G. mary rumsey, international human rights aspects of multinational enteprises as non-state actors




НазваниеG. mary rumsey, international human rights aspects of multinational enteprises as non-state actors
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(visited Sept. 2, 2003). Sub-Commission Resolution 2002/8 explicitly recommended that the Norms be used for the development of procurement standards (see Resolution 2002/8, supra note 28, at &4(a)), but the Sub-Commission chose to focus on other implementation techniques in 2003. See supra note 2.

909 For an example of a website with an extensive amount of information on business and human rights, see Business & Human Rights: A Resource Website, at (visited Sept. 2, 2003).

010 See Norms, supra note 1, at &16.

111 See World Bank Operational Policy (OP) 4.0 et seq (environmental protection and sustainable development guidelines); World Bank Operational Policies/Bank Procedures (OP/BP) 4.2 (protection of indigenous peoples and promotion); and Operational Policy (OP) 4.20 (promotion of gender equality).

212 Article XX of the 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade states ten exceptions in which a State may use trade-restrictive measures, including justifications such as the protection of public morals; the protection human, animal or plant life, or health; and the preservation of exhaustible natural resources. See Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Apr. 15, 1994, 33 ILM 1140, reprinted in The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations B The Legal Texts (1994).

313 See id. at Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Art. 2.1.

414 Id. at Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Art. 1.1. The International Standards


Organization (ISO) has been recognized as one such standardizing body for establishing

specifications for products. ISO has also prepared standards for management systems and

has begun to consider developing corporate social responsibility standards from a consumer

perspective. See International Standards Organization, Development of International Standards,


(visited Sept. 2, 2003).

515 Examples of regional codes used to address specific issues include: The Sullivan Statement of Responsibilities, 4th Application, Nov. 8, 1984, 24 ILM 1464 (1985); Irish National Caucus; The MacBride Responsibilities (1984); Council of Economic Priorities Accreditation Authority; Maquiladora Standards of Conduct; Miller Responsibilities; Partner=s Agreement to Eliminate Child Labor in the Soccer Ball Industry in Pakistan.

616 See North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, 32 ILM 1480 (1993).

717 See North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation, 32 ILM 1499 (1993).

818 European Parliament (EP), Resolution on EU standards for European Enterprises operating in developing countries: towards a European Code of Conduct, Resolution A4-0508/98 (1998).

919 Lopez Ostra v. Spain, ECHR (1994), Series A, No. 303-C; Guerra and Others v. Italy, ECHR (1998) 1998-I, No. 64.

020 See Social and Economic Rights Action Center and the Center for Economic and Social Rights v. Nigeria, African Comm. Hum. & Peoples= Rights, Comm. No. 155/96 (Oct. 13-27, 2001).

121 See Commentary, supra note 14, at &16(c).

222 Id. For an example of an NGO making a statement on human rights responsibilities it believes all companies should follow, see Mark Curtis, Trade for Life: Making trade work for poor people (2001). As indicated above, some NGOs have already begun using the Norms as a basis for their assessment of company human rights behavior. See supra note 37.

323 See Commentary, supra note 14, at &16(c).

424 See id. at &16(c).

525 For example, Caux Round Table Responsibilities for Business (1986); Clean Clothes Campaign, Code of Labour Practices for the Apparel Industry Including Sportswear; and International Chamber of Commerce, Guidelines for International Investment and Business Charter for Sustainable Development.

626 Although established by an NGO, the SA8000 is an example of a labeling system used to alert consumers to the conditions in which a product was produced. The SA 8000, a human rights workplace standard development by Social Accountability International (SAI), allows retail and brand companies to join the SA8000 Signatory Program when they have demonstrated a commitment to achieving decent working conditions in their supply chains. To become a Signatory, each company defines the scope of its operations that it intends to bring into compliance with SA8000, develops a plan for achieving this goal, and issues annual progress reports to the public subject to verification by SAI before publication. Signatory benefits include the right to use the SA8000 Signatory logo. See SA8000 Signatory Benefits, at
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