Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts




Скачать 423.61 Kb.
НазваниеLake George and Seminole Ranger Districts
страница1/13
Дата14.09.2012
Размер423.61 Kb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   13
Environmental Assessment

for Invasive Exotic Plant Management


September 15, 2002


Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts

Ocala National Forest

Lake, Marion, and Putnam Counties

National Forests in Florida

U.S.D.A. Forest Service


Responsible Officials

Jerri Marr, Lake George Ranger District

Jim D. Thorsen, Seminole Ranger District


Contact Information

Lorraine Miller

lorrainemiller@fs.fed.us

17147 E. HWY 40

Silver Springs, FL 34488

Telephone: (352) 625-2520


This document is tiered to the Revised Land and Resource Management Plan for the National Forests in Florida (January, 1999) and the Final Environmental Impact Statement Vegetation Management in the Coastal Plain/Piedmont (1989). Herbicide risk analysis is based on the Syracuse Environmental Research Associates’ Risk Assessment Final Reports for Selective Commercial Formulations of Triclopyr (March, 1996) and Selective Commercial Formulations of Glyphosate (June, 1996) and the Final Report for Neurotoxicity, Immunotoxicity, and Endocrine Disruption with Specific Commentary on Glyphosate, Triclopyr, and Hexazinone (February 2002).


Abstract: This Environmental Assessment (EA) for Invasive Exotic Plant Management was prepared with an interdisciplinary team approach following public scoping to determine issues. The EA addresses the need to manage invasive exotic plants that are threatening the integrity of the ecosystems of the Ocala National Forest (ONF). Three alternatives are described and developed. The Proposed Action of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a range of methods that can be used depending on site specific situations and the target invasive exotic plant. Monitoring will evaluate the success of the methods used on both the target invasive exotic plant and the ecosystem. Alternative B utilizes a more limited range of methods than The Proposed Action. The No Action Alternative would not respond to the need to manage invasive exotic weeds. The affected environments are described. The environmental consequences of the alternatives were analyzed by an interdisciplinary team and are disclosed. The affects of the alternatives on proposed, threatened, endangered, and Forest Service sensitive (TES) plant and animal species are discussed in the appended Biological Evaluations. Potential impacts of IPM strategies upon heritage resources will be assessed by the Forest archaeologist to avoid negative impacts to significant heritage resources.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER I. PROPOSED ACTION AND ITS PURPOSE AND NEED

I -1

I.INTRODUCTIONI - 1II.PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR THE PROPOSALI - 2BackgroundI - 2Purpose and NeedI - 5III.PROPOSED ACTIONI -11IV.SCOPE OF THE PROPOSED ACTIONI -12V.SCOPE OF THE ANALYSISI -12VI.DECISION TO BE MADEI -14

CHAPTER II. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION, ISSUES, AND ALTERNATIVES II - 1

I.INTRODUCTIONII - 1II.ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT PROCESSII - 1Public ParticipationII - 1IssuesII - 1III.ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED, BUT NOT STUDIED IN DETAILII - 2…By Mechanical Means OnlyII - 2…With Hot WaterII - 3IV.ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED IN DETAILII - 3Features Common to Alternatives A and BII - 3Alternative A: Proposed ActionII - 8Alternative B: Limited Integrated Pest Management StrategyII - 8Alternative C: No ActionII - 8

CHAPTER III. ENVIRONMENT CONSEQUENCESIII - 1

I.INTRODUCTIONIII - 1II.PHYSICAL COMPONENTSIII - 1A. CLIMATEIII - 1B. SOILSIII - 1C. AIRIII - 3D. WATER RESOURCESIII - 3E. FUELSIII - 5III.SOCIO-ECONOMIC COMPONENTSIII - 7A. HUMAN HEALTHIII - 7B. ECONOMICSIII - 10C. VISUAL RESOURCESIII - 12D. HERITAGE RESOURCESIII - 13IV.BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTSIII - 14A. VEGETATIONIII - 141. Plant CommunitiesIII - 142. Noxious Weed SpeciesIII - 193. Management Indicator SpeciesIII - 284. Proposed, Endangered, Threatened, and Sensitive SpeciesIII - 305. Biodiversity III - 33B. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES RESOURCESIII - 351. Animal Communities and Habitat III - 352. Management Indicator Species III - 363. Proposed, Endangered, Threatened, and Sensitive SpeciesIII - 374. Biodiversity III - 38

CHAPTER IV. AGENCIES AND PERSONS CONSULTEDIV - 1

I. PREPARERS OF THE ANALYSISIV - 1II. CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ANALYSISIV - 1III. AGENCIES, GROUPS, AND PERSONS CONSULTEDIV - 1

APPENDICES

A. LITERATURE CITEDA B. GLOSSARYB C.Fuel Models/Fuel SituationsC D. BIOLOGICAL EVALUATIONSD…For Proposed, Endangered, Threatened, and Sensitive Plant SpeciesD - 1…For Wildlife SpeciesD - 15E. SUMMARY INFORMATION ABOUT HERBICIDES PROPOSED FOR USE UNDER ALTERNATIVES A AND BEF. PESTICIDE EMERGENCY SPILL PLANFG. CONTROL METHODSGH.SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATIONH I. MAPS I Vicinity of Ocala National Forest in Relation to Other Public Ownerships I Compartment Locations I Noxious, Exotic Weed Locations I


CHAPTER I


PROPOSED ACTION AND ITS PURPOSE AND NEED


I. INTRODUCTION


Plants growing where they are not wanted are called weeds. Weeds affect us all. Most homeowners are acquainted with lawn and garden weeds. Consumers realize the impacts of weeds in higher grocery and wood-product prices and reduced quality. Still others experience the impacts of weeds when their recreational activities are hampered by clogged waterways.


Noxious, exotic plants are further defined as weeds that have been introduced into an area outside of their known natural range where there are no natural enemies - insects or pathogens - to keep their reproduction and expansion in check. The impacts of these plants are especially undesireable in native plant communities. Any ecosystem, such as, upland forests, flatwoods, prairies, floodplains, riparian areas, and wetlands, are vulnerable to invasion.


Noxious, exotic plants alter the composition and structure of an ecosystem, thereby disrupting ecological balances and potentially eliminating an entire suite of plants and animals dependent on that ecosystem. They destroy natural plant succession. They diminish water quality by interfering with water flow and evapotranspiration or changing its chemical composition. Noxious, exotic plants disrupt natural fire regimes, and can create a severe fire hazard. Pine seedling establishment is suppressed or prevented. Pine plantation yields are greatly reduced by weed competition.


In response to growing concerns about these plants, the United States Congress has passed at least seven federal laws which address actions against noxious, exotic weed infestations. To implement these laws and to provide direction for Forest Service activities, the Forest Service has developed policy, such as, Forest Service Manual (FSM) 2080 – Noxious Weed Management, as revised 11/29/95; National Forest Service Noxious Weed Strategy (March 4, 1996); a Noxious Weed Management Strategy, USDA Forest Service, Southern Region (June 1999) and Regional Invasive Exotic Plant Species List (May 18, 2001).


This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to disclose the environmental effects of a Forest Service proposal to implement an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy on the Ocala National Forest to prevent invasive, exotic plant monocultures that exclude native plant communities and wildlife dependent on them. The potential effects of two other alternatives are disclosed.


The purpose and need for this proposal and the components of the proposal that are described later in this document were based on the situation described above and the specific knowledge of these plants on the Ocala National Forest.


A Decision Notice and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Cogon Grass Control Project for the Ocala National Forest was signed on August 21, 1992, and implemented soon after. New cogon grass infestations have occurred in the ONF, although about 100 acres of cogon grass have been successfully eradicated and monitored for recovery by natural


I - 1

regeneration. In addition, other noxious, exotic plant species have been identified by the State of Florida.


This Environmental Assessment is tiered to the 1999 Land and Resource Management Plan’s (LRMP) accompanying Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the National Forests in Florida, which incorporates federal laws and polices to actions on the Ocala National Forest, and the Environmental Impact Statement for Vegetation Management in the Coastal Plain/Piedmont (VMEIS). Herbicide risk analysis is based on the Syracuse Environmental Research Associates Risk Assessment Final Reports for Selected Commercial Formulations of Triclopyr (March, 1996) and Selected Commercial Formulations of Glyphosate (June 1996).


The IPM strategy would be applied on the Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts in Marion, Lake, and Putnam Counties. The Ocala National Forest encompasses approximately 380,000 acres in north-central Florida. The Forest is bounded by the St. Johns River on the east and the Ocklawaha River on the west and north. The Forest shares boundaries with the Department of Environmental Protection’s The Office of Greenways and Trails and the Lower Wekiva River State Reserve, Seminole State Forest, St. Johns River Water Management District lands, corporate wood fiber-production lands, and private inholdings. The Forest is within a few miles of the managed lands of The Silver River State Park and Marion County Parks and Recreation. Three state highways, maintained by Florida Department of Transportation, cross or border the Forest. The above-mentioned state and county agencies all implement noxious, exotic weed strategies.


The analysis documentation is located in the project record and is available for public review at the Lake George and Seminole Ranger District offices in Lynn and Umatilla, Florida, respectively.


II. PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR THE PROPOSAL


Background


Florida is particularly prone to noxious, exotic weed invasions because its subtropical climate and its island-like land mass is conducive to their establishment, propagation, and expansion. A growing human population, coupled with a lack of awareness, contributes to the movement of these weed species via the ornamental and landscaping trades, contamination by boat motors, illegal dumping of yard wastes, contaminated fill dirt, etc. It is estimated that more than 1.5 million acres of Florida’s remaining natural areas are infested with noxious, exotic plant species. “Natural areas” is a State term used to define lands that are designated for the preservation or protection of native plant communities and their components to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect. This alteration of natural environmental conditions is leading to biologically impoverished landscapes.


Eighteen invasive exotic plants have been located on, adjacent to, or near the Ocala National Forest during field surveys by Forest Service personnel and by data maintained by several state agencies, including the Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. These plants include Albizia julibrissin (Japanese mimosa), Ardisia crenata (coral ardisia), Broussenetia papyrifera (paper mulberry), Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree), Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato), Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass),


I - 2


Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine), Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern), Macfadyena unguis-cati (cat's claw vine), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry), Nandina domestica (heavenly bamboo), Paederia foetida (skunk vine), Panicum repens (torpedo grass), Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu), Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow tree), Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper), Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple), and Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria). The biology and ecology of these noxious, exotic plants are discussed in Chapter III, “Biological Components”.


All of the above plant species are on the 2001 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Category I List of Invasive Species, except paper mulberry and Chinese wisteria, which are Category II species. Category I species alter native plant communities by displacing native species, change community structures or ecological functions, or hybridize with natives. Category II species have increased in abundance or frequency but have not altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species.


The National Forest’s Southern Region compiled a list of invasive exotic plant species of management concern. These weeds and their categories are displayed in Table 1. Weed Category 1 species are known to be invasive and persistent throughout all or most of their range within the Southern Region. They are known to spread into and persist in native plant communities,where they displace native plant species and therefore pose a demonstrable threat to the integrity of the natural plant communities in the Region. The use of these species is prohibited on National Forest System lands. Efforts to control them are encouraged where practicable.


Weed Category 2 species are suspected to be invasive or are known to be invasive in limited areas of the Southern Region. These species typically persist in the environment for long periods once they become established and may become invasive under favorable conditions. The establishment or encouragement of these species is prohibited in areas where ecological conditions would favor invasiveness and is discouraged elsewhere. Control efforts may or may not be necessary to achieve management objectives of the planning area.

The Lake George Ranger District has been inventorying all of the above-listed plant species for the past several years. Some are known to occur on the Seminole Ranger District but no inventory of these plant species, except for cogon grass and air potato, has been done due to a lack of personnel or funding. Both districts have been controlling cogon grass since the 1992 Cogon Grass Control EA. Other noxious, exotic plants, such as Brazilian pepper and skunk vine, occur adjacent to or in surrounding counties, but are not known to occur on the Ocala National Forest. These pose a potential future threat to the integrity of the ecosystems of the Forest.


Table 1 displays a list of invasive plants of specific concern to the Ocala National Forest as of 2002. These are grouped as Level 1, 2 , or 3, as follows:


Level 1 = “rapid invader” (species with a high rate of spread)

Level 2 = “limited invader” (species limited by a rate of spread commiserate with their reproductive stage; can elevate to Level 1 as they become naturalized at a particular site))

Level 3 = “potential invader” (species not known to currently inhabit the Forest, but is present in nearby counties)


I - 3


These level designations will be utilized to help determine treatment priorities during project implementation.


Throughout the remainder of this document, the term “weed” may be used when making general references to an invasive, exotic plant included in Table 1. “Invasive” and “noxious” may be used interchangeably.


Table 1


Noxious, Exotic Plants of Concern for the Ocala National Forest


Scientific NameCommon NameOcala NF Level 1Ocala NF Level 2Ocala NF Level 3FEPPCFS Region 8FDACSAlbizia julibrissinJapanese mimosaXI1Ardisia crenatacoral ardisiaXI1Broussenetia papyriferapaper mulberryXIICinnamomum camphoracamphor treeXI1Dioscorea bulbiferaair potatoXI1XImperata cylindricacogon grassXI1XJasminum fluminenseBrazilian jasmineXILygodium japonicumJapanese climbing fernXI1XMacfadyena unguis-caticat’s claw vineXI2Melia azedarachChinaberryXI1Nandina domesticaheavenly bambooXI2Paederia foetida skunk VineXI1XPanicum repenstorpedo grass XI1Pueraria montana var. lobatakudzuXI1X

I - 4

Sapium sebiferumChinese tallow treeXI1XSchinus terebinthifoliusBrazilian pepperXI1X

Solanum viarumtropical soda appleXI1XWisteria sinensisChinese wisteriaXII2

Note the Following Designations:

Ocala National Forest:

Level 1 = 1st priority, “rapid invaders”. The goal is to contain new locations quickly and to control older infestations until complete eradication. Monitoring continues up to 5 years.

Level 2 = 2nd priority, “ limited invaders”. The goal is to eradicate reproducible specimens first, then immature stages. Monitoring continues for several years.

Level 3 = highest priority, “ potential invaders”. The goal is prevention, since these species are not known to currently inhabit the ONF. If these species are found to occur in the ONF, then the goal would be to quickly eradicate them.

(FEPPC) FL Exotic Pest Plant Council:

Category I = species that alter native plant communities by displacing native species, change community structures or ecological functions, or hybridize with natives.

Category II = species that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species.

(FS) Forest Service, R8, Southern Region:

Category 1 = species that are known to spread into and persist in native plant communities, where they displace native plant species and therefore pose a demonstrable threat to the integrity of the natural plant communities in the Region.

Category 2 = species that are suspected to be invasive or are known to be invasive in limited areas of the Southern Region.

(FDACS) FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services:

These plants are deemed a serious agricultural threat in Florida.

Purpose and Need


The overall purpose of this management proposal is to meet the goals and objectives of the Forest Plan. The goals and objectives help to achieve the desired future conditions and forest management direction. This proposal potentially achieves the specific goals found on pages 2-3 through 2-4 of the Revised Land and Resource Management Plan for the National Forests in Florida, February 1999, and are restated here:

 Conserve and protect important elements of diversity - such as endangered and threatened species habitat, declining natural communities, and uncommon biological, ecological, or geologic sites.


I - 5

 Manage for habitat conditions to recover and sustain viable populations of all native species, with special emphasis on rare species.


 Manage floodplains, groundwater, lakes, riparian areas, springs, streams, and wetlands to protect or enhance their individual values and ecological functions.


 Protect rivers and preserve their cultural/historical, ecological, fish and wildlife, recreational, geological, or scenic values.


 Increase public awareness of wilderness values. Protect and enhance resources, quality, and wilderness character of designated wilderness areas.


 Preserve significant heritage resources as remnants of our cultural heritage by locating, evaluating, and protecting heritage resource sites.


 Protect, enhance, and, where necessary, restore the forest's scenery resource values.


 Strengthen partnerships and actively pursue communication, cooperation, and partnerships with other national forests, other agencies, groups, local communities, organizations, and tribal governments to serve the public interest, consistent with the Forest Service Mission.


 Contribute to the social and economic well-being of local communities by promoting sustainable use of renewable natural resources and participating in efforts to devise creative solutions for economic health.


 Maintain or, where necessary, restore ecosystem composition, structure, and function within the natural range of variability in all ecosystems, with emphasis on longleaf-wiregrass, sand pine-oak scrub, pine flatwoods, hardwood/cypress, oak hammock ecosystems, and other imperilled specialized communities.


Standards and guidelines regulate activites and ensure and maintain the conditions that will achieve the goals and objectives. The forestwide standards and guidelines possibly related to this project are too numerous to restate here, but are located from pages 3-1 to 3-32 of the Forest Plan. Standards and guidelines specific to Management Areas 0.1 through 9.1 are located on pages 4-3 through 4-12, 4-20 through 4-25, 4-28 through 4-40, and 4-42 through 4-51 of the Forest Plan.


Appendix C (page C-3) of the Forest Plan lists plants known to be invasive and to disrupt native plant communities. The Forest Service tries to control these and to limit opportunities for invasion by any other nonnative species. For invasive, exotic plant activities the most relevant forestwide standards and guidelines are located under "Exotic Species" (page 3-23) of the Forest Plan and are restated here:


 Control invasive terrestrial and aquatic weeds. If herbicides are used, apply directly on the spot. Do not apply herbicides within 60 feet of any PETS (proposed, endangered, threatened, sensitive) plant species unless analysis indicates herbicide use is the best way to protect PETS plants from invasive weeds.


I - 6

 Plant only native plant species - except nonnative (noninvasive, nonnoxious) species may be planted in wildlife plots, in developed recreation sites, in administration sites, or for erosion control. Do not plant species capable of invading adjacent land. Use bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) where it is the only practical option.


 When a project requires mulch, require that the mulch comes from a source that is certified apparently free of invasive weeds or their seeds. Hay taken from a roadside may not be weed-free.


The specific purposes of this proposal are described below. Ecological and management needs are also discussed.


Purpose 1). Protect affected ecosystems, forest road right-of-ways, and administrative and developed recreational sites using an Integrated Pest Management approach, including prevention, mechanical, chemical, and cultural strategies, by:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   13

Похожие:

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconThe Round Lake Bypass Project is located in the Village of Round Lake and the Town of Malta, Saratoga County, New York. The project was initiated in an effort

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconAn ordinance of spring lake heights borough, county of monmouth, state of new jersey enacting chapter 22-530 "stormwater control"," to the borough of spring lake heights land use regulations

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconChiiloquin ranger district

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconDesigning Culturally-Sensitive Curricula in Native American Reservation Schools: The Seminole Nation”

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconSu bwatersheds chiloquin Ranger District Winema National Forest

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconAt Douglas Lake. Animal Behavior

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconTulare Lake Hydrologic Region

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconQuaternary Lake Sediments Bibliography

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconMissouri Democrats gather at Lake of the Ozarks for state convention

Lake George and Seminole Ranger Districts iconLake Arrowhead Human Complex Systems Conference May 2005

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
Библиотека


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Библиотека
Главная страница