Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D




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'THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor in Chief

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor in Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes

LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN





THE NEW


SCHAFF HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor in Chief )

WITH THE AssIITANCE OF

CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN


GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(Associate Editors)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORf

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology)


HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations)


JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders)

JAMES FREDERIC McCURDY, PH.D., LLD.

(Department of the Old Testament)


HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament)


ALBERT HENRY NEWNAN, D.D., LLA

(Department of Church History)


FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME II

BASILICA   CHAMBERS

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1952





EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

LITHOPRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY

CUSHING  MALLOY, INC., ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, 1952





EDITORS

BAXQEL XACAQLEYY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.


(EDrroa xN CHIEF. )

Professor of Church History, New York University.

ASSOCLkTE EDITORS


CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERHAN GEORGE WILLIAX GILICORE, Bz.s.

Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on "The New Inter  New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer

national Encyclopedia," New York. on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME II.

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.)


Professor of Systematic Theology, #01deago Theological

Seminary.


HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

One of the Corresponding Secretaries of the Board of Foreign

Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York.


JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgies and RdtpG)us Orders.)

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.


HUBERT EVANS, Ph.D.

(Office Editor.)

Formerly of the Editorial Staff of the "Encyclopeedh Britan­


nice" Company, New York City.

JAMES PIUME31LICK XCOURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.

(Department or the Old Teutament.)


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.


HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department or the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Ter

tamemt, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.


ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church Bistorw.)

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Waco, Tex.

FRANK HORACE QIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and TypoprnphF.)

AMX$atB Editor Of tale STANDARD DICTIONARY, etc,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME II.

ERNST CHRISTIAN ACHELIS,

Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, Universtty.of Marburg.

SAMUEL JAMES ANDREWS (t), D.D.,

Late Pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church. Hartford, Conn.

CARL FRANKLIN ARNOLD, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty.

University of Breslau.

FERENCZ BALOGH,

Professor of Church History. Reformed Theological Academy,

Debrexztn. Hungary.

EDUARD BARDE (t),

Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, school of Theology,

Geneva

HERMANN BARGE, Ph.D.,

Gymnastal Professor in Leipsic.

SAMUEL JUNE BARROWS, D.D.,

Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association of New York.

JOHANNES BELSHEIM,

Pastor Emeritus in Cbristiania. Norway.

EARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of %Snigeberg.

IBXXANUEL GUSTAF ADOLF BENZIN­


t#ER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Formerly Prlvatdocent In Old Testament Theology, University of Berlin, Member of the Executive Committee of the

German Society for the Exploration of Palestine, Jerusalem.

SAXUEL BERGER (t), D.D.,

Late Librarlsn 6o the Faculty of Protestant Theology, Paris.


CARL sLBBECHT BERNOULLI, Th.Lic.,

Professor in Berlin.

CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

President of the Society for Inhere Mission. and Pastor of

St. Michael's Church. Hamburg.

WILLIBALD BEYSCHLAG (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Halls.

AMY (ASTON BONET MAURY, D.D.,

LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity.

Paris.





CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IL

GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETSCH,

Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of GStttngen.

FRIEDRICH BOSSE, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Theology, University of Grettswald.


GUSTAF BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Pastor Emeritus, Stuttgart.

JOHANNES FRIEDRICH THEODOR

BRIEQER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipstc.


CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

Litt.D.,

Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.


7RANTB PEDER WILLLAIW BURL, Ph.D.,

Th.D.;

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.


KARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Munich.


WALTER CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Professor of Practical Theology, Pedsgogica, and Didactics, and

University Preacher, University of Erlangen.


JACQUES EUGINE CHOISY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva, Switzerland.


FERDINAND COHRS, Th.Lic.,

Condstorw Councilor, Llfeld. Hanover.

ALEXIS IB$N*E ~DU FONT COLEXAN,

Instructor in English, college of the city of New York.

CGQBTAF HERMAN DALMAN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Lelpsic,

and President of the German Evangelical Archeo­

logical Institute, Jerusalem.

SAXUEL MARTIN DEUTSCH, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

FRANZ WILHELM DIBELIUS,Ph.D.,Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorlal Councilor, City Superintendent,' and Pas­

tor of the Kreuzktrehe, Dresden.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.

HENRY OTIS DWIGHT, LL.D.,

Recording Secretary of the American Bible Society. Coeditor

of the " Encyclopedia of Missions." New York.

EXIL EGLI, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

DAVID ERDMANN (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Breslau.

ALFRED ERICHSON (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Strasburg.

CARL FEY, Ph.D.,

Pastor at COsseln, near Halle.

JOHN FOX, D.D.,

OorTeaponding Secretary of the American Bible Society, New

York.

EXIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public. and German Law, University

of Leipsic.

THEODOR GEROLD, Th.D.,

President of the ConaieWry, Strasburg.

GEORGE WILLIAX GILMORE, X.A.,

Formerly Lecturer on comparative Religion, Bangor Theoiog.

lest Seminary, Associate Editor of the SCHAPr­

HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA.

WILHELX GLAMANN,

Pastor at siebeneichen, near LSwenberg, Prussia.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technische Hocbschule, and

Professor, Military Academy. Munich.

CASPAB. REN$ GREGORY, Ph.D., Dr.Jur.,

Th.D., D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.

PAUL GRUENBERG, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Strasburg.

GEORG GILU33TZXACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History and of the New

Testament, University of Heidelberg.

REINHOLD GRUNDEE
Th.D.,

Pastor at MOrz, near Belzdg, Prussia.


HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipaic.

ADOLF HARNACK, X.D., Ph.D.,.Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin, and General

Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.


ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipatc, Editor in­

Chief of the HAUCK HERZOG REALKNCYKLOPADIE.

HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor and Director of the University Library, Giessen.

JOHANNES HAUSSLEITER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of the New Testament, University of Greifswald.

CALL FRIEDRICH GE03ELG HEINRICI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.


EDGAR HENNECKE, Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Bethelu; Hanover.

HERXANN HERING, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halle.

HAX HEROLD, Th.D.,

Dean, Neustadt an derAisch, Bavaria, Editor of Stnna,,


JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen,

Founder of the HAUCK HERZOG REALENCYKLOP•DIE.

ALFRED HECKLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of TBbingen.

JOHANNES HESSE,

Former Editor of the Eroangelisehea miasinnx Magazin and

President of the Publishing society at Calw, W Iirttemberg.

PAUL HINSCHIUS (f ), LL.D.,

Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin.

HERMANN WILHELM HEINRICH HOEL­

SCHER, Th.D.,

Pastor of the Nikolatkirche, Letpxia. Editor of the Allgematne

Evangelixch Luthdrixche Kircherizeftunp and of

the Theologischcs Ltcraturblatt.





CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME II.

KARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

ALFRED JEREMIAB, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor of the Lutherklrche, Lelpsic.


MARTIN SAEHLER, Th.D.,

Prufessor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, Univer­

sity of Halls.

ADOLF HAMPHAUSEN, Th.D.,

Professor of'Old Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.

PETER GUST" KAWERAU, Th.D.,

Consistorial Councilor, Professor of Practical Theology, and

University Preacher, University of Breslau.

RUDOLF KITTEL, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipeia.

FRIEDRICH IIER311ANN THEODOR

KOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.

HER MANN GUSTAF EDUARD KRUEGER,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.

JOHANNES WILHELM BUNZE, Ph.D.,

Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University of

Greffawald.

L. A. VAN LANGERAAD, Ph.D.,

Lekkerkerk. Holland.

LUDWIG LEMHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.

EDUARD LEMPP, Ph.D.,

Superintendent of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart.

AUGUST LESBIEN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Slavonic Languages, University of Leipsic.

FRIEDRICH ARMIN LOOPS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halle.

ANDERS HERMAN LUNDBTROH, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Royal University of Upsala,

Sweden.

JAMES FREDERICK B;cOURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.

PHILIPP HEYER, Th.D.,

Supreme Consiatorlal Councilor and Member of the Royal

Consistory, Hanover.

CARL THEOD03EL MIRBT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.

ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL MUELLER,

Th.D.,

Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.

GE03ELG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Councilor for Schools, Leipsic.

JOSEF MUELLER, Th.D.,

Pastor in Eberedorf, Reuss.

NIKOLAUS EZUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Christian Archeology, University of

Berlin.

CHRISTOF EBERHARD NESTLE, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor in the Theological Seminary at mautbronn, Wtirttem­

berg.

EARL JOHANNES NEVMANN, Ph.D.,

Professor of the History of Art, University of Kiel.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary (Bay,

lor university), Waco, Tex.

JULIUS NEY, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor in Speyer, Bavaria.


FREDERIK OHMHTIAN NIELSEN (t),

Th.D.,

Late Bishop of Aalborg, Denmark.


FRIEDRICH AUGUST NITZSCH Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Kiel.


HANS CONRAD VON. ORELLI, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of Religion,

University of Basel.


XARGARET BLOODGFOOD PEEKS,

Inspeetrees General of the Martindst Order for America.

CHARLES PPENDER,

Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris.

BERNHARD PICK, Ph.D., D.D.,

Pastor of the First German Evangelical Lutheran Church,

Newark, N. J.

FREDERICK DQNGLIBON POWER, LL.D.,

Pastor of the Garfleld Memorial Church, Washington, D. C.

WILLIAM PRICE,

Formerly Instructor in French, Yale College and Sheffield Scien­

tific School, New Haven, Conn.


FRANZ PRAETORIUS, Ph.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Halle.


GEORG CHRISTIAN RIETSCHEL, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology and University Preacher, Unt­

verslty of Leipsic.

SIEGFRIED RIETSCHEL, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of German Law, University of Tfibingen.


HENDRIX CORNELIUS ROGGE (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of History, University of Amsterdam.

EUGEN SACHSSE, Th.D.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology in the

Evangellcal Theological Faculty, University of Bonn.

DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D.,

Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary,

Allegheny, Pa.

PHILIP SCHAFF (t), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary,

New York, Founder of the SCHAPF HzaZOo ENCYCLOP&DI•.

REINHOLD SOHMID, Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Oberholzheim, Wfrttemberg.

RICHARD KARL BERNHARD SCHMIDT,

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Jurisprudence and Civil and Criminal Procedure.

University of Freiburg.


JOHANN SCHNEIDER,

Pastor at Neckar Steinach. Hesse

THEODOR SCHOTT (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Librarian and Professor of Theology, University of Stutt­

gart.





JOHANN 3pRIzna.ICH BITTER VON

SCHULTE, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of German FocleslaWiCat Law and of the HUtory of

Law, Unlverdty o Boun.

VICTOR SCHULTZE, Th.D.,

professor of Church History and Christian Arebeology, Unfver­


alty of Grelfawald.

HANB SCHULZ, Ph.D.,

GpmnasiW Professor at Steplttz, near Berlin.


LUDWIG SCHULZE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.

OTTO
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