бесчувственным человеком: ведь они не виделись 23 года, а та занята какой-то незнакомкой и не хочет поцеловать сестру. Гесиона обещает поцеловать сестру на следующий день, до того, как та наложит пудру и румяна – она не выносит, когда пахнет пудрой.


7. Read the beginning part of “The Preface” to “ HEART BREAK HOUSE: A FANTASIA IN THE RUSSIAN MANNER ON ENGLISH THEMES”. Sum up the ideas in your own words.


Where Heartbreak House Stands

Heartbreak House is not merely the name of the play which follows this preface. It is cultured, leisured Europe before the war. When the play was begun not a shot had been fired; and only the professional diplomatists and the very few amateurs whose hobby is foreign policy even knew that the guns were loaded. A Russian playwright, Tchekov, had produced four fascinating dramatic studies of Heartbreak House, of which three, The Cherry Orchard, Uncle Vanya, and The Seagull, had been performed in England. Tolstoy, in his Fruits of Enlightenment, had shown us through it in his most ferociously contemptuous manner. Tolstoy did not waste any sympathy on it: it was to him the house in which Europe was stifling its soul; and he knew that our utter enervation and futilization in that overheated drawing-room atmosphere was delivering the world over to the control of ignorant and soulless cunning and energy, with the frightful consequences which have now overtaken it. Tolstoy was no pessimist: he was not disposed to leave the house standing if he could bring it down about the ears of its pretty and amiable voluptuaries; and he wielded the pickaxe with a will. He treated the case of the inmates as one of opium poisoning, to be dealt with by seizing the patients roughly and exercising them violently until they were broad awake. Tchekov, more of a fatalist, had no faith in these charming people extricating themselves. They would, he thought, be sold up and sent adrift by the bailiffs; and he therefore had no scruple in exploiting and even flattering their charm.


The Inhabitants

Tchekov's plays, being less lucrative than swings and roundabouts, got no further in England, where theatres are only ordinary commercial affairs, than a couple of performances by the Stage Society. We stared and said, «How Russian!» They did not strike me in that way. Just as Ibsen's intensely Norwegian plays exactly fitted every middle and professional class suburb in Europe, these intensely Russian plays fitted all the country houses in Europe in which the pleasures of music, art, literature, and the theatre had supplanted hunting, shooting, fishing, flirting, eating, and drinking. The same nice people, the same utter futility. The nice people could read; some of them could write; and they were the sole repositories of culture who had social opportunities of contact with our politicians, administrators, and newspaper proprietors, or any chance of sharing or influencing their activities. But they shrank from that contact. They hated politics. They did not wish to realize Utopia for the common people: they wished to realize their favorite fictions and poems in their own lives; and, when they could, they lived without scruple on incomes which they did nothing to earn. The women in their girlhood made themselves look like variety theatre stars, and settled down later into the types of beauty imagined by the previous generation of painters. They took the only part of our society in which there was leisure for high culture, and made it an economic, political and; as far as practicable, a moral vacuum; and as Nature, abhorring the vacuum, immediately filled it up with sex and with all sorts of refined pleasures, it was a very delightful place at its best for moments of relaxation. In other moments it was disastrous. For prime ministers and their like, it was a veritable Capua.


Horseback Hall

But where were our front benchers to nest if not here? The alternative to Heartbreak House was Horseback Hall, consisting of a prison for horses with an annex for the ladies and gentlemen who rode them, hunted them, talked about them, bought them and sold them, and gave nine-tenths of their lives to them, dividing the other tenth between charity, churchgoing (as a substitute for religion), and conservative electioneering (as a substitute for politics). It is true that the two establishments got mixed at the edges. Exiles from the library, the music room, and the picture gallery would be found languishing among the stables, miserably discontented; and hardy horsewomen who slept at the first chord of Schumann were born, horribly misplaced, into the garden of Klingsor; but sometimes one came upon horsebreakers and heartbreakers who could make the best of both worlds. As a rule, however, the two were apart and knew little of one another; so the prime minister folk had to choose between barbarism and Capua. And of the two atmospheres it is hard to say which was the more fatal to statesmanship.

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