Paper I: diversity of microbes and cryptograms




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SYLLABUS

of


B.Sc. (Botany) Part-I

(Annual)


2011, 2012 and 2013 Examinations


SYLLABUS


B.Sc. (Botany) Part-I






Hours of Teaching

Marks




Theory

Practical

Theory

Practical

Paper I: Diversity of Microbes and Cryptogams

60

100

75

25
















Paper II: Cell Biology and Genetics

60

100

75

25



Note: There will be two Practical papers of 3 hours each pertaining to entire syllabus included in both theory papers, respectively as:


2.00 PM – 5.00 PM

8.00 AM – 11.00 AM


Paper I: DIVERSITY OF MICROBES AND CRYPTOGRAMS


Max. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 90

Pass Marks: 35% (Each of 45 minutes duration)

Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Note: The number of lectures per week will be nine both for theory and practicals.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR PAPER SETTER AND CANDIDATES


The question paper will consist of five sections A, B, C, D and E. Section A, B, C and D will have two questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and will carry 15 marks each. Section E will consist of 10 short-answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.


Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A, B, C and D of the question paper and the entire section E.


Section-A


  1. Viruses and Bacteria: General account of viruses and mycoplasma. Bacteria – structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance. General account of cyanobacteria with emphasis on Oscillatoria.

  2. Fungi: General characters. Classification and economic importance; important features and life history of Mastigomycotina – Phytophthora; Zygomycotina – Mucor; Ascomycotina – Saccharomyces, Pencillium, Peziza; Basidiomycotina – Puccinia, Ustilago, Agaricus; Mitosporic Fungi – Cercospora, Collectotrichum; Lichens: Structure, morphology, reproduction and economic importance.


Section-B


  1. Algae: General characters, classification and economic importance: important features and life history of Chlorophyceae – Volvox, Oedogonium; Xanthophyceae- Vaucheria; Phaeophyceae- Ectocarpus,Sargassum; Rhodophyceae- Batrachospermum.


Section-C



  1. Bryophyta: Amphibians of Plant Kingdom displaying alternation of generations; structure, reproduction and classification of Hepaticopsida (Marchantia); Anthocerotopsida (Anthoceros); Bryopsida (Funaria) – developmental stages are excluded.


Section-D


  1. Pteridophyta: The first vascular plants: important characteristics, structure and reproduction of Psilopsida (Rhynia); Lycopsida (Lycopodium, Selaginella); Sphenopsida (Equisetum) and Pteropsida (Pteris and Marsilea) – developmental stages are excluded.

RECOMMENDED REDINGS


  1. Ainsworth, G.C. and Sussman. The Fungi Vol. I, II, III, IV. Academic Press, New York.

  2. Alexopolus, C.J., Mims, C.W. and Blackwell, M. 1996. Introductory Mycology. John Willey & Sons. Inc., Singapore.

  3. Black, J.G. 1999. Microbiology – Principles and Explorations. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Singapore.

  4. Clitton, A. 1958. Introduction to Bacteria. McGraw Hills & Co., New York.

  5. Dube, H.C.1990. An Introduction to Fungi. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

  6. Kumar, H.D. 1988. Introductory Phycology. Affiliated East West Press Ltd., New Delhi.

  7. Mandhar, C.L. 1978. Introduction to Viruses. S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

  8. Parihar, N.S. 1996. Biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Central Book Depot., Allahabad.

  9. Rashid, A. 1998. An Introduction to Bryophyta. Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

  10. Rashid, A. 1999. An Introduction to Pteridophyta. Vikas Publ. House, Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.

  11. Sharma, O.P. 1991. Text Book of Pteridophytes. MacMillan India Ltd.

  12. Sharma, O.P. 1991. Text Book of Thallophytes Publishing. McGraw Hill décor Co., New York.

  13. Sharma, P.D. 1991. The Fungi. Rastogi Co., Meerut.

  14. Sporne, K.R.1991. The Morphology of Pteridophytes. B. I. Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.

  15. Stainer, R.Y., Ingraham, J.L., Wheelis, M.L. and Painter, P.R. 1989. General Microbiology. Macmillan.

  16. Vasishta, P.C. 1996. Bryophyta. S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

  17. Vasishta, P.C. 2000. Pteridophyta. S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi



SUGGESTED LABORATORY EXCERCISES


Teachers may select plants/material available in their locality/institution.

  1. Study of the genera included under algae and fungi indicating their systematic position.

  2. Study of morphology, reproductive structures and anatomy of the examples cited in theory under Bryophyta and Pteridophyta indicating their systematic position.

  3. Observation of disease symptoms in hosts infected by bacteria – (Citrus canker), fungi – (Late blight of potato, loose smut of wheat, black rust of wheat, tikka disease of groundnut, red rot of sugarcane), viruses – (Yellow vein mosaic of bhindi) and mycoplasma – (little leaf disease of bringjal). Examination of diseased material and identification of pathogens.

  4. Gram staining of bacteria.

  5. Study of crustose, foliose and other types of lichen thalli.



SUGGESTED READING (FOR LABORATORY EXCERCISES)


Books:


  1. Bendre, A. and Kumar, A. 1990-91, Practical Botany, Rastogi Publications, Meerut.

  2. Kashyap, S.R. 1972. Liverworts of the Western Himalayas. New Delhi.

  3. Singh, R.S. 1998. Plant Diseases. Oxford IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR PAPER SETTER


Practical Paper-I (Pertaining to Theory Paper-I )


  1. Section cutting and preparation of permanent slide of material pertaining to Pteridophyta. 4

  2. Identification, classification and morphological note on specimens from Algae, Fungi, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta. 3 x 4 = 12

  3. Study of diseased plant material 3

  4. Practical note book. 3

  5. Viva-voce. 3

____________

25 Marks

_____________


Paper II: CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS


Max. Marks: 75 Lectures to be delivered: 90

Pass Marks: 35% (Each of 45 minutes duration)

Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Note: The number of lectures per week will be nine both for theory and practicals.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR PAPER SETTER AND CANDIDATES


The question paper will consist of five sections A, B, C, D and E. Section A, B, C and D will have two questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and will carry 15 marks each. Section E will consist of 10 short-answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and will carry 15 marks in all.


Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A, B, C and D of the question paper and the entire section E.


Section-A


  1. General Structure of Cell: Structure and function of nucleus: Ultrastructure of nuclear membrane, nuclear pore; nucleolus.

  2. Extranuclear genome: Presence and function of mitochondrial and plastid DNA.

  3. Structure and function of other organelles: Mitochondria, Plastids, Ribosomes, Golgi Body, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Peroxisomes, Vacuoles.


Section-B


  1. Chromosome organization: Morphology; centeromere and telomere; chromosome alterations – deletions, duplications, translocations, inversions. Variations in chromosome number – aneuploidy, polyploidy. Sex chromosomes.

  2. The cell envelops: Plasma membrane; bilayer lipid structure; functions; the cell wall.


Section-C


  1. DNA the genetic material: DNA structure; replication; DNA – protein interaction; the nucleosome model. Genetic code; satellite and repetitive DNA.

  2. Cell division: Mitosis; meiosis.


Section-D


  1. Genetic inheritance: Mendelism; laws of segregation and independent assortment; linkage analysis; allelic and non-allelic interactions.

  2. Gene expression: Structure of gene; transfer of genetic information–transcription, translation, protein synthesis; regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Proteins 1D, 2D and 3D structure.

  3. Genetic Variations: Mutations – spontaneous and induced; transposable genetic elements. DNA damage and repair.


RECOMMENDED READINGS


  1. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raf. T.M., Roberts, K. and Watson, I.D.1999. Molecular Biology of Cell. Garland Publishing Co., Inc., New York, USA.

  2. Arora, B.B. Cell Biology & Genetics – Vol. I. Modern Publ. Jallandhar.

  3. Atherly, A.G., Girton, J.R. and McDonald, J.F.1999. The Science of Genetics. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth, USA.

  4. Bhatia, K.N. and Neelam, Dhand. Cell Biology & Genetics. Atruman’s Pub., Jallandhar.

  5. Gupta, P.K. Cytology, Genetics & Evolution. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.

  6. Gupta, P.K. 1999. A text Book of Cell and Molecular Biology. Rastogi Publicatons, Meerut, India.

  7. Kleinsmith, L.J. and Kish, V.M. 1995. Principles of Cell and Molecular Biology (2nd Edition) Harper Colins College Publishers, New York, USA.

  8. Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.L., Matsudaira, P., Bltimore, D. and Darnell, J. 2000. Molecular Cell Biology. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York, USA.

  9. Rusell, P.J. 1998. Genetics, The Bejamin/Cummings Publishing Co. INc., USA.

  10. Snustud, D.P. and Simmons, M.J. 2000. Principles of Genetics. John Wiley & Sons. Inc., USA.



SUGGESTED LABORATORY EXCERCISES


Teachers may select plants/material available in their locality/institution.


  1. To study cell structure from onion leaf peels.

  2. Examination of electron micrographs of eukaryotic cells with special reference to organelles.

  3. Examination of various stages of mitosis and meiosis using appropriate plant material (e.g. onion root tips, onion flower buds).

  4. Preparation of karyotypes from dividing root tip cells of Allium.

  5. Study of pollen mitosis of Impatiens balsamina.

  6. Study of special types of chromosomes from slides/photographs.

  7. Working out the laws of inheritance using seed mixture.


SUGGESTED READINGS (FOR LABORATORY EXCERCISES)


  1. Fukui, K. and Nakayama, S. 1996. Plant Chromosomes Laboratory Methods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

  2. Gunning, B.E.S. and Steer, M.W. 1996. Plant Cell Biology: Structure and Function. Jones and Barlett Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts.

  3. Harris, N. and Oparka, K.J. 1994. Plant Cell Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press at Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  4. Sharma, A.K. and Sharma, A. 1999. Plant Chromosomes: Analysis Manipulation and Engineering. Harwood Academic Publishers, Australia.



INSTRUCTIONS TO PAPER SETTER

Practical Paper-II (Pertaining to Theory Paper-II)


  1. Preparation of squash mount to show a cell division stage from onion root tip/flower. 6

  2. Experiment on laws of inheritance using seed mixtures. 6

  3. Preparation of temporary slide of onion peel to study cell structure. 3

  4. Identification of two slides/Electron microphotographs. 4

  5. Practical Note Book. 3

  6. Viva-voce. 3

___________

25

___________

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