North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus




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ENGLISH

STUDY GUIDE FOR


ENGL221 (E)


Prof MJ Wenzel

Mrs M duPlessis-Hay

Prof. AJ van Rooy


FACULTY OF ARTS


Contents of study division A, editing and formatting by M duPlessis-Hay, Department of English.

Contents of study division B by MJ Wenzel. Department of English.

Contents of study division C by AJ van Rooy, Department of English.


Copyright © 2006 edition


North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus


All rights reserved. Except for the marking grid and assignment cover sheets provided, no part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from the publisher. This includes photocopying the whole or parts of this book.


CONTENTS


Contents




i

Word of welcome




iii




Contact details

iii







Attendance

iii







Required skills

iii




This study guide




iv




Module plan

v







Module outcomes

v







Credist and notional hours

v




Study materials




vi




Prescribed texts

vi







Recommendations

vi







Reading compendium

vii




Evaluation




viii




Proof of participation

viii







Participation mark

viii







Examination

viii







Module mark

viii




Assignments




ix




Assignments 1 & 2

ix







Assignments 3 & 5

ix







Assignment 4

ix







Assignment 6

ix







General instructions for literature assignments

x




Plagiarism




xi

To be attached when you submit assignments




xii




Title page

xii







General marking grid for literature assignments

xiii







Marking grid for assignment 6

xiv







Study Division A: Nineteenth-Century Poetry




1

Background Information: Important Events 1757-1901

3




Study unit 1: Early Romantic poetry: Blake, Coleridge, Wordsworth




7




1.1 Introduction to Romantic poetry

8







1.2 Egoism

11







1.3 Social concern

18







1.4 Imagination

22







1.5 Nature

33




Appendix to study unit 1: additional early Romantic poems




39


Study unit 2: Later Romantic poetry: Byron, Shelley, Keats





45




2.1 Introduction to later Romantic poetry

46







2.2 George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824)

49







2.3 Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)

53







2.4 John Keats (1795-1821)

56




Appendix to study unit 2: additional later Romantic poems




63




Study unit 3: Victorian poetry: Tennyson, Arnold, Browning




75




3.1 Introduction to Victorian poetry

76







3.2 Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92)

79







3.3 Matthew Arnold (1822-88)

96







3.4 Robert Browning (1812-89)

101




Appendix to study unit 3: additional Victorian poems




131




Study Division B: The Nineteenth-Century Novel




147

Study unit 4: Emily Brontë: Wuthering Heights




151




Study section 4.1 Text analysis of Wuthering Heights

152







Study section 4.2 Background to author and social context

156







Study section 4.3 Additional reading

157







Study section 4.4 Application and synthesis

161





Study unit 5: Charles Dickens: Great Expectations





165




Study section 5.1 Text analysis of Great Expectations

166







Study section 5.2 Background to author and social context

169







Study section 5.3 Additional reading

170







Study section 5.4 Application and synthesis

175





Study unit 6: Thomas Hardy: Tess of the D’Urbervilles





177




Study section 6.1 Text analysis of Tess of the D’Urbervilles

178







Study section 6.2 Background to author and social context

180







Study section 6.3 Additional reading

181







Study section 6.4 Application and synthesis

190







Study Division C: English Grammar




193

Study unit 7: Basic Concepts




195




Study section 7.1 The phrase

197







Study section 7.2 The clause

201





Study unit 8: Major Phrase and ClauseTypes










Study section 8.1 Semantics and morphology of nouns

207







Study section 8.2 Other elements of noun phrases

211







Study section 8.3 Semantics and morphology of verbs

215







Study section 8.4 Syntactic patterning of verbs

219







Study section 8.5 Primary verbs and copular verbs

222







Study section 8.6 Adjectives










Study section 8.7 Adverbs and adverbials










Study section 8.8 Major types of independent clauses










Study section 8.9 Subordination, coordination and ellipsis










Study section 8.10 Major types of dependent clauses










Study section 8.11









WORD OF WELCOME


Welcome to the second half of your English studies! Having successfully completed the first year and a half of undergraduate study in the Department, you are doubtless familiar with the practices and methods used in the English programmes, so here are simply a few reminders of what is important.


CONTACT DETAILS


Contact details for your lecturers will be supplied together with your lecture schedules once the semester has started.


You are always welcome to approach your lecturers if you need help. If you have a problem that they cannot help you with, or you feel that it would be inappropriate to approach them, you can speak to the Tutor for Second-Year Studies, or make an appointment with the Director of the School of Languages.


The secretaries for the School of Languages are in Frans du Toit 109, and should be approached if you can’t find a lecturer, or need to submit something. Marked assignments can also be collected from a box in the secretaries’ office.


ATTENDANCE


As usual in a Department in the School of Languages, attendance at contact sessions is essential. Since you are expected to attend all lectures and tutorials, it will be assumed that you have heard any announcement made at a contact session. Preparation for contact sessions is also considered compulsory in the School of Languages. If you do not attend, or if you attend but have clearly not prepared for the session, you will receive a lower participation mark than otherwise, and may not qualify to write the exam.


REQUIRED SKILLS


The general teaching aim of the University is the inculcation and development of four sets of abilities or skills in a carefully graduated fashion over the three years of undergraduate studies. The English language and literature programmes strive towards the inculcation and development of these skills within the framework of the specific demands of the discipline.


  • The ability to retrieve/uncover information and to activate knowledge

This includes the retrieval of information from the library and other sources as well as the ability to turn the acquired material into active knowledge. It also includes the ability to read and to understand various kinds of texts, to identify viewpoints and to follow lines of argumentation.


  • The ability to integrate knowledge into your own frame of reference.

This includes the definition of basic concepts, productive handling of existing knowledge, logical analysis of phenomena, viewpoints and theories, integration of viewpoints directed at a specific problem, the identification of problem areas and the formulation of a problem, the discovery of underlying philosophical points of departure.


  • The ability to develop knowledge into meaningful systems, to generate and process new information and to test this information against existing knowledge frameworks.

This would include the comparison of viewpoints and sources of knowledge, the generation and integration of new information, the formulation and testing of hypotheses (in linguistics) or theses (in literary studies), the design of research proposals, criticism of schools of thought, views and trends, and the development of a personal viewpoint or theory.


  • The ability to communicate knowledge

This involves the correct representation of others' viewpoints, the logical formulation of a personal viewpoint, the management of the scholarly discourse, the writing of papers, research papers and dissertations. The management of source documentation is also part of this skill (see the section in this introduction on plagiarism).


By the end of second year, you ought to able to consolidate these skills at an intermediate level. You should be learning to structure a coherent, cohesive essay; perform close critical readings of poems and passages of prose; and be able to place texts into their social, historical and literary contexts. Your work should show that you can combine lower-order and intermediate/higher-order skills in roughly equal proportions.


THIS STUDY GUIDE

This study guide is divided into three study divisions, each divided into study units, each of which contains a number of study sections. You will be told which study sections to prepare for contact sessions.


At the beginning of each section there are learning outcomes. The outcomes are crucially important, as they indicate to you what it is that you are supposed to master in a given chunk of work. Make sure that you meet the requirement outlined in the outcomes, as this will help you decide whether you are up to speed with the requirements of the module. In the nature of outcomes-based education, what you meet in the outcomes you will meet again in the examination – we undertake to be very honest with you, and match examination questions to the outcomes as formulated for each sub-division of the work. You can thus regard the outcomes as markers on a map that will guide you to the final destination of the module.

Read the prescribed texts for each study section BEFORE you read any of the introductory or other material in the study guide. If you are not prepared to read and re-read the set texts, you should seriously reconsider registering for this module.


MODULE PLAN







Study unit 1


Early Romantic Poetry



STUDY DIVISION A


Nineteenth-Century Poetry









Study unit 2


Later Romantic Poetry







Study unit 3


Victorian Poetry










Study unit 4


Wuthering Heights



STUDY DIVISION B


Nineteenth-Century Novel









Study unit 5


Great Expectations







Study unit 6


Tess of the D’Urbervilles









STUDY DIVISION C


English Grammar






Study unit 7


Basic Concepts







Study unit 8


Major Phrase and ClauseTypes





MODULE OUTCOMES


High-level outcomes are provided for each Study Division and Study Unit: these collectively form the module outcomes.


CREDITS AND NOTIONAL HOURS

This module is worth 24 credits and should take 240 notional hours to complete.

STUDY MATERIALS


PRESCRIBED TEXTS


Study division A



    The texts of the poems we shall study are provided in this study guide: prescribed poems will be found within study units 1-3 and additional poems in Appendices to study units 1-3.



Study division B


BRONTë, E. 1995. Wuthering Heights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ISBN 0 19 282350 7).

    DICKENS, C. 1991. Great Expectations. London: Longman. (ISBN 0 582 07783 4).

HARDY, T. 1984. Tess of the D'Urbervilles. Harmondsworth: Penguin. (ISBN 0 14 0620206).


Study division C


BIBER, D, Conrad, S & Leech, G. 2002. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London : Longman.


This study guide contains all the material up to section 8.5. The remainder will be provided as handouts in class.


RECOMMENDATIONS


General


    ROBERTS, E.V. 1999. Writing About Literature (9th edition) Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Referred to as 'Roberts' in the Study Guide.

ROGERS, P. (Ed.) 1998. The Oxford Illustrated History of English Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ISBN 0 19 2880780).


To make sure that you cite sources accurately.

The current edition of Quoting Sources, available from the library.


Study divisions A & B


You will also need a DICTIONARY not limited to current usage: in other words, NOT the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. A recent edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary is probably a good choice: although it is subtitled ‘A Dictionary of Current English’ it does record archaic usages too.


    CONCISE OXFORD DICTIONARY of Current English. 8th ed. 1990. Oxford: Clarendon Press..

ROGET, P.M. 1987. Roget's Thesaurus. Ed. B. Kirkpatrick. London: Longman. (ISBN 0 140512489).


If you quote the BIBLE in a discussion of a literary text, you should always use the version the author you are discussing used (if known) or could have used: that is, you cannot quote a 20th-century version of the Bible when writing about a 19th-century author. You will need to use a copy of the Authorised Version of the English Bible (also known as the King James Version).


Study Division C


If you do not yet have a good English dictionary, it is essential that you buy one for this course. This is something you will (should!) use for the rest of your life in any case. Your lecturer will recommend one to buy and some to consult in the library and on the Internet. The same applies to an English thesaurus. Your lecturer will recommend one to buy and some to consult in the library and on the Internet.


READING COMPENDIUM


There is no reading compendium attached to this study guide. A copy of the reading compendium can be consulted in the English Seminar Room (Frans du Toit 223). You will also be required to identify and use secondary sources in the library.


It is very important at second-year level that you begin to learn to integrate your own responses to the texts you read with your reading of other critics. SEE THE NOTE ON PLAGIARISM.


Remember that it is very important for your own development as a reader and critic to read your plays and poems BEFORE you look at the critics.


evaluation


PROOF OF PARTICIPATION


    You need to submit SIX assignments by their due dates (which will be provided by your lecturers). Details for some assignments are provided below: the others will be given to you during the semester.

    Students may be absent, with valid excuses, from not more than one third of the scheduled number of facilitation or contact sessions for ENGL221. In all cases of absenteeism the student must provide a reason for his/her absence in writing either before the intended absence or as soon as possible thereafter to the Director of the School of Languages.

    PARTICIPATION MARK

    ALL assignments and class tests will be taken into account in the calculation of your participation mark. For full-time students, attendance at, and performance in, contact sessions may be taken into account in calculating your participation mark.



      Calculation of participation marks

      Language mark

      2 assignments (& any class tests)

      15%

      Literature mark

      4 assignments (& any class tests)

      35%

      Semester test

      Language : Literature : : 30 : 70

      50%

      TOTAL

      100%



    EXAMINATION

    You need a participation mark of at least 40% to be permitted to write the examination.

    The examination consists of a 3 hour paper.

    MODULE MARK

    Participation mark : examination mark : : 100 : 100.

    To pass the module ENGL221 you need an average of 50%, and a sub-minimum of 45% in the examination.



ASSIGNMENTS


    You need to submit six assignments by their due dates: assignments submitted late, without prior arrangement with the lecturer concerned, will be penalised and may receive 0%.

    In the section ‘To be attached when you submit assignments’, you will find three pages: a title page (which includes a declaration that you have not committed plagiarism, and which must be attached to ALL written work submitted); a general marking grid for literature papers; and a special journal marking grid for assignment 6.

    ASSIGNMENTS 1 & 2

    These will be literature assignments on the nineteenth-century novel (Study Division B).

    ASSIGNMENTS 3 & 5

    These will be language assignments (Study Division C).

    ASSIGNMENT 4

    This will be a literature assignment on nineteenth-century poetry (Study Division A).

    ASSIGNMENT 6

    This assignment will take the form of a reading journal, which you must keep as you work through the nineteenth-century poetry section of this module (Study Division A). This must be kept throughout the fourth term. Full instructions are provided in the introduction to Study Division C, and the marking grid for the journal is provided below.


GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR LITERATURE ESSAYS


Assignments where these instructions have not been followed may be failed.


1

Each assignment must adhere to the word/page limit set. Assignments will lose marks if they are either too short or too long. Please provide a running word count at the bottom of each page. Your bibliographies (primary and secondary) should not be included in the word/page-count.

2

Each assignment must have a primary bibliography (set out according to a standard format), showing which editions of the textsyou have used, listed under the author’s name.

3

Each assignment must have a secondary bibliography (set out according to a standard format), showing which critics you have used. If you have used any dictionaries or encyclopædias, they must go into this section. If you have used an editor's introduction in one of your primary texts, list it here, under the editor's name, treating the introduction as an article in a collection or chapter in a book. Remember to include date of access for internet sites.

4

In second year, you should show that you have taken into account the work of at least one critic. Of course, your assignment must show that you have dealt intelligently with the critical texts you list in your secondary bibliography.

5

If you quote a critic directly, use quotation marks (for short quotations) or an indented paragraph without quotation marks (for longer quotations), and provide a reference. Do not italicise quotations.

6

If you quote a novel, play or poem, use quotation marks (for short quotations) or an indented paragraph without quotation marks (for longer quotations). For short quotations of verse, show line breaks by a / and by retaining the capital letters from the beginnings of lines. For long quotations of verse, reproduce the layout exactly. Do not italicise quotations.

7

Provide line numbers for quotations from or references to poems. If the context does not make it clear, provide title and author too.

8

Provide act, scene and line numbers for quotations from or references to plays (the usual format is 'III iv 20-22' for 'Act 3, scene 4, lines 20 to 22'). If the context does not make it clear, provide the title too.

9

Make sure that each assignment fully addresses the set question, and follows instructions (including these) accurately. Incomplete or irrelevant essays cannot hope to do well.

10

Your language (grammar, register and vocabulary) will be taken into consideration in marking your essay.

11

The first paragraph of each essay must state what you plan to show and how you plan to show it. Your last paragraph must state your conclusion(s) clearly. You should 'signpost' throughout your essay so that your reader knows where you are in your discussion. Please don't use headings and numbered sections in essays.

12

Please make sure you understand fully the section on plagiarism in this introduction.



PLAGIARISM


The School of Languages and the Department of English take plagiarism very seriously. The information and definitions below come from the School’s official hand-out on plagiarism.


At the beginning of the semester, you will receive a plagiarism declaration, which will include this information, and which you will sign to say that you have read and understood it, and that you undertake not to commit plagiarism. If you are not prepared to sign this, you are advised to reconsider your registration for ENGL221.






Using material from a book, journal or internet site in an essay of your own is, if you do not provide full information about your source, plagiarism. If your lecturer cannot find the exact page in a book or article that you refer to, or the precise website (including date of access) you have used, you have not given an adequate reference, and have committed plagiarism.


Copying someone's exact words without acknowledgement is plagiarism. Copying someone's words with some changes without acknowledgement is plagiarism. Rewriting or summarising someone's thoughts and ideas entirely in your own words without acknowledgement is plagiarism. Using even one phrase, one line, or one idea without acknowledgement is plagiarism.


Plagiarism is a form of theft: stealing intellectual property. An assignment that shows signs of plagiarism will be given 0%, even if this disqualifies the student from writing the exam. If plagiarism is uncovered after an assignment has been marked, that mark will be revoked and 0% given, with whatever consequences may follow. If plagiarism is extensive, the student may face disciplinary action, which may result in suspension, expulsion or de-registration from a module or modules.


Do not be tempted to cut and paste material from the internet into your assignments. It is remarkably easy to spot the change in register and (frequently) linguistic competence. You will almost certainly be caught.





TO BE ATTACHED

WHEN YOU SUBMIT ASSIGNMENTS


TITLE PAGE


This coversheet must accompany all assignments submitted, and the declaration at the bottom must be signed.

Assignments submitted without this coversheet, correctly completed, will not be marked and will receive 0%, which may affect your semester mark adversely and may exclude you from the exam.




Name:





Student number:





Due date:





Lecturer:







Title:







I declare that this assignment is my own unaided work.


I declare that I have not colluded with another student in the preparation of this assignment, nor have I used an assignment prepared by another student, at this or any other university.


I declare that I have not committed plagiarism and that I have acknowledged all my sources of quotations and ideas.


Signed:




Date:



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