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Study guide compiled by:
Prof PD Theron & Prof GC Loots
* Page layout by Elsabe Strydom, graphikos.
Printing arrangements and distribution by Department Logistics (Distribution Centre).
Printed by The Platinum Press (018) 299 4226.
Copyright 2010 edition. Date of revision 2010.
North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus.
No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from the publisher.
Welcome/contact details vi
How to study vi
Study material vii
Participation mark vii
Module plan vii
Action words viii
Module outcomes xi
Work programme xii
Warning against plagiarism xiii
1 Architectural pattern of an animal 1
1.1 Hierarchical organisation of animal complexity 3
1.2 Animal body plans 5
1.3 Components of metazoan bodies 7
1.4 Complexity and body size 9
2 Taxonomy and phylogeny of animals 11
2.1 History and development of taxonomy and classification 13
2.2 Species concepts 15
2.3 Taxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic reconstruction 17
2.4 Taxonomic theories 19
2.5 Classification of major divisions of life (kingdoms) and subdivisions of the animal kingdom 21
3 Unicellular Eukaryotes (Protozoan groups) 23
3.1 Position in relation to the animal kingdom and characteristics 25
3.2 Form and function of the protozoan groups 27
3.3 The flagellum-bearing phyla 29
3.4 Phylum ciliophora 31
3.5 Phylum apicomplexa 33
3.6 The amebe-likes (Sarcodina) 35
3.7 Phylogeny and adaptive diversification 37
4 Multicellular Eukarotes: Phylum Porifera (Sponges) 39
4.1 The origin of multicellular animals (Metazoa) 41
4.2 Position in the animal kingdom and distinguishing characteristics 42
4.3 Form and function 44
4.4 Classes Calcispongiae, Hyalospongiae and Demospongiae 46
4.5 Phylogeny and adaptive diversification 47
5 Radiate animals (Cnidaria) 49
5.1 Position in the animal kingdom and distinguishing characteristics 51
5.2 Form and function 53
5.3 Class Hydrozoa 55
5.4 Class Scyphozoa 57
5.5 Class Anthozoa 58
5.6 Phylogeny and adaptive diversification 60
6 Platyhelminthes (flatworms) 61
6.1 Position in the animal kingdom, and distinguishing characteristics 63
6.2 Form and function 65
6.3 Class Turbellaria 66
6.4 Class Trematoda 67
6.5 Class Cestoda 69
6.6 Phylogeny and adaptive diversification of the platyhelminthes 71
7.1 Position in the animal kingdom and diagnostic characteristics 75
7.2 Form and function 77
7.3 Parasitic nematodes 79
7.4 Phylogeny and adaptive diversification 81
(snails, snail-related animals) (Coelomates) 83
8.1 Position in the animal kingdom and distinguishing characteristics 85
8.2 Form and function 87
8.3 Class Polyplacophora 89
8.4 Class Gastropoda 90
8.5 Class Bivalvia 92
8.6 Class Cephalopoda 93
8.7 Phylogeny and adaptive diversification 95
(= segmented worms) and allied taxa 97
9.1 Evolutionary value of, respectively, a fluid-filled coelom cavity and metamerism, position in the animal kingdom and distinguishing characteristics 99
9.2 Form and function 101
9.3 Class Polychaeta 103
9.4 Class Oligochaeta 105
9.5 Class Hirudinea 107
9.6 Phylogeny and adaptive diversification 109
On behalf of the subject group Zoology we would like to welcome you to this module and we trust that you will enjoy the work and that you will be able to discuss the lower Invertebrata (lower invertebrate animals) with insight at the end of this module. The work might sometimes be difficult, but regard it as a challenge and an adventure to learn more about the lower invertebrate animals. Remember, you are developing academically. We would like to support and guide you, but you have to let us know if you need help!
How to study
In Zoology, as in all other subjects in Biology, real examples are used, which are illustrated in the textbooks by way of two- and three-dimensional drawings and photographs. As a young child, you were taught to classify inanimate objects by making associations. Anybody can conjure up a mental picture when the concepts “table” or “chair” are mentioned. The same principle applies in Zoology. When you start studying, begin by memorising the organism or group as a whole. When you are able to invoke a mental picture of an organism upon hearing or seeing its name, you are ready for the next step, which is to connect substructures or organ systems to this image. This is followed by linking form and function to the organ systems. This way of learning eliminates the often meaningless memorisation of endless pages of text.
When you have learnt the right and effective way of studying, you will be able to apply it profitably in your preparation for the contact sessions. It will also enable me as lecturer to devote the contact sessions mainly to the explanation of difficult concepts, etc. For this module you will have two theoretical contact sessions per week as well as a three-hour practical session every two weeks during the first semester.
As for admission to the Faculty of Life Sciences. Learners who did not have Biology as a subject at school will also be admitted but they should realise that they will have to make up leeway!
Continuous evaluation tests = 33.4%
Semester tests = 33.3%
Practical mark = 33.3%
Participation mark : Exam mark = 1 : 1
Before you answer a question in an assignment, test or exam, you should make sure that you know what is expected of you. The following is a list of action words you may encounter. Familiarise yourself with the exact meaning of each action word as these action words will be used extensively during assessments and a sound working knowledge of these words will eliminate misunderstandings between lecturer and learner.
Divide in parts or elements and discuss each in detail.
Discover by making use of applicable knowledge or methods.
Use applicable equations and laws to obtain a quantitative answer.
List the characteristics/facts in a logical and structured way.
Discuss by investigating different aspects and following a critical approach.
Give a brief and precise description.
Assess something or give your opinion in terms of specific standards.
Supply the facts only without discussing them.
Determine the name of an organism with reference to the following categories (and their subcategories, where applicable): subkingdom, phylum, subphylum, class, order, genus and species.
Give a more personal perspective on a matter.
Highlight the good and bad characteristics and give your opinion, taking into account all the relevant facts.
Give names, characteristics or facts.
Indicate the differences that clearly establish the distinction between the aspects concerned.
Investigate and critically discuss in terms of clearly defined criteria and guidelines.
Provide the essential core aspects of a matter.
Present the data in a succinct, logical and systematic way.
Make sure that the reader will acquire a good understanding of the issue at hand when he/she has read your answer. Make use of illustrations, descriptions or logical presentation of the facts.
Indicate the similarities and differences between statements, ideas, organisms, taxa, etc.
Present a statement logically by way of argument.
By the end of this module you should have the knowledge and insight to:
Study the following list of icons thoroughly as it will give you a clear indication of what will be required of you for each section of the work.
3. Date of semester test:
4. Date of practical examination/test:
5. Date of examination:
Warning against plagiarism
ASSIGNMENTS ARE INDIVIDUAL TASKS AND NOT GROUP ACTIVITIES. (UNLESS EXPLICITLY INDICATED AS GROUP ACTIVITIES)
Copying of text from other learners or from other sources (for instance the study guide, prescribed material or directly from the internet) is not allowed – only brief quotations are allowed and then only if indicated as such.
You should reformulate existing text and use your own words to explain what you have read. It is not acceptable to retype existing text and just acknowledge the source in a footnote – you should be able to relate the idea or concept, without repeating the original author to the letter.
The aim of the assignments is not the reproduction of existing material, but to ascertain whether you have the ability to integrate existing texts, add your own interpretation and/or critique of the texts and offer a creative solution to existing problems.
Be warned: students who submit copied text will obtain a mark of zero for the assignment and disciplinary steps may be taken by the Faculty and/or University. It is also unacceptable to do somebody else’s work, to lend your work to them or to make your work available to them to copy – be careful and do not make your work available to anyone!
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