Perpetual Motion vs. “Working Machines Creating Energy from Nothing” With a Discussion of Perpetual Extraction and Emission of Real em energy from the Vacuum




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Fact Paper 2003-02/2004-02

Perpetual Motion vs. “Working Machines Creating Energy from Nothing”




With a Discussion of Perpetual Extraction and Emission of Real EM Energy from the Vacuum




© T. E. Bearden, Aug. 21, 2003

Revised August 8, 2004



First Problem: For a century there has been a knee-jerk scientific reaction that perpetual motion is forbidden. It isnt. perpetual motion is a law of nature, widely demonstrated and experimentally proven.

  • Newton’s First Law is the law of perpetual (uniform) motion. It can be stated as:

An object placed in a state of motion remains perpetually (uniformly) in that state of motion until changed by the action of an external force.” {1}

  • The First Law has been proven in countless actual mechanical experiments.

    • Toss something out of a shuttle in space, and it continues with that velocity.

    • Throw a ball on the earth, and its forward velocity continues, with the addition of a pull back to earth by the force of gravity and a slow decrease in forward velocity due to air drag deceleration forces, until it strikes the ground. In calculating the balls actual trajectory, we routinely assume the fundamental perpetual motion of the ball once it is launched, then calculate the reduction and change of that perpetual motion by the additional external forces that act on the ball.

  • Perpetual motion is resoundingly proved, both theoretically and experimentally, in solid state physics. As an example, once induced in a closed superconducting loop, a persistent current at zero voltage lasts indefinitely without perceivable decay {2}.

  • Hirschfield states {3}:

If a cur rent is set up in a superconductor with multiply connected topology, e.g. a torus, it will flow forever without any driving voltage. (In practice experiments have been performed in which persistent currents flow for several years without signs of degrading).

  • Leggett states {4}:

“… if a ring of superconducting material is cooled below its transition temperature and a current set up in it (e.g. by varying the magnetic flux through the ring), it will continue to circulate for as long as one cares to observe it.”

  • Serway states {5}:

If the dc resistance of the superconducting wire is truly zero, this current (in a superconducting loop) should persist forever. Experimental results using a technique known as nuclear magnetic resonance indicate that such currents will persist for more than 105 years! [I.e., more than 10exp5 or 100,000 years].

  • Serway also includes an elementary demonstration experiment showing that current is circulating with zero voltage drop {6}.

  • In his inimitable style, Feynman simply and eloquently stated the perpetual nature of a persistent superconducting current {7}:

First, there is no electrical resistance. There’s no resistance because all the electrons are collectively in the same state. ... A current once started, just keeps on going forever.”

  • A superconducting persistent current is quantized in integral multiples of a certain unit of flux, called a fluxoid or fluxon, and so the current consists of a certain number of such fluxoids in perpetual circulation. Kittel states {8}:

“…a fluxoid will never leak out in the age of the universe, under our assumed conditions. Accordingly, the current is maintained..

  • A persistent current in a good quality superconducting loop has a statistical half-life of some 1023 or 10exp23 years; for typical calculation details, see Kittel {9}.

  • One can experimentally verify perpetual motion oneself. For a few hundred dollars, one can purchase a kit that allows one to do ones ownpersistent currentexperiment in a superconducting ring {10}. At university, solid-state physics students do such experiments routinely as part of their hands-on learning experience {11,12}.

  • If forces act continuously on an object in motion, the forces may be conservative and sum to a net zero around a closed cycle, providing what is called a conservative system. With no other force acting, a conservative system remains in motion indefinitely, even though itsfirst lawmotion state is continuously and cyclically changed. This is a second kind of basic perpetual motion, obeyed by ideal free rotating machines or orbiting objects.

  • Perpetual motion under Newtons laws is rather quietly recognized by solid state physicists and many thermodynamicists. Roy {13} sums it up this way:

It follows from Newton's laws that an isolated system in motion, on which no [net] force or torque is acting, exhibits precisely perpetual motion of the second kind. An example of perpetual motion of the second type is the orbiting of electrons around the atomic nucleus. … perpetual motion of the second type is common on atomic and celestial scale; however, such a motion is not common in everyday life. The best known example of perpetual motion in everyday life is superconductivity, in which a current circulates ceaselessly in a wire loop without a battery.”

  • In the real world, extra friction forcessuch as in the bearings and by air drag, or by turning a resisting loadslow and stop the free rotation of any rotating macroscopic system not receiving the necessary energy to replace its losses. But in calculating the actual rotation time before the rotation stops, we routinely assume the perpetual motion of the rotor, then calculate the reduction and change of that perpetual rotation by the additional external forces that act on the rotor. When the state of motion of an object or system changes, it is being subjected to a nonzero force acting upon it to change its motion.

  • Without perpetual motion, there would be no stability in the universe. All would be random fluctuation, and the observable ordered universe could not exist. Indeed, there would not even be a body at persistent rest {Error: Reference source not found}. Any body at rest in one frame to one observer, is also in motion with respect to many other moving frames and moving observers. Hence to beat restin one frame and to one observer is to simultaneously be inperpetual uniform motionin many other frames to many other observers.

  • Finally, every charge and dipole in the universe is a system perpetually extracting virtual EM energy from the disordered virtual state vacuum, cohering and transducing it to real observable EM energy, and perpetually pouring out real observable photons (real observable EM energy) in all directions.

  • Theknee-jerkscientific reaction that perpetual motion cannot exist has prevailed for more than a century. It is inexplicable in the face of Newtons first law of motion, special relativity, and particularly since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911.

  • We shall now show a simple logical error in the typical form of that statedknee-jerkreaction that has so clouded scientific judgement and thinking.
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