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To understand how deep were the soviet tentacles in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, try to imagine a parallel universe today.
Paul Wolfowitz, Bush's deputy secretary of defense, would be a member of al-Qaeda taking orders from Osama bin Laden.
Alger Hiss, assistant to the secretary of state under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Identified as a Soviet spy in Venona.14
The assistant to the secretary of the Treasury would be a member of al-Qaeda. He would be furiously employing a dozen other members of al-Qaeda at the Treasury Department. When their loyalty to America was questioned, he would leap in to defend them and save their jobs. With his secret al-Qaeda allies, he would intervene to block a crucial promised loan to Israel while at the same time encouraging the administration to make an absurdly generous loan to Saddam Hussein. When Israel imploded, historians and experts would rush in to say no one "lost" Israel. Bush would then promote the assistant to run the International Monetary Fund.
Harry Dexter White, assistant secretary of the Treasury under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Identified as a Soviet spy in Venona. White secured high-level government positions at the Treasury Department for at least eleven other Soviet agents - all named in Venona.15 White conspired with his fellow Soviet spies Frank Coe and Solomon Adler to kill a critical loan to Nationalist China, while at the same time trying to persuade Roosevelt to give the Soviet Union a $10 billion loan on extremely favorable terms (repayable over thirty-five years at a rate of 2 percent).16
Despite repeated warnings from the head of the FBI that White was a Soviet agent, President Truman retained White at Treasury and then appointed him the top U.S. official at the International Monetary Fund. Bush aide Andrew Card would be a member of al-Qaeda, sent on important international missions for President Bush.
Lauchlin Currie, administrative assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and deputy administrator of the Board of Economic Warfare.17 Identified as a Soviet spy in Venona.
The assistant to CIA Director George Tenet would be a member of al-Qaeda. It would raise no eyebrows in the Bush administration that the assistant was identified as a member of al-Qaeda by an FBI informer. Nor that he had honeymooned in Tora Bora.
Duncan Lee, chief of staff to the head of the Office of Strategic Services - the precursor to the CIA - under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Honeymooned in Moscow and identified as a Soviet spy in the sworn testimony of ex-spy Elizabeth Bentley. Confirmed as a Soviet spy in Venona.18
Bush aide Karl Rove would be referred to by al-Qaeda leaders as their most valuable asset. He would push the Bush administration to sell military and industrial equipment to Osama bin Laden on a special lend-lease deal. Years later, an al-Qaeda operative would claim Rove was working for them.
Harry Hopkins, special advisor to President Roosevelt and so described by a member of the Soviet underground, Anatoly Akhmerov.19 In K.G.B.: The Inside Story, former KGB agent Oleg Gordievsky identified Hopkins as a Soviet agent "of major significance. "20
Dick Cheney would be starstruck by Saddam Hussein and would counsel restraint in response to Hussein's every hostile act. At the same time, he would regularly denounce the U.S. and Britain as empire-building fascists. In other words, he would be Jimmy Carter. Roosevelt's vice president Henry Wallace, 1940 - 1944, who believed "America's main enemy was Churchill and the British Empire." He insisted that peace would be assured "if the United States guaranteed Stalin control of Eastern Europe. "21 When Stalin seized Czechoslovakia, Wallace sided with Stalin. When Stalin blockaded Berlin, Wallace opposed the U.S. airlift. After visiting a Soviet slave camp, Wallace enthusiastically described it as a "combination TVA and Hudson Bay Company. "22
Richard Perle, chairman of the Defense Policy Board, an advisory panel to Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, would surround himself with members of al-Qaeda in and out of government. He would invariably take the position most advantageous to al-Qaeda.
Owen Lattimore, the foreign policy sage loitering around the State Department, surrounded himself with Communist spies, both as editor of Pacific Affairs, the journal published by the Institute of Pacific Relations think tank, and at the State Department building, where he kept a desk and was deferred to as the wise man on China (which no one "lost").
The American ambassador to Iraq would heatedly deny that Saddam Hussein had gassed his own people. He would defend Saddam Hussein's nuclear weapons program and state that Iraq has "every moral right to seek atomic-bomb information" - including by espionage. Joseph Davies, a Roosevelt-appointed ambassador to the USSR, insisted Stalin's show trials were honest searches for the truth.
He told the Associated Press in 1946 that "Russia in self-defense has every moral right to seek atomic-bomb information through military espionage if excluded from such information by her former fighting allies. "23
Gale Norton, Bush's secretary of the interior, would be a member of various al-Qaeda front groups, such as the Benevolence International Foundation,24 publicly lending her name to their events.
Harold Ickes, Roosevelt's interior secretary (and father of Clinton deputy chief of staff by the same name), was a member of the Stalinist front group League for Peace and Democracy. He wrote a letter welcoming them to Washington for its fifth national gathering.2^
In the midst of all this, President Bush would be referring to America's mortal enemy with warmth and affection, calling him "Uncle Osama." In his inaugural address, Bush would explain that his posture toward al-Qaeda was, "In order to make a friend, one must be a friend." President Roosevelt, who called Stalin "Uncle Joe," said of the Soviet Union in his fourth inaugural address: "In order to make a friend, one must be a friend."
Bush's Republican successor as president would be telling a top aide that "Saddam was a fine man who wanted to do the right thing." He would write in his diary, "The Iraqis have always been our friends and I can't see any reason why they shouldn't always be."
President Truman said this about Stalin in October 1945, and wrote in his diary that the Russians "have always been our friends and I can't see any reason why they shouldn't always be. "26
The principal difference between fifth columnists in the Cold War versus the war on terrorism is that you could sit next to a Communist in a subway without asphyxiating. The second difference is, by the end of World War II, Roosevelt's pal Joseph Stalin had murdered twenty million people. ("One death is a tragedy but a million is only a statistic.") Even the Religion of Peace has not come close to that record. In far more time, Islamic terrorists of all nationalities, in all their manifestations, have not murdered even 0.1 percent as many people.
Incredibly, if Roosevelt had died one year earlier, Stalin might have immediately gained control of the United States presidency, Treasury Department, and State Department. Soviet dupe Henry Wallace would have become president, and it is very possible that he would have made Soviet spy Harry Dexter White his Treasury secretary and Soviet spy Alger Hiss his secretary of state.
In a formulation that would make Harvard-educated traitors titter, Joe McCarthy called it "a conspiracy on a scale so immense as to dwarf any previous such venture in the history of man. A conspiracy of infamy so black that, when it is finally exposed, its principals shall be forever deserving of the maledictions of all honest men."27 With a campaign of lies, liberals have turned McCarthy into the object "forever deserving of the maledictions of all honest men." Summarizing the views of all liberals, President Truman said, "I like old Joe. Joe is a decent fellow."28 Not McCarthy, of course, but Stalin. Truman loathed Joe McCarthy.
Among the most notorious Soviet spies in high-level positions in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations - now proved absolutely, beyond question by the Soviet cables - were Alger Hiss at the State Department; Harry Dexter White, assistant secretary of the Treasury Department, later appointed to the International Monetary Fund by President Truman; Lauchlin Currie, personal assistant to President Roosevelt and White House liaison to the State Department under both Roosevelt and Truman; Laurence Duggan, head of the Latin American Desk at the State Department; Frank Coe, U.S. representative on the International Monetary Fund; Solomon Adler, senior Treasury Department official; Klaus Fuchs, top atomic scientist; and Duncan Lee, senior aide to the head of the OSS.
The late senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan made a valiant effort to defend Roosevelt's and Truman's maddening obtuseness to Soviet agents in their employ, arguing that since they weren't told of the Venona Project, how could they be sure?
From 1945 to 1946, J. Edgar Hoover deluged Truman, the attorney general, and the secretary of state with increasingly urgent memos indicating that Harry Dexter White was a spy.29 The evidence was neither flimsy nor ambiguous. In 1945, the prime minister of Canada flew to Washington to warn the director of the FBI about a spy who clearly had to be White. A Soviet defector, Igor Gouzenko, had left the Soviet embassy in Canada, bringing hundreds of pages of documents with him. His information led to twenty-two arrests in Canada. Gouzenko's information identified White as a Soviet spy. Ex-spies Whittaker Chambers and Elizabeth Bentley had also "independently and without knowledge of each other's stories" named White as a Soviet spy.30 In the words of Sam Tanenhaus, biographer of Whittaker Chambers, Hoover provided the Truman administration with "stark confirmation" that Harry Dexter White (as well as Alger Hiss) was a Soviet agent.31 Truman responded by making White the top U.S. representative at the International Monetary Fund.
Just months into his presidency, Eisenhower would take the astonishing step of directing his attorney general, Herbert Brownell, to go on national TV and announce that President Truman had appointed a Soviet spy to be the top U.S. official at the IMF with full knowledge that White had been reliably identified as a Soviet agent. It was a breathtaking revelation. This would be like President Bush instructing Attorney General John Ashcroft to hold a press conference announcing that President Clinton had appointed Mohammed Atta to be secretary of the Department of Transportation after being told Atta was a Muslim terrorist. Truman responded to Brownell's statement by indignantly denying he had ever seen an FBI report suggesting that White was a spy. The FBI then produced the report. Next, Truman said he had moved White to the IMF only to get him out of the Treasury Department, expecting the FBI to continue its surveillance of White.32 So putting a Soviet spy in charge of the IMF was really a security measure. At least there was a good explanation.
But Moynihan claimed that if only Roosevelt and Truman had been told about the precise mechanics of the Venona Project, perhaps the Democrats would have finally expressed curiosity about the many Soviet spies in their employ. More likely, the Democrats would have told their Soviet pals that their cables were being read. In fact, that actually happened. The Venona Project had just gotten under way when trusted Roosevelt advisor Lauchlin Currie informed the Soviets that the Americans were about to crack their code. Thanks to the Soviet work ethic, the KGB reacted by making only superficial changes to the code.33 (Perhaps a profit motive would have inspired the Soviet codemakers to be more thorough.) Incredibly, a year later, someone in Roosevelt's White House, "most likely" Currie again, directed that the entire code-breaking project be stopped. The head of the Venona Project ignored the order.34 The problem was not that Democrats were not given sufficient proof of Communist spies in their administrations. It was that they didn't give a damn.
Even before the Venona Project was declassified, there were subtle clues that the Roosevelt and Truman administrations were having staffing problems. After showing up to testify before HUAC with Dean Acheson at his side, Harvard-educated Currie fled to Colombia. Coe pleaded the Fifth Amendment when asked if he was a "Soviet agent," and then escaped to Red China, where he became a top advisor to the Communist government until his death. (His efforts on behalf of totalitarianism were better rewarded than those of another Soviet spy, Noel H. Field, who fled to the workers' paradise in Hungary - and was immediately imprisoned.)35
With all the innocent victims of the "Red Scare" flinging themselves from windows in the fifties, you would think you couldn't walk down a street in Manhattan without a body falling on you. In fact, Harry Dexter White and Laurence Duggan were the only casualties. After denying he was a Soviet spy in sworn testimony before HUAC, White had a heart attack and died. After being questioned by the FBI, Duggan fell from the sixteenth floor of a Manhattan building, an apparent suicide. And now we know why. They were Soviet spies, and House investigators were closing in. It wasn't the "Red Scare" that drove them to their deaths. It was their guilt.36 At least they spared us the habeas petitions.
A few years earlier, when State Department investigators were circling, Duggan told his KGB handler that he would henceforth "only work openly within American leftist circles."37 Apparently he made a lot of friends. After Duggan's death, the moaning and gnashing of teeth from the liberal aristocracy almost surpassed Hollywood's bleating about lost movie credits. Such liberal luminaries as Eleanor Roosevelt, poet Archibald MacLeish, journalist Drew Pearson, and broadcasting personality Edward R. Murrow denounced the idea that Duggan could possibly have been a spy. Truman's undersecretary of state, Sumner Welles, defended Duggan. Attorney General Tom Clarke pronounced Duggan "a loyal employee of the United States Government."38
Though all half-serious people knew the left's various celebrity martyrs were traitors without having to see Soviet cables, liberals would never, ever relent in their lies.
Most astonishing was the left's defense of the Rosenbergs. There had been mass protests all around the world over the Rosenberg case.
The Communists assembled large crowds in Paris, Brussels, Rome, and all the usual hot spots. It was a real international cause celebre. American liberals were exuberant. They had finally won recognition and support from all over the world. It was a good issue for them. The American left kept carrying on about the horrors of McCarthyism, but even their fellow Communists couldn't quite work themselves into a lather over most of the "horror." You mean he couldn't do screenplays under his own name and had to fire the gardener and clean his pool in Bel Air by himself? No! That is shocking!
The Rosenberg case was the sort of thing Europeans could relate to - a bookish middle-aged couple sentenced to die in the electric chair and not even allowed to do forced labor but sent right away to some fiendish capitalist high technology killing implement! It was also important in the background that everyone knew the Rosenbergs were Jewish. The Communist message was: America is becoming a fascist police state! What better proof than the execution of a harmless Jewish couple from the Bronx. The Rosenbergs became the most compelling proof for the line that Eisenhower was turning the United States into a fascist state. It wasn't easy to put grinning Ike and "fascism" in the same sentence - unless it was to say that Ike destroyed fascism with his resolute wartime leadership. So the left held very tightly to the one piece of evidence that seemed to substantiate their crackpot vision of the fifties.
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«terrorism, war, internal and external security» "terrorisme, guerre, sécurité intérieure, sécurité extérieure", unanimously awarded,...