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DAVID KAHN, The Codebreakers (1996). Smith later was DCI under President Truman, responsible by law for the security of all intelligence "sources and methods."

"If you ever let drop one word of what you are

going to learn today, I shall personally shoot you."

British intelligence officer to new personnel assigned to handle ULTRA [decrypted German messages], 1941; quoted in Winterbotham, Ultra Spy (1989).

"No action is to be taken on information herein

reported, regardless of temporary advantage, if

such action might have the effect of revealing the

existence of the source to the enemy."

Warning on the cover of MAGIC summaries of Japanese diplomatic messages during World War II; cited in Kahn, The Codebreakers (1996).

"When we had [cryptologic] information that might enable a [U.S.] submarine to make contact with a Japanese aircraft carrier or task force, I went directly to the chief of ComSubPac and delivered it orally. I did not tell him how the information was obtained....We kept no records. If I had a position in latitude and longitude, I wrote the figures in ink on the palm ofmy hand, and scrubbed my hands after I had delivered the message."

Former U.S. naval intelligence officer W. J. HOLMES,

Double-Edged Secrets (1979).

"Information concerning the design and operation of collection systems is usually classified separately from the information actually produced by the system. For example, during World War II ULTRA intelligence was often disguised as being from some other source, such as human agents, so con­

compartmentation

sumers often were unaware that they were even using SIGINT,let alone the nature of the technol­ogy that made it possible."

BRUCE BERKOWITZ and ALLAN GOODMAN, Strategic Intelligence (1989).

"In coded messages, countries had always to be referred to by symbols—Germany, for instance, was 'Twelve-land.' The practice was scrupulously observed throughout the war even though, on one festive occasion at an Istanbul hotel, when the or­chestra played the German national anthem, the staff of the German embassy stood to attention and sang as one man: 'Zwolfte-land, Zwolfte-land, uber alles!'"

Former SIS officer MALCOLM MUGGERIDGE in Chroni­cles of Wasted Time: The Infernal Grove (1973).

"Since any slight break would be disastrous, no

constructive purpose would be served by cabling

particulars."

ALLEN DULLES, OSS station chief in Bern, protecting his sources on the anti-Hitler opposition within Germany in a January 1944 cable to Washington; quoted in Grose, Gentleman Spy (1995).

"Conscious of security to the last, [Winston Chur­chill] gave General de Gaulle only forty-eight hours' notice of the liberation of France."

DAVID STAFFORD, Churchill and Secret Service (1998).

"We know too much. If we are going to get cap­tured, I'll shoot you first. Then myself: After all, I'm the commanding officer."

OSS director Major General WILLIAM DONOVAN to his aide at Utah Beach, Normandy, 7 June 1944; quoted in Polmar and Allen, Encyclopedia of Espionage (1997). Donovan had broken the rules prohibiting ULTRA-cleared oicers from putting themselves in danger of capture; at Utah Beach he and his aide briefly came under German machine-gun fire.

"Restricted, Confidential, Secret, More Than Se­cret, More Secret Than the More Than Secret, Most Extreme and Super-Secret."

OSS analysis chiefSHERMAN KENT's category of classi­fications by which one part of OSS (Secret Intelligence) denied information to another (Kent's Research and Analysis branch); cited in Winks, Cloak and Gown (1987).

"By virtue ofjust knowing about [cracked enemy

ciphers], I automatically came into the category

of those who must in no circumstances fall into

enemy hands.... Thus, henceforth it became a

positive duty, rather thanjust a negative inclination,

to keep well away from the enemy."

Former SIS officer MALCOLM MUGGERIDGE in Chroni­cles of Wasted Time: The Infernal Grove (1973).

"Would it be possible for you to send us by Air

Pouch one of those books you have giving people

numbers and funny names, like 'fruitcake #385.'

Frequently we find references to them here and

no one knows who on earth is being referred to."

OSS employee JULIA McWILLIAMS (known later as the famous French chef Julia Child), dispatch from her post in Ceylon; quoted in U.S. News and World Report (3 Feb­ruary 2003). This is the only connection the Literary Spy has found between Julia Child and fruitcake.

"A ...tragic outcome resulted from the decision not to disseminate [cryptologic] information con­cerning the positions ofJapanese submarines late in the war. This information was given extremely limited distribution lest the Japanese should dis­cover that their most sophisticated code had been broken. As a result, the USS Indianapolis never learned that there was a Japanese submarine in her path. The Indianapolis went down in fifteen minutes, and the total loss came to 883 men.... The source was so exceedingly valuable that it had to be protected at all costs, yet should such

compartmentation

costs include, for example, the many lives aboard

the Indianapolis?"

Senator DANIEL INOUYE, foreword to W. J. Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets (1979).

"We had security that just would not quit... . The U-2, for example, was built and flying [in 1955] before the commander of the Air Force re­search and development command ever even heard of it. If you wanted to see one ticked-off Air Force major general, you should have seen this guy."

LEO GEARY, a senior official on the joint CIA-Air Force project that produced the U-2 spyplane; quoted in Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior (1996). Geary himself was an Air Force general. Now that's compartmentation.

"This case is of the highest possible importance and must therefore be handled on the lowest pos­sible level."

A "shrewd MI5 officer," according to HAROLD "KIM" PHILBY, My Secret War (1968).

"Burn Before Reading."

U.S. military saying, highlighting the cynical extreme of compartmentation.

"The first major American-British intelligence success against the Soviet Union during the Cold War [was] the VENONA decrypts, which revealed the codenames and clues to the identities ofseveral hundred Soviet agents. Remarkably, [President] Truman seems never to have been informed of VENONA at all.... Because of internal rivalries within the US intelligence community, even the CIA was not told until late in 1952. [Moscow], however, had learned of VENONA by early in 1947 from William Weisband, an agent in the US SIGINT agency, ASA. Thus, amazingly, Stalin discovered the greatest American intelligence se­cret of the early Cold War over five years before either the president or the CIA."

CHRISTOPHER ANDREW and VASILI MITROKHIN, The

Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive (1999).

"The code names for most Agency operations

are picked in sequence from a sterile list, with care

taken not to use any word that might give a clue

to the activity it covers. On some large projects,

code names are occasionally specially chosen....

Occasionally the special code names come close

to the nerve, as did MONGOOSE."

Former DCI RICHARD HELMS on the operation that President John F. Kennedy and Attorney General Robert Kennedy intended to remove a particularly loathsome snake, Fidel Castro, in A Look over My Shoulder (2003).

"You aren't cleared for certain sources."

CIA counterintelligence chief JAMES ANGLETON when­ever he wished to end a debate on the reliability of a par­ticular spy; quoted in Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets (1979).

"Because I might talk in my sleep."

DCI WILLIAM COLBY explaining to an aide why he did not want to know the true names of CIA's Soviet agents; quoted in Schecter and Deriabin, The Spy Who Saved the World (1995).

"An intelligence document that is top secret, but not further restricted by a code word, is consid­ered barely classified."

Former DCI
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