International military intervention, 1946-1988




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INTERNATIONAL MILITARY INTERVENTION, 1946-1988

(ICPSR 6035)


Principal Investigators

Frederic S. Pearson

Wayne State University

Robert A. Baumann

University of Missouri, St. Louis


First ICPSR Release

April 1993


Inter-university Consortium for

Political and Social Research

P.O. Box 1248

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106

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BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION


Publications based on ICPSR data collections should

acknowledge those sources by means of bibliographic

citations. To ensure that such source attributions are

captured for social science bibliographic utilities,

citations must appear in footnotes or in the reference

section of publications. The bibliographic citation for

this data collection is:


Pearson, Frederic S., and Robert A. Baumann.

INTERNATIONAL MILITARY INTERVENTION, 1946-1988

[Computer file]. St. Louis, MO: University of

Missouri-St. Louis, Center for International

Studies [producer], 1992. Ann Arbor, MI:

Inter-university Consortium for Political and

Social Research [distributor], 1993.


REQUEST FOR INFORMATION ON USE OF ICPSR RESOURCES

To provide funding agencies with essential information

about use of archival resources and to facilitate the

exchange of information about ICPSR participants'

research activities, users of ICPSR data are requested to

send to ICPSR bibliographic citations for each completed

manuscript or thesis abstract. Please indicate in a cover

letter which data were used.


DATA DISCLAIMER

The original collector of the data, ICPSR, and the

relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for uses

of this collection or for interpretations or inferences

based upon such uses.

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DATA COLLECTION DESCRIPTION


Frederic S. Pearson and Robert A. Baumann

INTERNATIONAL MILITARY INTERVENTION, 1946-1988 (ICPSR 6035)

SUMMARY: This data collection documents all cases of military

intervention across international boundaries by regular armed

forces of independent states in the regions of Europe, the Americas

(and Caribbean), Asia and the Pacific, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the

Middle East/North Africa. Military interventions are defined

operationally in this collection as the movement of regular troops

or forces (airborne, seaborne, shelling, etc.) of one country into

the territory or territorial waters of another country, or forceful

military action by troops already stationed by one country inside

another, in the context of some political issue or dispute. The

study seeks to identify politically important actions which

interpose a state directly into the conflict patterns occurring in

another state, and which conceivably involve a breach of the

sovereignty of the target state (albeit by invitation in some

cases). The collection identifies intervener and target countries

and specifies the starting and ending dates of the intervention. A

series of potential interests in or motives for intervention are

presented, including effects on the target's domestic disputes,

foreign or domestic policies, and efforts to protect social

factions in the target, to attack rebels in sanctuaries across

borders ("hot pursuit"), to protect or enhance economic/resource

interests, to protect military or diplomatic facilities, to save

lives, or to affect regional power balances and strategic

relations. Information is provided on the direction of the

intervention, i.e., to support or oppose the target government, to

support or oppose opposition groups in the target, or to support or

oppose third-party governments or opposition groups. Other

variables show the degree of prior intervention, the alliance or

treaty relationship between intervener and target, prior colonial

status, prior intervention, and measures of intervener and target

power size. A series of intensity measures, such as battle-related

casualties, is also included. For each type of incursion, by land,

sea, or air, an ordinal scale of involvement is presented, ranging

from minor engagement such as evacuation, to patrols, acts of

intimidation, and actual firing, shelling, or bombing. Finally,

contiguity information is provided to indicate both whether

intervener and target are geographically contiguous, and whether

the intervention was launched from contiguous territory. CLASS III

UNIVERSE: All cases of military interventions from 1946 through

1988.

NOTE: Part 2 of this collection contains SAS language statements,

data list, instream data, and other program statements to read the

file directly into SAS.

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EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + machine-readable documentation

(text) + accompanying computer programs

EXTENT OF PROCESSING: NONNUM/ BLANKS/ MDATA

DATA FORMAT: Logical Record Length

Part 1: Main Data File Part 2: SAS Program File with

File Structure: rectangular Instream Data

Cases: 667 Record Length: 80

Variables: 35

Record Length: 134

Records Per Case: 1

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Pearson, Frederic S. "U.S.-Soviet Competitive Intervention:

Retrospect and Prospect." In Manuel J. Pelaez (ed.), PUBLIC LAW AND

COMPARATIVE POLITICS. TRABAJOS EN HOMENAJE A FERRAN VALLIS I

TABERNER. Vol. XVII. Barcelona, Spain: Facultad de Derecho de la

Universidad de Malaga, et. al, 1991, pp. 4985-5017.

Pearson, Frederic S., and Robert A. Baumann. "International

Military Intervention in Sub-Saharan African Subsystems." JOURNAL

OF POLITICAL AND MILITARY SOCIOLOGY 17 (Spring 1989), 115-150.

Pearson, Frederic S., Robert A. Baumann, and Gordon N. Bardos.

"Arms Transfers: Effects on African Interstate Wars and

Interventions." CONFLICT QUARTERLY (Winter 1989), 36-62.

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INTERNATIONAL MILITARY INTERVENTION,

1946-1988*


Data Development for International Research (DDIR) Project

Merriam Laboratory for Analytic Political Research

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

512 East Chalmers Street

Champaign, Illinois 61820


Principal Investigator:

Frederic S. Pearson, Director

Center for Peace and Conflict Studies

2319 Faculty-Administration Building

Wayne State University

Detroit, Michigan 48202


Co-Investigator:

Robert A. Baumann

Center for International Studies

University of Missouri-St. Louis

St. Louis, Missouri 63121-4499


Revised Edition: October, 1992


*This project, which was completed in 1989, was supported by the Data

Development for International Research (DDIR) Project, which was

funded by The National Science Foundation. Additional support for the

International Military Intervention project was provided by the

Center for International Studies, and the Improved Research Quality

Fund, University of Missouri-St. Louis, and the University of

Missouri Weldon Spring Fund. The investigators are solely responsible

for the contents.


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Page 2 ICPSR 6035


ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF ASSISTANCE


All manuscripts utilizing data made available through the Data

Development for International Research (DDIR) project should

acknowledge that fact as well as identify the original collector of

the data. The DDIR project directors urge all users of DDIR data to

use the following statement or some appropriate equivalent:

The data utilized in this study were made available by the Data

Development for International Research Project. The data for

INTERNATIONAL MILITARY INTERVENTION, 1946-88 were originally

collected by Frederic S. Pearson. Neither the collector of the

original data nor the DDIR project bear any responsibility for the

analyses or interpretations presented in this study.

Each user of DDIR data is expected to send two copies of each

completed manuscript to the DDIR project directors, Prof. Dina A.

Zinnes and Prof. Richard L. Merritt.


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ICPSR 6035 Page 3


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page(s)

International Military Intervention: An 4 - 6

Introduction

List of Related Publications 7 - 8

Variable List 9

CODEBOOK 10 - 15

Appendix A: List of Country and Organization 16 - 23

Codes

Appendix B: Military Intervention Dataset 24 - 33

Sources


Appendix C: Cox-Jacobson Power Scale 34 - 35


Page 4 ICPSR 6035


INTERNATIONAL MILITARY INTERVENTION,

1946-1988

Introduction

The international military intervention data set covers the

1946-1988 period. Final coding accumulated 667 cases of military

intervention across international boundaries by regular armed forces

of independent states in the regions of Europe, the Americas (and

Caribbean), Asia and the Pacific, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle

East/North Africa.

Several innovations and changes distinguish this data set from

our prior compilation (1948-67), as well as from other data sets

which encompass interventions (see codebook). These changes are

apparent in a number of the key issues in identifying intervention

which we have listed in prior analyses: definition; confirmation;

determination of dates; specification of auspices and motives;

enumeration of repetition; determination of magnitude and import. /1

We continue to define military intervention operationally as the

movement of regular troops or forces (airborne, seaborne, shelling,

etc.) of one country into the territory or territorial waters of

another country, or forceful military action by troops already

stationed by one country inside another, in the context of some

political issue or dispute. Regular forces here do not include

paramilitary forces, as defined by the MILITARY BALANCE publications

of the IISS, and since actions by border guards or police are

therefore excluded, we run less risk than in the past of including

very minor border skirmishes and shooting incidents.

We have tried in this study to identify politically important

actions which interpose a state directly in the conflict patterns

going on in another state, and which conceivably involve moves which

could breach the target state's sovereignty (albeit by invitation in

some cases). Excluded are random or clearly accidental border

violations, and military involvements by colonial powers in their

colonies (since sovereignty is not being breached); interventions by

others in colonies are treated as interventions in the colonial

power. The shipment of arms or materiel, and covert subversion, while

forms of intervention, are not included here as MILITARY

intervention. Transport of troops, even troops of another country,

into a fighting zone is considered intervention. Evacuations are

treated as a minor form of intervention, since they imply that the

host state cannot guarantee the safety of resident aliens, and that

normal channels of travel cannot suffice; they also offer the pretext

for deeper potential involvements by the intervener. In addition,

interventions in disputed territory are included in this compilation,

with consideration of prior occupation of the territory and legal

standing in determining who is the intervener and who the target.


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ICPSR 6035 Page 5


Military engagements on the high seas are excluded, unless they

involve disputed territories such as uninhabited but previously

occupied islands.

We speak of forceful interventions, meaning the use of troops in

some form of compellant or deterrent role, rather than to build roads

or administer medical relief programs, even when the latter might

influence the course of battle. Military advisors, technicians, or

instructors are not considered interveners, unless they engage in,

lead, or direct (at frontlines) active combat. Initiatives by

military commanders are considered intervention, if they qualify by

other criteria, even if they were not specifically authorized by the

home government (since they have implications for further conflict

and breaches of sovereignty). Troops stationed on military bases are

not considered interveners, unless they arrive in the midst of a

political dispute, or unless they leave the base to take some

forceful action in the context of such a dispute.

While adversaries frequently accuse each other of aggression and

intervention, the researcher must insist on as much confirmation by

independent sources as possible. Therefore, we have roamed widely

for source material (see bibliography attached), including

newspapers, chronologies and archives, monographs, almanacs, and

prior conflict studies. A complete review of the NEW YORK TIMES INDEX

and FOREIGN AFFAIRS chronologies for the years under study was used

to identify potential cases which might have been missed in other

sources. By using both US and non-US sources, and particularly

regionally specific chronologies, we aimed to minimize cultural

biases. Sources are specified for each intervention case to assist

in evaluation, replication, and supplemental studies.

Conventions have been adopted for dating the interventions

(beginning and ending). Exact dates are specified where known;

approximate dates are used where specified (such as by month), with

the last day of months or years adopted as the designation.

Interventions are considered continuous over a period of time if

repeated acts occur with no break longer than six months. Resumption

after six months is designated a new intervention, as is a "step
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