Политическая корректность как культурно-поведенческая и языковая категория




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Текст № 3. Race Divides Hispanics, Reports Say.

Integration and Income Vary With Skin Color

Darryl Fears

White and black Hispanics - as well as Hispanics who say that they are "some other race" - work different jobs, earn different levels of pay and reside in segregated neighborhoods based on the shade of their skin, according to a report released today by the Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research at the State University of New York in Albany. The report, "How Race Counts for Hispanic Americans." follows the recent declaration by Census officials that Hispanics, who can be of any race, have become the nation's largest ethnic minority. Its authors and others who examine the U.S. Hispanic population said it was the first to look at how the group is divided along the color line.

Latinos who described themselves as white on the 2000 Census had the highest incomes and lowest rates of unemployment and poverty, and they tended to live near communities of non-Latino whites, said the report, which analyzed Census figures nationwide. Nearly 50 percent of Latinos who filed a Census report said they were white, according to the center's report.

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The 2.7 percent of Latinos who described themselves as black, most of them from the Caribbean, had lower incomes and higher rates of poverty than the other groups - despite having a higher level of education.

Among Latinos who described themselves as "some other race," earnings and levels of poverty and unemployment fell between black and white members of their ethnic group. About 47 percent of Latinos said on Census forms that they are "some other race," according to the report.

"The point of the report," said John R. Logan, the report's lead researcher, "is that if we take seriously the way people talk about their race, and the reality of their lives, we find that there are real distinctions between white and black Latinos and Hispanics who say they are some other race/'

White Hispanics. the report said, have more economic power: Their median household income is $39,900, about $5,000 more than the median income of black Hispanic households and about $2,500 more than Hispanics who say they are some other race.

But black Hispanics are better-educated: They average nearly 12 years of education, compared with 11 for white Hispanics and 10 for the "other race" group. Despite their education, black Hispanics have 12 percent unemployment, compared with 8 percent for white Hispanics and about 10 percent for Hispanics who say they are neither race.

Logan said black Hispanics are intermarrying with blacks at a rate much higher than white Hispanics with white non-Hispanics and Hispanics of some other race with any other ethnic or racial groups. Nearly half of children who are defined as black Hispanic have one parent who is black but not Hispanic. By comparison, a much smaller fraction of white Hispanic children - 20 percent - have a parent who is white but not Hispanic.

Hispanic children who are of some other race are the most likely of the three groups to have two parents who share that category. About 10 percent have a parent who is not Hispanic, and only 6 percent have a parent who is black Hispanic or white Hispanic.

183

In the average metropolitan neighborhood where white Hispanics live, there are hardly any residents who are black Hispanic, the study found. The same is true in neighborhoods populated by Hispanics who say they are neither white nor black.

Lisa Navarette, a spokeswoman for the National Council of La Raza, a Washington-based Latino civil rights organization and think tank, said the report shows "what we've been saying all along: that Latinos who come to the U.S. are affected by how Americans view race."

In their nations of origin, Latinos have far more racial categories than the United States has. Within families, siblings have widely varying racial characteristics, and mestizo or Indian heritage is prevalent in white and black families, further blurring the color line.

About 97 percent of all people who declared on the Census that they are "some other race*" were Latino. They range from light-complexioned to dark.

Some Latino activists say it doesn't matter how they see themselves.

"Latinos who come here to the United States have to choose," said Navarette, who is Cuban and white. "There's the Cuban example, where recent white and black arrivals from Cuba who lived next to each other in their home country came to Miami. They had to choose between so-called white areas for those who were lighter, while black people wind up in black neighborhoods like Liberty City."

But Roberto Suro, director of the Pew Hispanic Center, was not willing to draw quick conclusions based on the new report. While it is important, he said, it is only a first step toward understanding how Hispanics mix racially.

"What they've done is interesting work, but there's a ton of questions that you have to ask," Suro said. "They've come up with a very definitive statement: Race counts. But it doesn't count for Hispanics the way it does other Americans. If they did this 100 years ago, you would find that whites of Italian descent and whites of Irish descent lived in clusters. Was it their race or was it their nationality?"

Suro believes that Hispanics might separate themselves by nationality rather than skin color. He said the largest segments of black Latinos - Puerto Ricans and Dominicans - are concentrated in different areas in New York.

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The highest concentrations of white ffispanics are Cubans in Miami and Mexicans in San Antonio, the report found. Hispanics who said they are "some other race" are largely found in Texas, New York, California and, to some degree, Washington, D.C.

Yvette Modestin, a Boston emergency services director for a women's shelter who is Panamanian and black, said the reason for the separation is obvious. "It boils down to the old issue of race and color," she said. "White Latinos are able to adapt to the environment, based on whiteness. But black and brown Latinos have more obstacles."(The Washington Post, July 14,2003)

Текст 4.

Harvard Black Guide Will Delete Offending Pages

CAMBRIGE, Mass., Feb. 6 — The Harvard University Black Students Association has deleted material from its newly published guide to black life at the university after many students complained that the passage was offensive to women and meant as a personal insult.

The executive editor of the guide, Marques J. Redd, wrote the passage, "Top 10 Signs Harvard Has Driven Black Woman Crazy." The page included the lines, "When she thinks that falsely accusing people of rape is funny," and, "When she can't say I love you without a restraining order."

Mr. Redd, who could not be reached for comment, apologized in a number of e-mail messages to student organizations, The Harvard Crimson reported today. He said the comments were not meant to demean women, but stemmed from an experience with an ex-girlfriend who publicly and falsely accused him of rape. "To his credit he has apologized, and I expect him to get over this and continue to thrive as the excellent student he is," said Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the university's Afro-American studies department, said of Mr. Redd.

Dr. Gates currently has Mr. Redd for a reading tutorial and attended a party celebrating the book with him on Saturday night.

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Allana Jackson, president of the Association of Black Harvard Women, affiliated with the student association, said the editors were not aware of the page in question. Ms. Jackson said the group regretted that it was in the guide and would cover the page with a label in all published copies and remove the page from future printings.( The New York Times, February 7, 2003)

Текст №5. Bush's gay-marriage tack risks clash with his base

By Susan Page

A USA TODAY/CNN/Gallup Poll conducted Monday and Tuesday underscored the perils of Bush's approach. It showed the intensity of feeling among those who oppose same-sex unions.

On Tuesday, Bush said for the first time that he would, "if necessary," support a constitutional amendment that defined marriage as between a man and a woman. But he said he wouldn't prohibit "whatever legal arrangements people want to make" that are "embraced" by states. That was a reference to civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex couples, now recognized by Vermont and California.

Bush's distinction between marriage and other "legal arrangements" brought protests from some conservative leaders. "I'm concerned that the president thinks that counterfeit institutions such as same-sex unions are OBC, that he doesn't see that they threaten to devalue the real thing," says Tony Perkins, president of the Family Research Council. He relayed his objections to the White House on Wednesday.

But Bush seemed prepared for the question when ABC's Diane Sawyer raised the issue. He spoke deliberately and with precision. Republicans close to his campaign say he has been unenthusiastic about pushing the issue as far as some of his supporters would like. That reticence is shared by Vice President Cheney, who has a lesbian daughter.

"He tiptoed through the tulips," Andy Kohut of the Pew Research Center says of Bush. "The Republican choir is dead-set against all of these things, but individuals in the middle and many swing-voter groups aren't so hard-line."

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In the poll, Americans opposed recognizing same-sex marriage by more than 2-to-l. That is a slightly higher level of opposition than earlier this year. Analysts say there has been some backlash to recent court decisions regarding gav men and lesbians. Last month, Massachusetts' top court in effect recognized a right for same- sex couples to marry.

The divide on the issue is wider among those who feel strongly about their position. By more than 3-to-l, strong opponents outweighed strong supporters.

"The president needs to be clear and unequivocal about his position on marriage and any counterfeit institution to motivate that base in the party," Perkins says.

The major Democratic presidential contenders oppose a constitutional amendment on the issue, but they also oppose gav marriage. They support civil unions. Missouri Rep. Richard Gephardt, who also has a daughter who is a lesbiaru criticized Bush's support of an amendment as an "alliance with bigotry." (USA TODAY, December 17,2003)

Текст 6. Living with Limits Building Business

By Susan DeFord

Lori Powell's cerebral palsy makes it difficult for her to walk, talk and use her hands, but she still wants to work.

For a while, she bought decorative figurines on the Internet and sold them to friends and acquaintances, but she did not know how to expand her market. She loves computers, though she is not fast enough to pursue data processing. She occasionally does labeling and packaging piecework, but the work is not stimulating.

"I want to be creative," she typed into a computerized device that subsequently spoke in a mechanical male voice.

Powell, a 1994 graduate of Centennial High School, soon may have her chance.

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The 29-year-old Columbia resident is one of a handful of people with

developmental disabilities who's learning how to start her own business through

Project Income, a pilot program that could become a model for the rest of Maryland.

She is developing a portfolio of greeting cards featuring her artwork and crafting a

* business plan for what she calls her Heart and Friendship Co.

"I want own business," she typed, looking up with a smile and a toss of her hair. "I want try different thing."

Until recently, even the experts would have doubted that people such as Powell could become successful entrepreneurs. But Project Income, a three-year effort underway in Howard and Anne Arundel counties, is designed to expand the economic prospects of the developmentallv disabled. Otherwise, many of them face a lifetime of unemployment or underemployment.

& The goal is "to really run away from 'just any job is okay' to people with

disabilities earning a substantial living wage and looking at issues of career," said Brian Cox, executive director of the Maryland Developmental Disabilities Council, a federally funded office that is underwriting Project Income with a $70,000 grant.

Project Income, now completing its first year, aims to help 75 disabled people. Some will receive job training through courses at Anne Arundel Community College; others will get help finding jobs that pay better and are more to their liking.

"We're really trying to focus on what the person wants as opposed to what the programs offer," said Kate Rollason, executive director of the Arc of Anne Arundel County, a nonprofit advocacy and services organization for people with developmental disabilities.

Project Income's most dramatic feature calls for helping Powell and nine other people start their own businesses, a concept that is just emerging throughout the country as a choice for those who are developmentallv impaired.

•> "It's still a small, small number, but at least you're starting to see it happen,"

said Carol Beatty, executive director of the Arc of Howard County, which is collaborating on Project Income with the Arc of Anne Arundel. In addition, a five-year-old state program known as Reach Independence Through Self Employment

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(RISE), which promotes self-employment for physically disabled people, has awarded business start-up grants and conducted training for the developmentallv disabled in the past two years.

Self-employment, say supporters, may boost what has long been abysmal job statistics for people with developmental disabilities. Working-age adults have an unemployment rate of 70 percent, according to federal data, and they often rely on federal and state assistance for incomes that frequently fall below federal poverty guidelines. About 1.8 percent of Maryland's population, or 95,337 people, have developmental disabilities.

Those who do work, said Cox, "are in jobs they don't choose, they are in jobs where they aren't making money, and they aren't enjoying them."

Nia Janyska, a Linthicum resident who has autism, did not Шее the commotion of a sheltered workshop, but she is a steady worker and artistically skilled.

"She does have good capabilities," said her mother, Janet Janyska. "She can be productive."

Recently, Janyska assembled gift baskets in her northern Anne Arundel County home, filling each one with an assortment of colorful votive candles and soaps, chocolate bars, packets of tea and small framed samples of her meticulous cross-stitch.

"Put them in neatly, nice and neatly," the 34-year-old said as she worked. "Make sure the decoration shows, so the customer buys them." Janyska is hoping her Uniquely Nia baskets will appeal to businesses looking for client gifts.

A special interest or an enthusiastic attitude can be enough to start building a small business, according to a Montana consultant who has helped hundreds of disabled people craft money-generating ventures for several years. In a recently published book on the subject, Cary Griffin wrote about a middle-aged man who previously was institutionalized and could not talk much. He launched a business selling stuffed animals at a nature center where he volunteered. In another case, a young man with autism started a profitable business growing and selling specialty

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plants at Ms family's farm, said Griffin, senior partner of Griffin-Hammis Associates LLC in Florence, Mont.

"I work with people who may not know the difference between a 50-cent piece and a $50 bill, but they understand that money means something to them," said Griffin, who is working with Project Income. "It can be dinner or a movie to them, or they can pick out the home where they want to live."

The tasks of starting a small business - developing a product or service, devising a marketing strategy and budget - all become more complicated when the would-be entrepreneur may Шее computers but has a hard time reading and writing. In addition, disabled people risk losing housing subsidies or Social Security disability payments if their personal incomes rise too much, Griffin said. Business income is not subject to such restrictions.

State officials said it is crucial for each person to have a support team, which typically involves family members and representatives of the service agencies that provide housing or job skills training.

"It's really such a learning process for all of us," said Nancy Magana, director of employment services for Humanim, a Columbia agency that works with the disabled.

Joel Penenburgh, a Columbia certified public accountant and businessman, is helping his daughter Randi, who has mental retardation, establish a hot dog cart business through Project Income. Despite rained-out days during the spring, the business has grown to where Randi, 25, is making $100 to $200 daily in sales, Penenburgh said.

"Keep it simple but something that the disabled person has an interest in," Penenburgh advised. "There's nothing better than going to work and liking what you're doing."

Penenburgh also believes it is vital that the entrepreneur has a business partner. "You want the business to have support that's ongoing even after the parents are no longer able to provide," he said.

190

Beatty, with the Howard Arc, wants Project Income eventually to encourage local schools to develop microenterprise or small-business curricula for disabled students.

"I would like to see it be a choice for them," she said. "They could start preparing for that in school."

Powell began to draw as a teenager, and she uses pens and big crayons to quickly sketch stick people, flowers, stars, rainbows and many hearts. At one point, Project Income's consultant suggested she sell teddy bears, but Powell insisted the enterprise focus on her artwork. She and her support team are studying ways to market her cards to businesses.

Making money would be nice, Powell acknowledged, but her real goal, she wrote, is "I would make happy people." (The Washington Post, July 24, 2003)

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