Saint Petersburg State University




НазваниеSaint Petersburg State University
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Faculty of Physics


Saint Petersburg State University


Saint Petersburg

2011


Edited by S.F. Bureiko and S.L. Berdnikov


ADDRESS:


Faculty of Physics

St. Petersburg State University,

Ulianovskaya ul. 1, Petrodvorets,

St. Petersburg, 198504,

Russia.

http://www.phys. spbu.ru






Saint Petersburg State University


St. Petersburg State University was established simultaneously with the Academy of Sciences and a Gymnasium (Grammar School) by a decree of Peter the Great on 28 January 1724.

An outstanding place in the history of St. Petersburg University belongs to Mikhail Lomonosov, a great scientist and organizer of Russian education. His life and work were inseparably connected with the Petersburg University for over 30 years. Lomonosov came here from Moscow as one of a group of students of the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy and passed all the way to rise to the post of professor and then University Rector. After his return to St. Petersburg in 1741 after a trip abroad, Lomonosov began his teaching career. The young scientist prepared courses of lectures for university students, including a course of physics in Russian (1746). In January 1760 the Academy President entrusted Lomonosov with the sole management of the

University and Gymnasium, i.e. actually appointing him rector.

After Lomonosov’s death in 1765 the educational departments of the Academy of Sciences – the University and the Gymnasium, were subjected to transformations. The turning point in the fate of the University came early in 1819, ending the near-century-long initial stage in its development. On February 8, 1819, the University was re-established by a decree of Alexander I. There were initially three faculties: History and Philology, Philosophy and Law, and Physics and Mathematics each further divided into sections; the University preserved this structure until 1918. In 1916 the teaching staff of the University comprised 379 persons, including 81 full professors, 200 assistant professors and 81 assistants; the students numbered 5964, of these 2197 were at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics (1220 in the section of physics and 977 in that of mathematics).






The year of 1917 opened a new phase in the history of St Petersburg University, a time of violent shocks and turmoil and ordeals, of great expectations and bitter disappointments. Throughout this period the wonderful vitality of the University staff manifested itself in intense creative work, in organization of new research institutes, departments and laboratories and in establishment of new areas and schools of research. The teachers and researchers made every effort to keep up the University’s high standards in training specialists and continued working hard, selflessly, even enthusiastically, obtaining important scientific results.

The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 was to the University, just as to the whole country, a time of severe trial of all physical, intellectual and moral resources. More than 2500 undergraduate and postgraduate students, lecturers, researchers, and technicians fought at the front many of them giving their lives for their country. In March 1942, Leningrad State University was evacuated to the city of Saratov, where, under extremely hard conditions, teaching and research were continued. In June 1944 the University returned to its hometown; within a short time the university buildings damaged by bombing and shelling were restored and studies were resumed on 2 October 1944.

The period after the end of the Second World War was a time of intensive cooperation in research, merger of related disciplines, introduction of mathematical methods both in sciences and the arts. In the 1960s and 1970s the University researchers showed outstanding achievements in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, geology and geography. The opening of new Faculties, Institutes, Departments and laboratories, rapid development of research and the necessity to advance the teaching process made it imperative to create a new University centre in Stary Petergof (Old Peterhof) near Leningrad. In the 1960s, the Old Peterhof site seemed the best solution, highly promising for further expansion of the University. Reality proved to be more complicated, however.

In recent years, while overcoming numerous difficulties, the staff of St. Petersburg University has been using the new possibilities to do everything in order to preserve and confirm its leading position in the sphere of higher learning in Russia. At present, over 32,400 students study in 323 areas of learning at the 24 faculties of St. Petersburg University Altogether, about 6,000 teachers are employed at the University including 1,000 Doctors of Science and over 2,500 Candidates of Sciences (PhD), 40 academicians of the State Academies of Sciences. Owing to a special significance of the St. Petersburg University as a Russian and international centre of education, scientific research and culture, and in connection with the 275th anniversary of its foundation, the Russian Government has issued a decree “On St. Petersburg University” as of 1 November 1997. This document is not merely an acknowledgment of the past and present achievements of St. Petersburg University but an expression of support to its desire to become a leading classical university in the 21st century.

Today, the staff of the University are working to fulfill this strategic task.

In November 2009 President of the Russian Federation D. Medvedev issued the edict which specified the University special status of the unique educational and research complex, an oldest higher education institution in the country which assumes paramount importance for the development of the Russian society. By virtue of law the University has acquired a right to design its own educational programs and issue University degree certificates of its own format.




Faculty of Physics


The Faculty of Physics of the St. Petersburg State University has the structure which provides students with a solid educational basis and enables them to take part in fundamental high level research in line with modern standards. Practically all modern trends in physics, both experimental and theoretical, are presented in different departments of the Faculty of Physics.

During the 1746-1747 academic year M.V.Lomonosov, a graduate of the University, gave the first course of physics in Russian. He used a textbook by C.Wolff, which he translated into Russian. Valuable contribution to this science was made by Professor E.C.Lentz, who held the Chair of Physics from 1835 to 1862. Lentzs Law (heat generation by electric current) and the law of electromagnetic induction are known to any schoolboy.

In the second half of XIX century one of the first physics laboratories for students in Europe was opened in the University by Professor F.F. Petrushevsky. In September 9, 1901 the first Russian Institute of Physics was established at St.Petersburg University, that was the first building especially constructed for physicists in Russia. A whole generation of students studied physics using Professor O. Khvolsons textbook consisting of many volumes. Main enthusiast and the second director of new institute was Professor of Physics I.I. Borgman (March 1902-1914). He was also one of the first editors of the physics part of theJournal of Russian Physical and Chemical Societyestablished at the St. Petersburg University in 1872. Since 1931 this journal is published in Moscow by the Russian Academy of Sciences; it is known now to any physicist under the title The Journal of Experimental and Theoretical PhysicsJETP.

Since 1915 the Institute of Physics was directed by Professor (later - Academician) D.S. Rozhdestvensky who was well known due to his outstanding works in atomic spectroscopy, especially in experiments on anomaly dispersion. He made a great contribution to organize the high-class research work at the Faculty. The Faculty of Physics was created in the Leningrad State University in 1933 after the division of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics. In 1971-1976 the Faculty of Physics was moved to new campus in Stary (Old) Peterhof, which is situated in 35 km on the southwest from St. Petersburg in a marvellous suburban area of the city, in Petrodvorets. In 1999, when world physical community celebrated centenary of the outstanding theoretician, Academician Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock (1898-1998), the Institute of Physics got its present official name: V.A.Fock Institute of Physics.


Nowadays, the Faculty includes two research institutes in its structure: the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Radiophysics. The names of such famous scientists as the Nobel Prize Winners N.N. Semenov (1956), L.D. Landau (1962), A.M. Prokhorov (1964), Professors V.A. Fock, A.A. Friedmann, V.R. Bursian, P.I. Lukirsky, V.M. Chulanovsky, D.V. Skobeltsin, Ya.I. Frenkel, E.F. Gross, S.E. Frish, A.N. Terenin, G.A. (George) Gamov, V.N. Tsvetkov, V.A. Ambartsumyan, K.Ya. Kondratev, L.D. Faddeev, S.P. Merkurev et al, are connected with the Faculty of Physics.

The Faculty of Physics is managed by the Dean and the Scientific Board, both bodies elected for the five years term.

Scholarship is being advanced through the increasing specialisation within discrete subjects, in the borderlands between subjects and in the interplay between different subject areas. At graduate level the Physics Faculty offers the following degrees: Bachelor Degree (4 years of study), Master Degree (2 years of study). The Faculty offers also 3-year postgraduate programs leading to Candidate (Ph.D.) degree in Physics and Mathematics. Such a program can be undertaken in any research group. The Faculty offers three courses for undergraduate students: Physic, Radiophysics and Applied Physics and Mathematics, and two courses in the mastership: Physica and Applied Physics and Mathematics.

We will be looking at mature individuals who have been able to optimally develop their unique talents during a flexible educational experience – at individuals who have learned how to learn, and who can apply their special aptitudes to the greater good. Our Faculty exists for students who seek for that kind of education.

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